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Sökning: WFRF:(Torffvit Ole)

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1.
  • Agardh, Carl David, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of inhibition of glycation and oxidative stress on the development of diabetic nephropathy in rats.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications. - Elsevier. - 1873-460X. ; 16:6, s. 395-400
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We investigated whether aminoguanidine (AG), an inhibitor of advanced glycated end product formation, or probucol (PB), a free radical scavenger, could influence signs of glomerular and distal tubular function and morphological changes in kidneys of male Wistar rats after 6 months of streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. Diabetic rats had a higher kidney weight/body weight ratio (P<.001), but neither AG nor PB influenced the increased ratio. Diabetes caused an increased urinary albumin excretion (P<.05), which was normalized by AG, but further exaggerated by PB (P<.001). Diabetes also caused an increase in the urinary excretion of Tamm–Horsfall protein (P<.001). Both AG and PB attenuated this increase (P<.05 for both). A few glomeruli displayed focal thickening of varying degrees. Silver staining disclosed the glomerulopathy to be intercapillary glomerulosclerosis. Rats on PB-enriched diet displayed less pronounced changes than untreated rats (P<.01), while AG had no effect. The results suggest that oxidative stress could be involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy.
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2.
  • Agardh, Carl-David, et al. (författare)
  • The association between retinopathy, nephropathy, cardiovascular disease and long-term metabolic control in type 1 diabetes mellitus: a 5 year follow-up study of 442 adult patients in routine care
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. - Elsevier. - 1872-8227. ; 35:2-3, s. 113-121
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to examine mean HbA1c and blood pressure levels during a 5 year period in 442 type 1 adult diabetic patients in relation to the incidence and progression of retinopathy, nephropathy and to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The study showed, that in patients under routine care at a diabetic unit with four visits to the out-patient clinic per year, the intraindividual coefficient of variation for HbA1c values was 11 +/- 4% (mean +/- S.D.), and 7 +/- 3 and 8 +/- 2% for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. In 121 patients without retinopathy at entry, the 5 year incidence of any retinopathy was 47% (n = 57). Patients who developed retinopathy had higher mean HbA1c levels (P < 0.01), as well as mean systolic (P < 0.01) and diastolic (P < 0.05) blood pressure levels. In 123 patients with background retinopathy at entry, progression to severe retinopathy, i.e. clinically significant macular oedema, severe non-proliferative or proliferative retinopathy, occurred in 41% (n = 51). In those patients, the degree of metabolic control was worse (P < 0.001), the systolic (P < 0.05) and diastolic (P < 0.01) blood pressure levels were higher. The patients were stratified into four groups according to their urinary albumin concentration at entry: (1) normal albuminuria (< 12.5 mg/l), (2) borderline albuminuria (12.5-30 mg/l), (3) microalbuminuria (31-299 mg/l), i.c. incipient nephropathy and (4) clinical nephropathy (> or = 300 mg/l). An increase of urinary albumin concentration in patients who had normoalbuminuria or borderline albuminuria at entry was associated with mean HbA1c levels (r = 0.24, P < 0.01 and r = 0.27, P < 0.01, respectively). No such association was seen in patients with microalbuminuria or clinical nephropathy at entry. There was no association between the increase of urinary albumin level and mean systolic blood pressure levels in patients who had normoalbuminuria and microalbuminuria at entry. In contrast, there was an association between the increase of urinary albumin level in patients with borderline albuminuria (r = 0.36, P < 0.001), clinical nephropathy (r = 0.26, P < 0.05) and mean systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05). There was no association between the increase of urinary albumin levels and mean diastolic blood pressure in any of the albuminuria groups. As for the incidence of cardiovascular disease, renal insufficiency or death, the duration of diabetes (P < 0.01), urinary albumin concentration at entry (P < 0.001), mean systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05) and treatment with loop diuretics (P < 0.001) were but age, age at onset of diabetes, mean levels of HbA1c and diastolic blood pressure as well as treatment with beta- or Ca-blockers or ACE inhibitors were not related to these end-points. In conclusion, the present study showed that there was an association between the degree of metabolic control and both development and progression of retinopathy and progression of nephropathy of early stages in type 1 diabetic patients treated under routine conditions. Moreover, both the incidence and progression of retinopathy and progression of nephropathy at later stages were also associated with the long-term blood pressure levels. However, HbA1c levels were not associated with morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease or development of renal insufficiency.
