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1.
  • Cerhan, James R., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies multiple susceptibility loci for diffuse large B cell lymphoma
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 46:11, s. 1233-1238
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma subtype and is clinically aggressive. To identify genetic susceptibility loci for DLBCL, we conducted a meta-analysis of 3 new genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and 1 previous scan, totaling 3,857 cases and 7,666 controls of European ancestry, with additional genotyping of 9 promising SNPs in 1,359 cases and 4,557 controls. In our multi-stage analysis, five independent SNPs in four loci achieved genome-wide significance marked by rs116446171 at 6p25.3 (EXOC2; P = 2.33 x 10(-21)), rs2523607 at 6p21.33 (HLA-B; P = 2.40 x 10(-10)), rs79480871 at 2p23.3 (NCOA1; P = 4.23 x 10(-8)) and two independent SNPs, rs13255292 and rs4733601, at 8q24.21 (PVT1; P = 9.98 x 10(-13) and 3.63 x 10(-11), respectively). These data provide substantial new evidence for genetic susceptibility to this B cell malignancy and point to pathways involved in immune recognition and immune function in the pathogenesis of DLBCL.
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2.
  • Lahmann, Petra H, et al. (författare)
  • Anthropometric measures and epithelial ovarian cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0020-7136. ; 126:10, s. 2404-2415
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We examined the associations of measured anthropometric factors, including general and central adiposity and height, with ovarian cancer risk. We also investigated these associations by menopausal status and for specific histological subtypes. Among 226,798 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort, there were 611 incident cases of primary, malignant, epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed during a mean 8.9 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (as), adjusted for potential confounders. Compared to women with body mass index (BMI) < 25 kg/m(2), obesity (BMI >= 30 kg/m(2)) was associated with excess ovarian cancer risk for all women combined (HR = 1.33, 95% Cl = 1.05-1.68; p(trend) = 0.02) and postmenopausal women (HR = 1.59, 95% Cl = 1.20-2.10; p(trend) = 0.001), but the association was weaker for premenopausal women (HR = 1.16, 95% Cl = 0.65-2.06; p(trend) = 0.65). Neither height or weight gain, nor BMI-adjusted measures of fat distribution assessed by waist circumference, waist-hip ratio (WHR) or hip circumference were associated with overall risk. WHR was related to increased risk of mucinous tumors (BMI-adjusted HR per 0.05 unit increment = 1.17, 95% Cl = 1.00-1.38). For all women combined, no other significant associations with risk were observed for specific histological subtypes. This large, prospective study provides evidence that obesity is an important modifiable risk factor for epithelial ovarian cancer, particularly among postmenopausal women.
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3.
  • Romaguera, Dora, et al. (författare)
  • Is concordance with World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines for cancer prevention related to subsequent risk of cancer? Results from the EPIC study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - American Society for Clinical Nutrition. - 1938-3207. ; 96:1, s. 150-163
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: In 2007 the World Cancer Research Fund (WCRF) and the American Institute of Cancer Research (AICR) issued 8 recommendations (plus 2 special recommendations) on diet, physical activity, and weight management for cancer prevention on the basis of the most comprehensive collection of available evidence. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether concordance with the WCRF/AICR recommendations was related to cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Design: The present study included 386,355 EPIC participants from 9 European countries. At recruitment, dietary, anthropometric, and lifestyle information was collected. A score was constructed based on the WCRF/AICR recommendations on weight management, physical activity, foods and drinks that promote weight gain, plant foods, animal foods, alcoholic drinks, and breastfeeding for women; the score range was 0-6 for men and 0-7 for women. Higher scores indicated greater concordance with WCRF/AICR recommendations. The association between the score and cancer risk was estimated by using multivariable Cox regression models. Results: Concordance with the score was significantly associated with decreased risk of cancer. A 1-point increment in the score was associated with a risk reduction of 5% (95% Cl: 3%, 7%) for total cancer, 12% (95% CI: 9%, 16%) for colorectal cancer, and 16% (95% CI: 9%, 22%) for stomach cancer. Significant associations were also observed for cancers of the breast, endometrium, lung, kidney, upper aerodigestive tract, liver, and esophagus but not for prostate, ovarian, pancreatic, and bladder cancers. Conclusion: Adherence to the WCRF/AICR recommendations for cancer prevention may lower the risk of developing most types of cancer. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;96:150-63.
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4.
