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  • Munn-Chernoff, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes: Evidence from genome-wide association studies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Addiction Biology. - 1355-6215 .- 1369-1600. ; 26:1, s. e12880-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [r(g)], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from similar to 2400 to similar to 537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (r(g) = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (r(g) = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (r(g) = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (r(gs) = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.
  • Hedman, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Bidirectional relationship between eating disorders and autoimmune diseases
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines. - Stockholm : Blackwell Publishing. - 0021-9630 .- 1469-7610. ; 60:7, s. 803-812
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Immune system dysfunction may be associated with eating disorders (ED) and could have implications for detection, risk assessment, and treatment of both autoimmune diseases and EDs. However, questions regarding the nature of the relationship between these two disease entities remain. We evaluated the strength of associations for the bidirectional relationships between EDs and autoimmune diseases.METHODS: In this nationwide population-based study, Swedish registers were linked to establish a cohort of more than 2.5 million individuals born in Sweden between January 1, 1979 and December 31, 2005 and followed up until December 2013. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to investigate: (a) subsequent risk of EDs in individuals with autoimmune diseases; and (b) subsequent risk of autoimmune diseases in individuals with EDs.RESULTS: We observed a strong, bidirectional relationship between the two illness classes indicating that diagnosis in one illness class increased the risk of the other. In women, the diagnoses of autoimmune disease increased subsequent hazards of anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), and other eating disorders (OED). Similarly, AN, BN, and OED increased subsequent hazards of autoimmune diseases.Gastrointestinal-related autoimmune diseases such as, celiac disease and Crohn's disease showed a bidirectional relationship with AN and OED. Psoriasis showed a bidirectional relationship with OED. The previous occurence of type 1 diabetes increased the risk for AN, BN, and OED. In men, we did not observe a bidirectional pattern, but prior autoimmune arthritis increased the risk for OED.CONCLUSIONS: The interactions between EDs and autoimmune diseases support the previously reported associations. The bidirectional risk pattern observed in women suggests either a shared mechanism or a third mediating variable contributing to the association of these illnesses.
  • Javaras, K N, et al. (författare)
  • Paternal age at childbirth and eating disorders in offspring
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Psychological Medicine. - Stockholm : Cambridge University Press. - 0033-2917 .- 1469-8978. ; 47:3, s. 576-584
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Advanced paternal age at childbirth is associated with psychiatric disorders in offspring, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. However, few studies have investigated paternal age's relationship with eating disorders in offspring. In a large, population-based cohort, we examined the association between paternal age and offspring eating disorders, and whether that association remains after adjustment for potential confounders (e.g. parental education level) that may be related to late/early selection into fatherhood and to eating disorder incidence.METHOD: Data for 2 276 809 individuals born in Sweden 1979-2001 were extracted from Swedish population and healthcare registers. The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the effect of paternal age on the first incidence of healthcare-recorded anorexia nervosa (AN) and all eating disorders (AED) occurring 1987-2009. Models were adjusted for sex, birth order, maternal age at childbirth, and maternal and paternal covariates including country of birth, highest education level, and lifetime psychiatric and criminal history.RESULTS: Even after adjustment for covariates including maternal age, advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk, and younger paternal age with decreased risk, of AN and AED. For example, the fully adjusted hazard ratio for the 45+ years (v. the 25-29 years) paternal age category was 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.53] for AN and 1.26 (95% CI 1.13-1.40) for AED.CONCLUSIONS: In this large, population-based cohort, paternal age at childbirth was positively associated with eating disorders in offspring, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Future research should further explore potential explanations for the association, including de novo mutations in the paternal germline.
  • Javaras, Kristin N., et al. (författare)
  • Sex- and age-specific incidence of healthcare-register-recorded eating disorders in the complete swedish 1979-2001 birth cohort
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Eating Disorders. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0276-3478 .- 1098-108X. ; 48:8, s. 1070-81
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate the sex- and age-specific incidence of healthcare-register-recorded anorexia nervosa (AN) and other eating disorders (OED) in a complete birth cohort, and assess whether incidence varies by diagnostic period and (sub-) birth cohort.METHOD: We used the actuarial method and Poisson models to examine the incidence of AN and OED from 1987 to 2009 (when individuals were 8-30 years old) for a cohort of 2.3 million individuals (48.7% female) born from 1979 to 2001 in Sweden, identified using Swedish registers.RESULTS: For both sexes, incidences of AN and OED increased considerably for diagnostic periods after 2000, but differed little by birth cohort. In 2009, AN incidence in the peak age category was 205.9 cases/100,000 persons (95% CI: 178.2, 233.5) for females (14-15 years), versus 12.8 cases/100,000 (95% CI: 5.6, 20.1) for males (12-13 years). OED incidence in the peak age category was 372.1 cases/100,000 (95% CI: 336.4, 407.9) for females (16-17 years), versus 22.2 cases/100,000 (95% CI: 13.3, 31.1) for males (14-15 years).DISCUSSION: Our finding of an increase in healthcare-register-recorded eating disorders for diagnostic periods after 2000 likely reflects improved detection and expanded register coverage in Sweden. The peak of eating disorder incidence in adolescence, which began unexpectedly early for AN in males, suggests the importance of vigilance for signs of AN in young boys and early primary prevention efforts. Waiting until later could miss critical windows for intervention that could prevent disorders from taking root.