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3.
  • Agardh, Carl-David, et al. (författare)
  • The prognostic value of albuminuria for the development of cardiovascular disease and retinopathy: a 5-year follow-up of 451 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
  • 1996
  • Ingår i: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice. - Elsevier. - 1872-8227. ; 32:1-2, s. 35-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the risk for vascular morbidity or death and retinopathy in relation to urinary albumin concentration. To that end, we performed a 5-year follow-up study of all type 2 diabetic patients attending the outpatient-clinic. A total of 444 (98.4%) out of 451 adult patients initially studied were evaluated for the degree of retinopathy and levels of HbA1c blood pressure, serum creatinine and urinary albumin. Vascular morbidity and causes of death were registered by one and the most severe event only. Forty-seven patients developed atherosclerotic vascular disease, i.e. myocardial infarction (n = 19), cerebrovascular disease (n = 20), or amputation (n = 8), and 42 died. The observed annual mortality rate was 22.1/1000 compared to an expected rate of 13.6/1000 for the general population with corresponding age and sex. Urinary albumin concentration was found to be a prognostic marker for the development of vascular disease and death in patients treated with insulin at baseline (P < 0.01), whereas this was not the case in patients treated with diet and/or oral agents at baseline. However, insulin treatment per se was not associated with an increased mortality or mortality or morbidity. Urinary albumin concentration was not correlated with incidence or progression of retinopathy regardless of type of diabetes treatment. In conclusion, this study showed that albuminuria was a prognostic factor for vascular morbidity and death in type 2 diabetic patients treated with insulin but not in patients treated with diet or oral agents. Furthermore, albuminuria was not a predictor for incidence or progression of retinopathy.
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4.
  • Agardh, Elisabet, et al. (författare)
  • A 5-year follow-up study on the incidence of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus in relation to medical risk indicators
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1365-2796. ; 235:4, s. 353-358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES. The aim of the present study was to describe the 5-year incidence of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes mellitus and to characterize risk indicators for the development and progression of retinopathy. DESIGN. A cross-sectional study of type 1 diabetic patients taken care of at a medical department. SETTING. All type 1 diabetic patients attending the Department of Internal Medicine, University Hospital, Lund, during a 2-year period were offered ophthalmological examination. SUBJECTS. A total of 396 out of 461 (85.9%) initially examined type 1 diabetic patients formed the basis for this 5-year follow-up study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES. The degree of retinopathy was based on fundus photography or biomicroscopy. Degree of metabolic control was assessed by HbA1c levels, signs of nephropathy by albumin creatinine clearance ratio and urinary albumin levels. Blood pressure was measured in the supine position. Duration of diabetes, age, and insulin dosage were registered. RESULTS. The incidence of retinopathy was 47.2% and progression from background to severe retinopathy occurred in 41%. Risk indicators for the development of retinopathy were duration of diabetes (P < 0.001), degree of metabolic control (P < 0.001), insulin dosage (P < 0.05) and signs of nephropathy based on measurements of albumin creatinine clearance ratio (P < 0.01) and urinary albumin concentration (P < 0.05). Two risk indicators could be identified for progression of retinopathy, i.e. the degree of metabolic control (P < 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. The results suggest that apart from poor metabolic control, development of retinopathy in type 1 diabetes is associated with long diabetes duration and clinical signs of diabetic nephropathy. Progression of retinopathy is associated with poor metabolic control and elevated diastolic blood pressure levels.