  • Romaguera, Dora, et al. (författare)
  • Mediterranean dietary patterns and prospective weight change in participants of the EPIC-PANACEA project
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - American Society for Clinical Nutrition. - 1938-3207. ; 92:4, s. 912-921
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is an association between a greater adherence to a Mediterranean diet and a reduced risk of developing chronic diseases. However, it is not clear whether this dietary pattern may be protective also against the development of obesity. Objective: We assessed the association between the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP), prospective weight change, and the incidence of overweight or obesity. Design: We conducted a prospective cohort study [the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol Consumption, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home, and Obesity (EPIC-PANACEA) project] in 373,803 individuals (103,455 men and 270,348 women; age range: 25-70 y) from 10 European countries. Anthropometric measurements were obtained at recruitment and after a median follow-up time of 5 y. The relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED; score range: 0-18) was used to assess adherence to the MDP according to the consumption of 9 dietary components that are characteristic of the Mediterranean diet. The association between the rMED and 5-y weight change was modeled through multiadjusted mixed-effects linear regression. Results: Individuals with a high adherence to the MDP according to the rMED (11-18 points) showed a 5-y weight change of 0.16 kg (95% CI: 0.24, 0.07 kg) and were 10% (95% CI: 4%, 18%) less likely to develop overweight or obesity than were individuals with a low adherence to the MDP (0-6 points). The low meat content of the Mediterranean diet seemed to account for most of its positive effect against weight gain. Conclusion: This study shows that promoting the MDP as a model of healthy eating may help to prevent weight gain and the development of obesity. Am J Clin Nutr 2010;92:912-21.
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5.
  • Sacerdote, Carlotta, et al. (författare)
  • Lower educational level is a predictor of incident type 2 diabetes in European countries: The EPIC-InterAct study.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Epidemiology. - Oxford University Press. - 1464-3685. ; 41:4, s. 1162-1173
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide. In high-income countries, low socioeconomic status seems to be related to a high incidence of T2DM, but very little is known about the intermediate factors of this relationship. METHOD: We performed a case-cohort study in eight Western European countries nested in the EPIC study (n = 340 234, 3.99 million person-years of follow-up). A random sub-cohort of 16 835 individuals and a total of 12 403 incident cases of T2DM were identified. Crude and multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) were estimated for each country and pooled across countries using meta-analytical methods. Age-, gender- and country-specific relative indices of inequality (RII) were used as the measure of educational level and RII tertiles were analysed. RESULTS: Compared with participants with a high educational level (RII tertile 1), participants with a low educational level (RII tertile 3) had a higher risk of T2DM [HR: 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.69-1.85; P-trend < 0.01]. The HRs adjusted for physical activity, smoking status and propensity score according to macronutrient intake were very similar to the crude HR (adjusted HR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.52-1.83 in men; HR: 1.88, 95% CI: 1.73-2.05 in women). The HRs were attenuated only when they were further adjusted for BMI (BMI-adjusted HR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.23-1.51 in men; HR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.20-1.45 in women). CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the inequalities in the risk of T2DM in Western European countries, with an inverse relationship between educational level and risk of T2DM that is only partially explained by variations in BMI.
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6.
  • Vergnaud, Anne-Claire, et al. (författare)
  • Fruit and vegetable consumption and prospective weight change in participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Physical Activity, Nutrition, Alcohol, Cessation of Smoking, Eating Out of Home, and Obesity study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - American Society for Clinical Nutrition. - 1938-3207. ; 95:1, s. 184-193
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Fruit and vegetable consumption might prevent weight gain through their low energy density and high dietary fiber content. Objective: We assessed the association between the baseline consumption of fruit and vegetables and weight change in participants from 10 European countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Design: Diet was assessed at baseline in 373,803 participants by using country-specific validated questionnaires. Weight was measured at baseline and self-reported at follow-up in most centers. Associations between baseline fruit and vegetable intakes (per 100 g/d) and weight change (g/y) after a mean follow-up of 5 y were assessed by using linear mixed-models, with age, sex, total energy intake, and other potential confounders controlled for. Results: After exclusion of subjects with chronic diseases at baseline and subjects who were likely to misreport energy intakes, baseline fruit and vegetable intakes were not associated with weight change overall. However, baseline fruit and vegetable intakes were inversely associated with weight change in men and women who quit smoking during follow-up. We observed weak positive associations between vegetable intake and weight change in women who were overweight, were former smokers, or had high prudent dietary pattern scores and weak inverse associations between fruit intake and weight change in women who were >50 y of age, were of normal weight, were never smokers, or had low prudent dietary pattern scores. Conclusions: In this large study, higher baseline fruit and vegetable intakes, while maintaining total energy intakes constant, did not substantially influence midterm weight change overall but could help to reduce risk of weight gain in persons who stop smoking. The interactions observed in women deserve additional attention. Am J Clin Nutr 2012;95:184-93.
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7.
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8.