  • Mustelin, L., et al. (författare)
  • Risk of eating disorders in immigrant populations
  • Ingår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. - Stockholm : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0001-690X .- 1600-0447. ; 136:2, s. 156-165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: The risk of certain psychiatric disorders is elevated among immigrants. To date, no population studies on immigrant health have addressed eating disorders. We examined whether risk of eating disorders in first- and second-generation immigrants differs from native-born Danes and Swedes. Method: All individuals born 1984–2002 (Danish cohort) and 1989–1999 (Swedish cohort) and residing in the respective country on their 10th birthday were included. They were followed up for the development of eating disorders based on out-patient and in-patient data. Results: The risks of all eating disorder types were lower among first-generation immigrants compared to the native populations: Incidence-rate ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.39 (0.29, 0.51) for anorexia nervosa, 0.60 (0.42, 0.83) for bulimia nervosa, and 0.62 (0.47, 0.79) for other eating disorders in Denmark and 0.27 (0.21, 0.34) for anorexia nervosa, 0.30 (0.18, 0.51) for bulimia nervosa, and 0.39 (0.32, 0.47) for other eating disorders in Sweden. Likewise, second-generation immigrants by both parents were at lower risk, whereas those with only one foreign-born parent were not. Conclusion: The decreased risk of eating disorders among immigrants is opposite to what has been observed for other psychiatric disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Possible explanations include buffering sociocultural factors and underdetection in health care.
  • Yao, S., et al. (författare)
  • Familial liability for eating disorders and suicide attempts : evidence from a population registry in Sweden
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: JAMA Psychiatry. - Stockholm : Karolinska Institutet, Dept of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics. - 2168-622X .- 2168-6238.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Importance: Suicide attempts are common in individuals with eating disorders. More precise understanding of the mechanisms underlying their co-occurrence is needed. Objective: To examine the association between eating disorders and suicide attempts and whether familial risk factors contribute to the association. Design: A cohort design following a Swedish birth cohort 1979-2001 from age 6 until 31/12/2009. Setting: Information was acquired from Swedish national registers. Participants: Individuals born 1979-2001 and living in Sweden before age 6 (N= 2,268,786) were eligible for the study. Each individual was linked to his/her biological full-siblings, maternal half-siblings, paternal half-siblings, full-cousins, and half-cousins. Eating disorders were captured by three variables: any eating disorder, anorexia nervosa (AN), and bulimia nervosa (BN), identified by any lifetime diagnoses recorded in the registers. Suicide attempts were defined as any suicide attempts, including death by suicide, recorded in the registers. We examined the association between eating disorders and death by suicide separately, but were underpowered to explore familial liability for this association. Results: Individuals with any eating disorder had increased risk of suicide attempts (OR=5.28, 95%CI [5.04, 5.54]) and death by suicide (OR=5.39, 95%CI [4.00, 7.25]). The risks attenuated but remained significant after adjusting for comorbid major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and substance use disorder. Similar results were found for AN and BN, except that adjusted OR of death by suicide in BN became insignificant, possibly due to insufficient power. Individuals (index) who had a full-sibling with any eating disorder had increased risk of suicide attempts (OR=1.41, 95%CI [1.29, 1.53]). The risk attenuated for any eating disorder in more distant relatives (maternal half-siblings, OR=1.10, 95%CI [0.90, 1.34]; paternal half-siblings, OR=1.21, 95%CI [0.98, 1.49]; full-cousins, OR=1.11, 95%CI [1.06, 1.18]; half-cousins, OR=0.90, 95%CI [0.78, 1.03]). This familial pattern remained stable after adjusting for the index individuals’ eating disorders. Similar patterns were found for AN and BN. Conclusions and Relevance: Our results suggest increased risk of suicide attempts in individuals with lifetime eating disorders and their relatives. The pattern of familial co-aggregation suggests familial liability for the association between eating disorders and suicide. Psychiatric comorbidities partially explain this association, suggesting particularly high-risk presentations.
  • Baker, Jessica H., et al. (författare)
  • Body Dissatisfaction in Adolescent Boys
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Developmental Psychology. - : American Psychological Association (APA). - 0012-1649 .- 1939-0599. ; 55:7, s. 1566-1578
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Body dissatisfaction is a significant mental health symptom present in adolescent girls and boys. However, it is often either disregarded in adolescent boys or examined using assessments that may not resonate with males. The present study addresses these issues, examining the manifestation, etiology, and correlates of 3 facets of body dissatisfaction in adolescent boys. Adolescent male twins aged 16- to 17-years-old from the Swedish Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development were included along with a female comparison group: 915 monozygotic and 671 dizygotic same-sex twins. Body dissatisfaction was defined using measures of height dissatisfaction, muscle dissatisfaction, and the body dissatisfaction subscale of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-BD). We examined the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, whether the facets of body dissatisfaction were phenotypically and etiologically distinct, and associations with specific externalizing and internalizing symptoms. For boys, muscle dissatisfaction scores were greater than height dissatisfaction scores. Results also indicated that height and muscle dissatisfaction were phenotypically and etiologically distinct from the EDI-BD. Unique associations were observed with externalizing and internalizing symptoms: muscle dissatisfaction with symptoms of bulimia nervosa and the EDI-BD with internalizing symptoms, body mass index, and drive for thinness. The facets of body dissatisfaction were also largely distinct in girls and unique between-sex associations with externalizing and internalizing symptoms emerged. Overall, male-oriented aspects of body dissatisfaction are distinct from female-oriented aspects of body dissatisfaction. To capture the full picture of male body dissatisfaction, multiple facets must be addressed.
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