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Sökning: WFRF:(Toombs J.)

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1.
  • Weston, P. S. J., et al. (författare)
  • Using florbetapir positron emission tomography to explore cerebrospinal fluid cut points and gray zones in small sample sizes
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's and Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring. - 2352-8729. ; 1:4, s. 440-446
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: We aimed to assess the feasibility of determining Alzheimer's disease cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cut points in small samples through comparison with amyloid positron emission tomography (PET). Methods: Twenty-three individuals (19 patients, four controls) had CSF measures of amyloid beta (Aβ)1-42 and total tau/Aβ1-42 ratio, and florbetapir PET. We compared CSF measures with visual and quantitative (standardized uptake value ratio [SUVR]) PET measures of amyloid. Results: Seventeen of 23 were amyloid-positive on visual reads, and 14 of 23 at an SUVR of ≥1.1. There was concordance (positive/negative on both measures) in 20 of 23, of whom 19 of 20 were correctly classified at an Aβ1-42 of 630 ng/L, and 20 of 20 on tau/Aβ1-42 ratio (positive ≥0.88; negative ≤0.34). Three discordant cases had Aβ1-42 levels between 403 and 729 ng/L and tau/Aβ1-42 ratios of 0.54-0.58. Discussion: Comparing amyloid PET and CSF biomarkers provides a means of assessing CSF cut points in vivo, and can be applied to small sample sizes. CSF tau/Aβ1-42 ratio appears robust at predicting amyloid status, although there are gray zones where there remains diagnostic uncertainty. © 2015 The Authors.
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2.
  • Paterson, R. W., et al. (författare)
  • Do cerebrospinal fluid transfer methods affect measured amyloid β42, total tau, and phosphorylated tau in clinical practice?
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's & Dementia. - Elsevier Inc.. - 1552-5260 .- 1552-5279. ; 1:3, s. 380-384
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) neurodegenerative markers are measured clinically to support a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. Several preanalytical factors may alter the CSF concentrations of amyloid β 1-42 (Aβ1-42) in particular with the potential to influence diagnosis. We aimed to determine whether routine handling of samples alters measured biomarker concentration compared with that of prompt delivery to the laboratory. Methods: Forty individuals with suspected neurodegenerative diseases underwent diagnostic lumbar punctures using a standardized technique. A sample of each patient's CSF was sent to the laboratory by four different delivery methods: (1) by courier at room temperature; (2) by courier, on ice; (3) using standard hospital portering; and (4) after quarantining for >24 hours. Aβ1-42, total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) levels measured using standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay techniques were compared between transfer methods. Results: There were no significant differences in Aβ1-42, t-tau, or p-tau concentrations measured in samples transported via the different delivery methods despite significant differences in time taken to deliver samples. Discussion: When CSF is collected in appropriate tubes, transferred at room temperature, and processed within 24 hours, neurodegenerative markers can be reliably determined. © 2015 The Authors.
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3.
  • Paterson, R. W., et al. (författare)
  • A targeted proteomic multiplex CSF assay identifies increased malate dehydrogenase and other neurodegenerative biomarkers in individuals with Alzheimer's disease pathology.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Translational psychiatry. - 2158-3188. ; 6:11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia. Biomarkers are required to identify individuals in the preclinical phase, explain phenotypic diversity, measure progression and estimate prognosis. The development of assays to validate candidate biomarkers is costly and time-consuming. Targeted proteomics is an attractive means of quantifying novel proteins in cerebrospinal and other fluids, and has potential to help overcome this bottleneck in biomarker development. We used a previously validated multiplexed 10-min, targeted proteomic assay to assess 54 candidate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in two independent cohorts comprising individuals with neurodegenerative dementias and healthy controls. Individuals were classified as 'AD' or 'non-AD' on the basis of their CSF T-tau and amyloid Aβ1-42 profile measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; biomarkers of interest were compared using univariate and multivariate analyses. In all, 35/31 individuals in Cohort 1 and 46/36 in Cohort 2 fulfilled criteria for AD/non-AD profile CSF, respectively. After adjustment for multiple comparisons, five proteins were elevated significantly in AD CSF compared with non-AD CSF in both cohorts: malate dehydrogenase; total APOE; chitinase-3-like protein 1 (YKL-40); osteopontin and cystatin C. In an independent multivariate orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), these proteins were also identified as major contributors to the separation between AD and non-AD in both cohorts. Independent of CSF Aβ1-42 and tau, a combination of these biomarkers differentiated AD and non-AD with an area under curve (AUC)=0.88. This targeted proteomic multiple reaction monitoring (MRM)-based assay can simultaneously and rapidly measure multiple candidate CSF biomarkers. Applying this technique to AD we demonstrate differences in proteins involved in glucose metabolism and neuroinflammation that collectively have potential clinical diagnostic utility.
