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  • Achberger, Christine, 1968-, et al. (författare)
  • State of the Climate in 2011
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society. - 0003-0007. ; 93:7, s. S1-S263
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Large-scale climate patterns influenced temperature and weather patterns around the globe in 2011. In particular, a moderate-to-strong La Nina at the beginning of the year dissipated during boreal spring but reemerged during fall. The phenomenon contributed to historical droughts in East Africa, the southern United States, and northern Mexico, as well the wettest two-year period (2010-11) on record for Australia, particularly remarkable as this follows a decade-long dry period. Precipitation patterns in South America were also influenced by La Nina. Heavy rain in Rio de Janeiro in January triggered the country's worst floods and landslides in Brazil's history. The 2011 combined average temperature across global land and ocean surfaces was the coolest since 2008, but was also among the 15 warmest years on record and above the 1981-2010 average. The global sea surface temperature cooled by 0.1 degrees C from 2010 to 2011, associated with cooling influences of La Nina. Global integrals of upper ocean heat content for 2011 were higher than for all prior years, demonstrating the Earth's dominant role of the oceans in the Earth's energy budget. In the upper atmosphere, tropical stratospheric temperatures were anomalously warm, while polar temperatures were anomalously cold. This led to large springtime stratospheric ozone reductions in polar latitudes in both hemispheres. Ozone concentrations in the Arctic stratosphere during March were the lowest for that period since satellite records began in 1979. An extensive, deep, and persistent ozone hole over the Antarctic in September indicates that the recovery to pre-1980 conditions is proceeding very slowly. Atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations increased by 2.10 ppm in 2011, and exceeded 390 ppm for the first time since instrumental records began. Other greenhouse gases also continued to rise in concentration and the combined effect now represents a 30% increase in radiative forcing over a 1990 baseline. Most ozone depleting substances continued to fall. The global net ocean carbon dioxide uptake for the 2010 transition period from El Nino to La Nina, the most recent period for which analyzed data are available, was estimated to be 1.30 Pg C yr(-1), almost 12% below the 29-year long-term average. Relative to the long-term trend, global sea level dropped noticeably in mid-2010 and reached a local minimum in 2011. The drop has been linked to the La Nina conditions that prevailed throughout much of 2010-11. Global sea level increased sharply during the second half of 2011. Global tropical cyclone activity during 2011 was well-below average, with a total of 74 storms compared with the 1981-2010 average of 89. Similar to 2010, the North Atlantic was the only basin that experienced above-normal activity. For the first year since the widespread introduction of the Dvorak intensity-estimation method in the 1980s, only three tropical cyclones reached Category 5 intensity level-all in the Northwest Pacific basin. The Arctic continued to warm at about twice the rate compared with lower latitudes. Below-normal summer snowfall, a decreasing trend in surface albedo, and above-average surface and upper air temperatures resulted in a continued pattern of extreme surface melting, and net snow and ice loss on the Greenland ice sheet. Warmer-than-normal temperatures over the Eurasian Arctic in spring resulted in a new record-low June snow cover extent and spring snow cover duration in this region. In the Canadian Arctic, the mass loss from glaciers and ice caps was the greatest since GRACE measurements began in 2002, continuing a negative trend that began in 1987. New record high temperatures occurred at 20 m below the land surface at all permafrost observatories on the North Slope of Alaska, where measurements began in the late 1970s. Arctic sea ice extent in September 2011 was the second-lowest on record, while the extent of old ice (four and five years) reached a new record minimum that was just 19% of normal. On the opposite pole, austral winter and spring temperatures were more than 3 degrees C above normal over much of the Antarctic continent. However, winter temperatures were below normal in the northern Antarctic Peninsula, which continued the downward trend there during the last 15 years. In summer, an all-time record high temperature of -12.3 degrees C was set at the South Pole station on 25 December, exceeding the previous record by more than a full degree. Antarctic sea ice extent anomalies increased steadily through much of the year, from briefly setting a record low in April, to well above average in December. The latter trend reflects the dispersive effects of low pressure on sea ice and the generally cool conditions around the Antarctic perimeter.
