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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Thomopoulos Thomas P.) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Thomopoulos Thomas P.)

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1.
  • Sergentanis, Theodoros N, et al. (författare)
  • Risk for childhood leukemia associated with maternal and paternal age
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - 0393-2990 .- 1573-7284. ; 30:12, s. 1229-1261
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The role of reproductive factors, such as parental age, in the pathogenesis of childhood leukemias is being intensively examined; the results of individual studies are controversial. This meta-analysis aims to quantitatively synthesize the published data on the association between parental age and risk of two major distinct childhood leukemia types in the offspring. Eligible studies were identified and pooled relative risk (RR) estimates were calculated using random-effects models, separately for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Subgroup analyses were performed by study design, geographical region, adjustment factors; sensitivity analyses and meta-regression analyses were also undertaken. 77 studies (69 case-control and eight cohort) were deemed eligible. Older maternal and paternal age were associated with increased risk for childhood ALL (pooled RR = 1.05, 95 % CI 1.01-1.10; pooled RR = 1.04, 95 % CI 1.00-1.08, per 5 year increments, respectively). The association between maternal age and risk of childhood AML showed a U-shaped pattern, with symmetrically associated increased risk in the oldest (pooled RR = 1.23, 95 % CI 1.06-1.43) and the youngest (pooled RR = 1.23, 95 % CI 1.07-1.40) extremes. Lastly, only younger fathers were at increased risk of having a child with AML (pooled RR = 1.28, 95 % CI 1.04-1.59). In conclusion, maternal and paternal age represents a meaningful risk factor for childhood leukemia, albeit of different effect size by leukemia subtype. Genetic and socio-economic factors may underlie the observed associations. Well-adjusted studies, scheduled by large consortia, are anticipated to satisfactorily address methodological issues, whereas the potential underlying genetic mechanisms should be elucidated by basic research studies.
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2.
  • Georgakis, Marios K, et al. (författare)
  • Association of Age at Menopause and Duration of Reproductive Period With Depression After Menopause : A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: JAMA psychiatry. - 2168-6238 .- 2168-622X. ; 73:2, s. 139-149
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Importance: Estrogens have neuroprotective and antidepressive effects; however, associations between indices of reduced endogenous estrogens and risk for postmenopausal depression have not been systematically explored.Objective: To investigate the association of age at menopause and the duration of the reproductive period with the risk for depression among postmenopausal women with naturally occurring menopause.Data Sources: A search strategy for use of MEDLINE was developed (through January 1, 2015) using the key terms menopause, climacteric, reproductive period, depression, and mood disorders. References of included studies and reviews were also screened; authors were contacted to maximize synthesized evidence.Study Selection: A total of 12 323 articles, without language restriction, were screened by pairs of reviewers to identify observational studies related to the study hypothesis; 14 studies were eligible for meta-analysis.Data Extraction and Synthesis: Pairs of reviewers independently extracted information on study design and type of analysis by participants' characteristics and methods of depression ascertainment. Study quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale, and fixed- or random-effects models were implemented.Main Outcomes and Measures: Pooled-effect estimates for depression, defined by psychiatric evaluation or validated instruments, by age at menopause and duration of the reproductive period.Results: The 14 studies included in the meta-analysis represented 67 714 women. An inverse association (reported as odds ratio [OR]; 95% CI of 2-year increments) with depression in postmenopausal women was shown for increasing age at menopause (0.98; 0.96-0.99 [67 434 unique participants; 13 studies]) and duration of the reproductive period (0.98; 0.96-0.99 [54 715 unique participants; 5 studies]). Menopause at age 40 or more years compared with premature menopause was associated with a 50% decreased risk for depression (3033 unique participants; 4 studies). Pooling of studies examining severe depression showed a 5% decrease in risk of severe depression with increasing (2-year increment) age at menopause (52 736 unique participants; 3 studies); sensitivity analysis of studies controlling for past depression revealed similar results for age at menopause (0.98; 0.96-1.00 [48 894 unique participants; 3 studies). No heterogeneity or publication bias was evident in the main analyses.Conclusions and Relevance: Longer exposure to endogenous estrogens, expressed as older age at menopause and longer reproductive period, is associated with a lower risk of depression in later life. Identifying women at higher risk for depression due to early menopause who could benefit from psychiatric intervention or estrogen-based therapies could be useful in the clinical setting.
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3.