4.
  • Arber, C., et al. (författare)
  • Familial Alzheimer’s disease patient-derived neurons reveal distinct mutation-specific effects on amyloid beta
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - 1359-4184.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Familial Alzheimer’s disease (fAD) mutations alter amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavage by γ-secretase, increasing the proportion of longer amyloidogenic amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides. Using five control induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) lines and seven iPSC lines generated from fAD patients, we investigated the effects of mutations on the Aβ secretome in human neurons generated in 2D and 3D. We also analysed matched CSF, post-mortem brain tissue, and iPSCs from the same participant with the APP V717I mutation. All fAD mutation lines demonstrated an increased Aβ42:40 ratio relative to controls, yet displayed varied signatures for Aβ43, Aβ38, and short Aβ fragments. We propose four qualitatively distinct mechanisms behind raised Aβ42:40. (1) APP V717I mutations alter γ-secretase cleavage site preference. Whereas, distinct presenilin 1 (PSEN1) mutations lead to either (2) reduced γ-secretase activity, (3) altered protein stability or (4) reduced PSEN1 maturation, all culminating in reduced γ-secretase carboxypeptidase-like activity. These data support Aβ mechanistic tenets in a human physiological model and substantiate iPSC-neurons for modelling fAD. © 2019, Springer Nature Limited.
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5.
  • Lashley, T., et al. (författare)
  • Molecular biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease: progress and prospects
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Disease Models & Mechanisms. - 1754-8403. ; 11:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease is characterised by the formation of beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain parenchyma, which cause synapse and neuronal loss. This leads to clinical symptoms, such as progressive memory deficits. Clinically, these pathological changes can be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid and with brain imaging, although reliable blood tests for plaque and tangle pathologies remain to be developed. Plaques and tangles often co-exist with other brain pathologies, including aggregates of transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 and Lewy bodies, but the extent to which these contribute to the severity of Alzheimer's disease is currently unknown. In this 'At a glance' article and poster, we summarise the molecular biornarkers that are being developed to detect Alzheimer's disease and its related pathologies. We also highlight the biornarkers that are currently in clinical use and include a critical appraisal of the challenges associated with applying these biornarkers for diagnostic and prognostic purposes of Alzheimer's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders, also in their prodromal clinical phases.
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6.