  • Arslan, Alan A., et al. (författare)
  • Anthropometric Measures, Body Mass Index, and Pancreatic Cancer A Pooled Analysis From the Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan)
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Archives of Internal Medicine. - American Medical Association. - 0003-9926. ; 170:9, s. 791-802
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Obesity has been proposed as a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Methods: Pooled data were analyzed from the National Cancer Institute Pancreatic Cancer Cohort Consortium (PanScan) to study the association, between prediagnostic anthropometric measures and risk of pancreatic cancer. PanScan applied a nested case-control study design and included 2170 cases and 2209 control subjects. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression for cohort-specific quartiles of body mass index (BMI [calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared]), weight, height, waist circumference, and waist to hip ratio as well as conventional BMI categories (underweight, <18.5; normal weight, 18.5-24.9; overweight, 25.0-29.9; obese, 30.0-34.9; and severely obese, >= 35.0). Models were adjusted for potential confounders. Results: In all of the participants, a positive association between increasing BMI and risk of pancreatic cancer was observed (adjusted OR for the highest vs lowest BMI guartile, 1.33; 95% Cl, 1.12-1.58; P-trend<.001). In men, the adjusted OR for pancreatic cancer for the highest vs lowest quartile of BMI was 1.33 (95% Cl, 1.04-1.69; P-trend<.03), and in women it was 1.34 (95% Cl, 1.05-1.70; P-trend=.01). Increased waist to hip ratio was associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer in women (adjusted OR for the highest vs lowest quartile, 1.87; 95% Cl, 1.31-2.69; P-trend=.003) but less so in men. Conclusions: These findings provide strong support for a positive association between BMI and pancreatic cancer risk. In addition, centralized fat distribution may increase pancreatic cancer risk, especially in women. Arch Intern Med. 2010;170(9):791 -802
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9.
  • Büchner, Frederike L, et al. (författare)
  • Variety in Fruit and Vegetable Consumption and the Risk of Lung Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention. - American Association for Cancer Research. - 1538-7755. ; 19:9, s. 2278-2286
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: We investigated whether a varied consumption of vegetables and fruits is associated with lower lung cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Methods: After a mean follow-up of 8.7 years, 1,613 of 452,187 participants with complete information were diagnosed with lung cancer. Diet diversity scores (DDS) were used to quantify the variety in fruit and vegetable consumption. Multivariable proportional hazards models were used to assess the associations between DDS and lung cancer risk. All models were adjusted for smoking behavior and the total consumption of fruit and vegetables. Results: With increasing variety in vegetable subgroups, risk of lung cancer decreases [hazard ratios (HR), 0.77; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.64-0.94 highest versus lowest quartile; P trend = 0.02]. This inverse association is restricted to current smokers (HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57-0.93 highest versus lowest quartile; P trend = 0.03). In continuous analyses, in current smokers, lower risks were observed for squamous cell carcinomas with more variety in fruit and vegetable products combined (HR/two products, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.82-0.95), vegetable subgroups (HR/subgroup, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.97), vegetable products (HR/two products, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.79-0.96), and fruit products (HR/two products, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.72-0.97). Conclusion: Variety in vegetable consumption was inversely associated with lung cancer risk among current smokers. Risk of squamous cell carcinomas was reduced with increasing variety in fruit and/or vegetable consumption, which was mainly driven by the effect in current smokers. Impact: Independent from quantity of consumption, variety in fruit and vegetable consumption may decrease lung cancer risk. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 19(9); 2278-86. (C) 2010 AACR.
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10.
  • Cust, Anne E, et al. (författare)
  • Dietary carbohydrates, glycemic index, glycemic load, and endometrial cancer risk within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort.
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Epidemiology. - 0002-9262. ; 166:8, s. 912-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The associations of dietary total carbohydrates, overall glycemic index, total dietary glycemic load, total sugars, total starch, and total fiber with endometrial cancer risk were analyzed among 288,428 women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort (1992-2004), including 710 incident cases diagnosed during a mean 6.4 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. There were no statistically significant associations with endometrial cancer risk for increasing quartile intakes of any of the exposure variables. However, in continuous models calibrated by using 24-hour recall values, the multivariable relative risks were 1.61 (95% confidence interval: 1.06, 2.45) per 100 g/day of total carbohydrates, 1.40 (95% confidence interval: 0.99, 1.99) per 50 units/day of total dietary glycemic load, and 1.36 (95% confidence interval: 1.05, 1.76) per 50 g/day of total sugars. These associations were stronger among women who had never used postmenopausal hormone therapy compared with ever users (total carbohydrates P-heterogeneity = 0.04). Data suggest no association of overall glycemic index, total starch, and total fiber with risk, and a possible modest positive association of total carbohydrates, total dietary glycemic load, and total sugars with risk, particularly among never users of hormone replacement therapy.
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