  • Georgakis, Marios K, et al. (författare)
  • Comorbidity of Cognitive Impairment and Late-Life Depression Increase Mortality : Results From a Cohort of Community-Dwelling Elderly Individuals in Rural Greece
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology. - 0891-9887 .- 1552-5708. ; 29:4, s. 195-204
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of cognitive impairment (COGI) and depression with all-cause mortality and cardiovascular-specific mortality among community-dwelling elderly individuals in rural Greece.METHODS: Cognition and depressive symptomatology of 676 Velestino town residents aged ≥60 years were assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), respectively. Eight-year all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality were explored by multivariate Cox regression models controlling for major confounders.RESULTS: Two hundred and one patients died during follow-up. Cognitive impairment (MMSE ≤ 23) was independently associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.57, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.13-2.18) and cardiovascular mortality (HR: 1.57, 95%CI: 1.03-2.41). Moderate to severe depression (GDS > 10) was significantly associated only with a 51% increase in all-cause mortality. A male-specific association was noted for moderate to severe depression, whereas the effect of COGI was limited to females. Noteworthy, COGI and depression comorbidity, rather than their sole presence, increased all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality by 66% and 72%, respectively. The mortality effect of COGI was augmented among patients with depression and of depression among patients with COGI.CONCLUSION: COGI and depression, 2 entities often coexisting among elderly individuals, appear to increase all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality. Gender-specific modes may prevail but their comorbidity should be carefully assessed, as it seems to represent an independent index of increased frailty, which eventually shortens life expectancy.
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4.
  • Marcotte, Erin L., et al. (författare)
  • Caesarean delivery and risk of childhood leukaemia : a pooled analysis from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC)
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 3:4, s. E176-E185
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Results from case-control studies have shown an increased risk of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) in young children born by caesarean delivery, and prelabour caesarean delivery in particular; however, an association of method of delivery with childhood leukaemia subtypes has yet to be established. We therefore did a pooled analysis of data to investigate the association between childhood leukaemia and caesarean delivery. Methods We pooled data from 13 case-control studies from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium done in nine countries (Canada, Costa Rica, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, New Zealand, and the USA) for births from 1970-2013. We analysed caesarean delivery overall and by indications that probably resulted in prelabour caesarean delivery or emergency caesarean delivery. We used multivariable logistic regression models, adjusted for child's birthweight, sex, age, ethnic origin, parental education, maternal age, and study, to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for the risk of ALL and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) in children aged 0-14 years at diagnosis. Findings The studies provided data for 8780 ALL cases, 1332 AML cases, and 23 459 controls, of which the birth delivery method was known for 8655 (99%) ALL cases, 1292 (97%) AML cases, and 23 351 (> 99%) controls. Indications for caesarean delivery were available in four studies (there were caesarean deliveries for 1061 of 4313 ALL cases, 138 of 664 AML cases, and 1401 of 5884 controls). The OR for all indications of caesarean delivery and ALL was 1.06 (95% CI 0.99-1.13), and was significant for prelabour caesarean delivery and ALL (1.23 [1.04-1.47]; p= 0.018). Emergency caesarean delivery was not associated with ALL (OR 1.02 [95% CI 0.81-1.30]). AML was not associated with caesarean delivery (all indications OR 0.99 [95% CI 0.84-1.17]; prelabour caesarean delivery 0.83 [0.54-1.26]; and emergency caesarean delivery 1.05 [0.63-1.77]). Interpretation Our results suggest an increased risk of childhood ALL after prelabour caesarean delivery. If this association is causal, maladaptive immune activation due to an absence of stress response before birth in children born by prelabour caesarean delivery could be considered as a potential mechanism.
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5.
  • Thomopoulos, Thomas P, et al. (författare)
  • Prelabor cesarean delivery and early-onset acute childhood leukemia risk.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer Prevention. - 0959-8278 .- 1473-5709. ; 25:2, s. 155-161
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The long-term impact of cesarean delivery (CD) on the health of the offspring is being explored methodically. We sought to investigate the effect of birth by (a) prelabor and (b) during-labor CD on the risk of early-onset (≤3 years) acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), specifically of its prevailing precursor B (B-ALL) subtype. A total of 1099 incident cases of ALL (957 B-ALL), 131 of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and their 1 : 1 age-matched and sex-matched controls, derived from the Nationwide Registry for Childhood Hematological Malignancies (1996-2013), were analyzed using multivariate regression models. A null association was found between prelabor and/or during labor CD and either ALL (B-ALL) or AML in the 0-14 age range. By contrast, birth by CD increased significantly the risk of early-onset ALL [odds ratioCD (ORCD)=1.57, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-2.24] mainly on account of prelabor CD (ORprelaborCD=1.66, 95% CI: 1.13-2.43). The respective figures were even higher for the early-onset precursor B-ALL (ORCD=1.66, 95% CI: 1.15-2.40 and ORprelaborCD=1.79, 95% CI: 1.21-2.66), whereas no association emerged for early-onset AML. Prelabor CD, which deprives exposure of the fetus/infant to the presumably beneficial effect of stress hormones released in both vaginal labor and during labor CD, was associated exclusively with an increased risk of early-onset ALL, particularly the precursor B-ALL subtype. If confirmed, these adverse long-term outcomes of CD may point to re-evaluation of prelabor CD practices and prompt scientific discussion on the best ways to simulate the effects of vaginal delivery, such as a precesarean induction of labor.
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