  • Paterson, Ross W, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal fluid in the differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease: clinical utility of an extended panel of biomarkers in a specialist cognitive clinic
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's research & therapy. - 1758-9193. ; 10, s. 1-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are increasingly being used to support a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Their clinical utility for differentiating AD from non-AD neurodegenerative dementias, such as dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) or frontotemporal dementia (FTD), is less well established. We aimed to determine the diagnostic utility of an extended panel of CSF biomarkers to differentiate AD from a range of other neurodegenerative dementias.We used immunoassays to measure conventional CSF markers of amyloid and tau pathology (amyloid beta (Aβ)1-42, total tau (T-tau), and phosphorylated tau (P-tau)) as well as amyloid processing (AβX-38, AβX-40, AβX-42, soluble amyloid precursor protein (sAPP)α, and sAPPβ), large fibre axonal degeneration (neurofilament light chain (NFL)), and neuroinflammation (YKL-40) in 245 patients with a variety of dementias and 30 controls. Patients fulfilled consensus criteria for AD (n = 156), DLB (n = 20), behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD; n = 45), progressive non-fluent aphasia (PNFA; n = 17), and semantic dementia (SD; n = 7); approximately 10% were pathology/genetically confirmed (n = 26). Global tests based on generalised least squares regression were used to determine differences between groups. Non-parametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under the curve (AUC) analyses were used to quantify how well each biomarker discriminated AD from each of the other diagnostic groups (or combinations of groups). CSF cut-points for the major biomarkers found to have diagnostic utility were validated using an independent cohort which included causes of AD (n = 104), DLB (n = 5), bvFTD (n = 12), PNFA (n = 3), SD (n = 9), and controls (n = 10).There were significant global differences in Aβ1-42, T-tau, T-tau/Aβ1-42 ratio, P-tau-181, NFL, AβX-42, AβX-42/X-40 ratio, APPα, and APPβ between groups. At a fixed sensitivity of 85%, AβX-42/X-40 could differentiate AD from controls, bvFTD, and SD with specificities of 93%, 85%, and 100%, respectively; for T-tau/Aβ1-42 these specificities were 83%, 70%, and 86%. AβX-42/X-40 had similar or higher specificity than Aβ1-42. No biomarker or ratio could differentiate AD from DLB or PNFA with specificity > 50%. Similar sensitivities and specificities were found in the independent validation cohort for differentiating AD and other dementias and in a pathology/genetically confirmed sub-cohort.CSF AβX-42/X-40 and T-tau/Aβ1-42 ratios have utility in distinguishing AD from controls, bvFTD, and SD. None of the biomarkers tested had good specificity at distinguishing AD from DLB or PNFA.
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7.
  • Paterson, Ross W, et al. (författare)
  • Dissecting IWG-2 typical and atypical Alzheimer's disease: insights from cerebrospinal fluid analysis.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of neurology. - 1432-1459. ; 262, s. 2722-2730
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Pathobiological factors underlying phenotypic diversity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are incompletely understood. We used an extended cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) panel to explore differences between "typical" with "atypical" AD and between amnestic, posterior cortical atrophy, logopenic aphasia and frontal variants. We included 97 subjects fulfilling International Working Group-2 research criteria for AD of whom 61 had "typical" AD and 36 "atypical" syndromes, and 30 controls. CSF biomarkers included total tau (T-tau), phosphorylated tau (P-tau), amyloid β1-42, amyloid βX-38/40/42, YKL-40, neurofilament light (NFL), and amyloid precursor proteins α and β. The typical and atypical groups were matched for age, sex, severity and rate of cognitive decline and had similar biomarker profiles, with the exception of NFL which was higher in the atypical group (p = 0.03). Sub-classifying the atypical group into its constituent clinical syndromes, posterior cortical atrophy was associated with the lowest T-tau [604.4 (436.8-675.8) pg/mL], P-tau (79.8 ± 21.8 pg/L), T-tau/Aβ1-42 ratio [2.3 (1.4-2.6)], AβX-40/X-42 ratio (22.1 ± 5.8) and rate of cognitive decline [1.9 (0.75-4.25) MMSE points/year]. Conversely, the frontal variant group had the highest levels of T-tau [1185.4 (591.7-1329.3) pg/mL], P-tau (116.4 ± 45.4 pg/L), T-tau/Aβ1-42 ratio [5.2 (3.3-6.9)] and AβX-40/X-42 ratio (27.9 ± 7.5), and rate of cognitive decline. Whilst on a group level IWG-2 "typical" and "atypical" AD share similar CSF profiles, which are very different from controls, atypical AD is a heterogeneous entity with evidence for subtle differences in amyloid processing and neurodegeneration between different clinical syndromes. These findings also have practical implications for the interpretation of clinical CSF biomarker results.