  • Schael, S., et al. (författare)
  • Electroweak measurements in electron positron collisions at W-boson-pair energies at LEP
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Physics Reports. - Elsevier. - 0370-1573. ; 532:4, s. 119-244
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Electroweak measurements performed with data taken at the electron positron collider LEP at CERN from 1995 to 2000 are reported. The combined data set considered in this report corresponds to a total luminosity of about 3 fb(-1) collected by the four LEP experiments ALEPH, DELPHI, 13 and OPAL, at centre-of-mass energies ranging from 130 GeV to 209 GeV. Combining the published results of the four LEP experiments, the measurements include total and differential cross-sections in photon-pair, fermion-pair and four-fermion production, the latter resulting from both double-resonant WW and ZZ production as well as singly resonant production. Total and differential cross-sections are measured precisely, providing a stringent test of the Standard Model at centre-of-mass energies never explored before in electron positron collisions. Final-state interaction effects in four-fermion production, such as those arising from colour reconnection and Bose Einstein correlations between the two W decay systems arising in WW production, are searched for and upper limits on the strength of possible effects are obtained. The data are used to determine fundamental properties of the W boson and the electroweak theory. Among others, the mass and width of the W boson, m(w) and Gamma(w), the branching fraction of W decays to hadrons, B(W -> had), and the trilinear gauge-boson self-couplings g(1)(Z), K-gamma and lambda(gamma), are determined to be: m(w) = 80.376 +/- 0.033 GeV Gamma(w) = 2.195 +/- 0.083 GeV B(W -> had) = 67.41 +/- 0.27% g(1)(Z) = 0.984(-0.020)(+0.018) K-gamma - 0.982 +/- 0.042 lambda(gamma) = 0.022 +/- 0.019. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Abdesselam, A., et al. (författare)
  • Engineering for the ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) end-cap
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Instrumentation. - 1748-0221 .- 1748-0221. ; 3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The ATLAS SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) is a silicon-strip tracking detector which forms part of the ATLAS inner detector. The SCT is designed to track charged particles produced in proton-proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN at an energy of 14 TeV. The tracker is made up of a central barrel and two identical end-caps. The barrel contains 2112 silicon modules, while each end-cap contains 988 modules. The overall tracking performance depends not only on the intrinsic measurement precision of the modules but also on the characteristics of the whole assembly, in particular, the stability and the total material budget. This paper describes the engineering design and construction of the SCT end-caps, which are required to support mechanically the silicon modules, supply services to them and provide a suitable environment within the inner detector. Critical engineering choices are highlighted and innovative solutions are presented - these will be of interest to other builders of large-scale tracking detectors. The SCT end-caps will be fully connected at the start of 2008. Further commissioning will continue, to be ready for proton-proton collision data in 2008.</p>
  • Abdesselam, A., et al. (författare)
  • The ATLAS semiconductor tracker end-cap module
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A : Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. - 0168-9002 .- 1872-9576. ; 575:3, s. 353-389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The challenges for the tracking detector systems at the LHC are unprecedented in terms of the number of channels, the required read-out speed and the expected radiation levels. The ATLAS Semiconductor Tracker. (SCT) end-caps have a total of about 3 million electronics channels each reading out every 25 ns into its own on-chip 3.3 mu s buffer. The highest anticipated dose after 10 years operation is 1.4x10(14) cm(-2) in units of 1 MeV neutron equivalent (assuming the damage factors scale with the non-ionising energy loss). The forward tracker has 1976 double-sided modules, mostly of area similar to 70 cm(2), each having 2 x 768 strips read out by six ASICs per side. The requirement to achieve an average perpendicular radiation length of 1.5% X-0, while coping with up to 7 W dissipation per module (after irradiation), leads to stringent constraints on the thermal design. The additional requirement of 1500e(-) equivalent noise charge (ENC) rising to only 1800e(-) ENC after irradiation, provides stringent design constraints on both the high-density Cu/Polyimide flex read-out circuit and the ABCD3TA read-out ASICs. Finally, the accuracy of module assembly must not compromise the 16 mu m (r phi) resolution perpendicular to the strip directions or 580 mu m radial resolution coming from the 40 mrad front-back stereo angle. A total of 2210 modules were built to the tight tolerances and specifications required for the SCT. This was 234 more than the 1976 required and represents a yield of 93%. The component flow was at times tight, but the module production rate of 40-50 per week was maintained despite this. The distributed production was not found to be a major logistical problem and it allowed additional flexibility to take advantage of where the effort was available, including any spare capacity, for building the end-cap modules. The collaboration that produced the ATLAS SCT end-cap modules kept in close contact at all times so that the effects of shortages or stoppages at different sites could be rapidly resolved.</p>
  • Aaron, F. D., et al. (författare)
  • Measurement of diffractive scattering of photons with large momentum transfer at HERA
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 672:3, s. 219-226
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The first measurement of diffractive scattering of quasi-real photons with large momentum transfer gamma p -> gamma Y, where Y is the proton dissociative system, is made using the H1 detector at HERA. The measurement is performed for initial photon virtualities Q(2) < 0.01 GeV2. Single differential cross sections are Measured as a function of W, the incident photon-proton centre of mass energy, and t, the square of the four-momentum transferred at the proton vertex, in the range 175 < W < 247 GeV and 4 < |t| < 36 GeV2. The W dependence is well described by a model based on perturbative QCD using a leading logarithmic approximation of the BFKL evolution. The measured |t| dependence is harder than that predicted by the model and those observed in exclusive vector meson production. (C) 2009 Published by Elsevier B.V.
