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  • Greicius, Gediminas, et al. (författare)
  • Microvilli structures on B lymphocytes: inducible functional domains?
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Int Immunol. - 0953-8178. ; 16:2, s. 353-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interactive contact between B lymphocytes and T cells is necessary for their expansion during an immune response. It has been shown that B lymphocytes receive signals from T cells, such as IL-4 and cross-linking of CD40, which are crucial for their differentiation. We previously found that these factors induce formation of microvilli on B cells and that this was correlated with increased homotypic adhesion of B lymphocytes. In this study we have investigated if IL-4 induce segregation of proteins to microvilli and lipid rafts. Using immuno-electron microscopy we analyzed cell-surface distribution of molecules involved in B-T cell co-activation. Recruitment to detergent-resistant membrane fractions was analyzed using sucrose gradient centrifugation. We found that microvilli were enriched in ICAM-1 and MHC class II molecules. In contrast, LFA-1 and CD40 were more abundant on the smooth cell surfaces, while B7-2 (CD86) was randomly distributed. We also discovered that depletion of cholesterol, using beta-methyl-cyclodextrin, lowered the number of microvilli, indicating that intact lipid rafts are required for their expression. Moreover, activation of B lymphocytes by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced increased expression of GM(1), a marker for lipid rafts. However, although both surface and total levels of GM(1) were similar in B lymphocytes stimulated with either LPS or LPS plus IL-4, GM(1) was mainly expressed on microvilli in LPS plus IL-4-stimulated cells. Taken together, our results indicate that microvilli represent distinct inducible membrane domains that can regulate direct cell-cell interactions via grouping and three-dimensional presentation of cell-surface receptors.
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