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8.
  • Toombs, J., et al. (författare)
  • Amyloid β peptides are differentially vulnerable to preanalytical surface exposure, an effect incompletely mitigated by the use of ratios
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Alzheimer's and Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment and Disease Monitoring. - 2352-8729. ; 10, s. 311-321
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction: We tested the hypothesis that the amyloid β (Aβ) peptide ratios are more stable than Aβ42 alone when biofluids are exposed to two preanalytical conditions known to modify measurable Aβ concentration. Methods: Human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and culture media (CM) from human cortical neurons were exposed to a series of volumes and polypropylene surfaces. Aβ42, Aβ40, and Aβ38 peptide concentrations were measured using a multiplexed electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Data were analyzed using mixed models in R. Results: Decrease of measurable Aβ peptide concentrations was exaggerated in longer peptides, affecting the Aβ42:Aβ40 and Aβ42:Aβ38 ratios. However, the effect size of surface treatment was reduced in Aβ peptide ratios versus Aβ42 alone. For Aβ42:Aβ40, the effect was reduced by approximately 50% (volume) and 75% (transfer) as compared to Aβ42 alone. Discussion: Use of Aβ ratios, in conjunction with concentrations, may mitigate confounding factors and assist the clinical diagnostic process for Alzheimer's disease.
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9.
  • Toombs, J., et al. (författare)
  • Effect of Spinal Manometers on Cerebrospinal Fluid Amyloid-beta Concentration
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimers Disease. - 1387-2877. ; 56:3, s. 885-891
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The effect of spinal manometers on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) amyloid-beta (A beta) concentration was investigated. Pooled human CSF samples were divided in two, one half passed through a manometer into a collection tube, the other transferred directly to a collection tube. CSF was analyzed for A beta 38/40/42 using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Relative to control, use of a manometer decreased A beta 38/40/42 concentration by 5.6% (+/- 1.5SE), 4.4% (+/- 1.7SE), and 4.3% (+/- 2.4SE), respectively. The ratios of A beta(42 : 40), A beta(42 : 38), and A beta(40 : 38) were not affected by manometer treatment. Factors which artificially lower CSF A beta concentrations are relevant to clinical diagnosis for AD and study design.
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10.
  • Banerjee, Gargi, et al. (författare)
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy.
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD. - 1875-8908.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • There is limited data on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in sporadic amyloid-β (Aβ) cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA).To determine the profile of biomarkers relevant to neurodegenerative disease in the CSF of patients with CAA.We performed a detailed comparison of CSF markers, comparing patients with CAA, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and control (CS) participants, recruited from the Biomarkers and Outcomes in CAA (BOCAA) study, and a Specialist Cognitive Disorders Service.We included 10 CAA, 20 AD, and 10 CS participants (mean age 68.6, 62.5, and 62.2 years, respectively). In unadjusted analyses, CAA patients had a distinctive CSF biomarker profile, with significantly lower (p < 0.01) median concentrations of Aβ38, Aβ40, Aβ42, sAβPPα, and sAβPPβ. CAA patients had higher levels of neurofilament light (NFL) than the CS group (p < 0.01), but there were no significant differences in CSF total tau, phospho-tau, soluble TREM2 (sTREM2), or neurogranin concentrations. AD patients had higher total tau, phospho-tau and neurogranin than CS and CAA groups. In age-adjusted analyses, differences for the CAA group remained for Aβ38, Aβ40, Aβ42, and sAβPPβ. Comparing CAA patients with amyloid-PET positive (n = 5) and negative (n = 5) scans, PET positive individuals had lower (p < 0.05) concentrations of CSF Aβ42, and higher total tau, phospho-tau, NFL, and neurogranin concentrations, consistent with an "AD-like" profile.CAA has a characteristic biomarker profile, suggestive of a global, rather than selective, accumulation of amyloid species; we also provide evidence of different phenotypes according to amyloid-PET positivity. Further replication and validation of these preliminary findings in larger cohorts is needed.
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