  • Abdesselam, A., et al. (författare)
  • The barrel modules of the ATLAS semiconductor tracker
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A : Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment. - 0168-9002 .- 1872-9576. ; 568:2, s. 642-671
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper describes the silicon microstrip modules in the barrel section of the SemiConductor Tracker (SCT) of the ATLAS experiment at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The module requirements, components and assembly techniques are given, as well as first results of the module performance on the fully assembled barrels that make up the detector being installed in the ATLAS experiment.</p>
  • Aaron, F. D., et al. (författare)
  • A search for excited neutrinos in e(-) p collisions at HERA
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Physics Letters. Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics. - Elsevier. - 0370-2693. ; 663:5, s. 382-389
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A search for first generation excited neutrinos is performed using the full e(-) p data sample collected by the HI experiment at HERA at a centre-of-mass energy of 319 GeV, corresponding to a total luminosity of 184 pb(-1). The electroweak decays of excited neutrinos nu* -> nu gamma, v* -> nu Z and nu* -> eW with subsequent hadronic or leptonic decays of the W and Z bosons are considered. No evidence for excited neutrino production is found. Mass dependent exclusion limits on nu* production cross sections and on the ratio of the coupling to the compositeness scale f/boolean AND are derived within gauge mediated models. A limit on f/boolean AND A, independent of the relative couplings to the SU(2) and U(1) gauge bosons, is also determined. These limits extend the excluded region to higher masses than has been possible in previous excited neutrino searches. (c) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
  • Abeysekara, A. U., et al. (författare)
  • VERITAS and Fermi-LAT Observations of TeV Gamma-Ray Sources Discovered by HAWC in the 2HWC Catalog
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - Institute of Physics Publishing. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 866:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) collaboration recently published their 2HWC catalog, listing 39 very high energy (VHE; &gt;100 GeV) gamma-ray sources based on 507 days of observation. Among these, 19 sources are not associated with previously known teraelectronvolt (TeV) gamma-ray sources. We have studied 14 of these sources without known counterparts with VERITAS and Fermi-LAT. VERITAS detected weak gamma-ray emission in the 1 TeV-30 TeV band in the region of DA 495, a pulsar wind nebula coinciding with 2HWC J1953+294, confirming the discovery of the source by HAWC. We did not find any counterpart for the selected 14 new HAWC sources from our analysis of Fermi-LAT data for energies higher than 10 GeV. During the search, we detected gigaelectronvolt (GeV) gamma-ray emission coincident with a known TeV pulsar wind nebula, SNR G54.1+0.3 (VER J1930+188), and a 2HWC source, 2HWC J1930+188. The fluxes for isolated, steady sources in the 2HWC catalog are generally in good agreement with those measured by imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. However, the VERITAS fluxes for SNR G54.1+0.3, DA 495, and TeV J2032+4130 are lower than those measured by HAWC, and several new HAWC sources are not detected by VERITAS. This is likely due to a change in spectral shape, source extension, or the influence of diffuse emission in the source region.</p>
  • Aktas, A, et al. (författare)
  • A direct search for stable magnetic monopoles produced in positron-proton collisions at HERA
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: European Physical Journal C. Particles and Fields. - Springer. - 1434-6044. ; 41, s. 133-141
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A direct search has been made for magnetic monopoles produced in e(+)p collisions at a centre of mass energy of 300 GeV at HERA. The beam pipe surrounding the interaction region in 1995-1997 was investigated using a SQUID magnetometer to look for stopped magnetic monopoles. During this time an integrated luminosity of 62 pb(-1) was delivered. No magnetic monopoles were observed and charge and mass dependent upper limits on the e(+)p production cross section are set.
  • Garrappa, S., et al. (författare)
  • Investigation of Two Fermi-LAT Gamma-Ray Blazars Coincident with High-energy Neutrinos Detected by IceCube
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal. - 0004-637X .- 1538-4357. ; 880:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>After the identification of the gamma-ray blazar TXS 0506+056 as the first compelling IceCube neutrino source candidate, we perform a systematic analysis of all high-energy neutrino events satisfying the IceCube realtime trigger criteria. We find one additional known gamma-ray source, the blazar GB6 J1040+0617, in spatial coincidence with a neutrino in this sample. The chance probability of this coincidence is 30% after trial correction. For the first time, we present a systematic study of the gamma-ray flux, spectral and optical variability, and multiwavelength behavior of GB6 J1040+0617 and compare it to TXS 0506+056. We find that TXS 0506+056 shows strong flux variability in the Fermi-Large Area Telescope gamma-ray band, being in an active state around the arrival of IceCube-170922A, but in a low state during the archival IceCube neutrino flare in 2014/15. In both cases the spectral shape is statistically compatible (&lt;= 2 sigma) with the average spectrum showing no indication of a significant relative increase of a high-energy component. While the association of GB6 J1040+0617 with the neutrino is consistent with background expectations, the source appears to be a plausible neutrino source candidate based on its energetics and multiwavelength features, namely a bright optical flare and modestly increased gamma-ray activity. Finding one or two neutrinos originating from gamma-ray blazars in the given sample of high-energy neutrinos is consistent with previously derived limits of neutrino emission from gamma-ray blazars, indicating the sources of the majority of cosmic high-energy neutrinos remain unknown.</p>
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