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5.
  • Agardh, Elisabet, et al. (författare)
  • A four-year follow-up study on the incidence of diabetic retinopathy in older onset diabetes mellitus
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1464-5491. ; 11:3, s. 273-278
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Out of 369 diabetic patients with an age at onset of diabetes > or = 30 years previously studied, 325 (88%) were included in an ophthalmological follow-up examination 4 years later. In patients treated with oral drugs at baseline, the incidence of any type of retinopathy was 30.8% and of severe retinopathy 5.7%. All patients who developed severe retinopathy received insulin during the follow-up period. At baseline, duration of diabetes, diastolic blood pressure, and signs of nephropathy (p < 0.05 in all cases) as well as degree of metabolic control (p < 0.01) differed between patients who developed retinopathy and those who did not. At follow-up, there were no longer any differences regarding degree of metabolic control and diastolic blood pressure. In patients treated with insulin at baseline, the incidence of any type of retinopathy was 41.0% and of severe retinopathy 16.1%. At baseline, duration of diabetes (p < 0.01), degree of metabolic control, and insulin dosage (p < 0.05 in both cases) differed between patients who developed retinopathy and those who did not. At follow-up, there was no longer any difference in insulin dosage.
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6.
  • Agardh, Elisabet, et al. (författare)
  • Putative risk factors associated with retinopathy in patients with diabetes diagnosed at or after 30 years of age
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Diabetic Medicine. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 1464-5491. ; 6:8, s. 724-727
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a cross-sectional study of diabetic patients diagnosed at or after 30 years, and with different stages of retinopathy, factors such as duration of diabetes, treatment mode, metabolic control, blood pressure, and clinical signs of nephropathy were examined. The different stages of retinopathy used were absence of retinopathy, simplex, and severe retinopathy. Patients with simplex and severe retinopathy were older than those without retinopathy (p less than 0.001, and p less than 0.01, respectively). They also had a longer duration of diabetes (p less than 0.001), and were more often treated with insulin (p less than 0.001) and in larger doses (p less than 0.001). Their glycosylated haemoglobin levels were higher (p less than 0.01). Their systolic blood pressure was higher (p less than 0.01), but the diastolic blood pressure did not differ, and the number of patients treated for hypertension was similar in all groups. Albumin clearance was higher (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.001), as were urinary albumin levels (p less than 0.001). The only variables that distinguished patients with simplex from those with severe retinopathy were albumin clearance (p less than 0.01) and urinary albumin levels (p less than 0.05).
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7.
  • Agardh, Elisabet, et al. (författare)
  • The prevalence of retinopathy and associated medical risk factors in type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus
  • 1989
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1365-2796. ; 226:1, s. 47-52
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The prevalence of diabetic retinopathy and the associated medical risk factors, such as age at onset and duration of diabetes, metabolic control, blood pressure, albumin clearance and serum creatinine, were studied in 501 patients with type I diabetes mellitus. The prevalence of retinopathy, characterized as simplex, maculopathy, preproliferative, and proliferative, was 60.5%. Patients with retinopathy were younger at the onset of diabetes, and had a longer duration of disease. In patients with more than 10 years of diabetes, proliferative retinopathy was more frequent if onset was before they were 15 years old, despite the fact that the duration of diabetes did not differ. Patients with severe retinopathy had worse metabolic control, and were more frequently treated for hypertension. In addition, the systolic blood pressure was elevated in all groups of patients with any type of retinopathy, whereas the diastolic blood pressure was elevated only in patients with more severe forms. Patients with severe retinopathy also had higher levels of albumin clearance.
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8.
  • Bakoush, Omran, et al. (författare)
  • High proteinuria selectivity index based upon IgM is a strong predictor of poor renal survival in glomerular diseases
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation. - Oxford University Press. - 1460-2385. ; 16:7, s. 1357-1363
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The transport of large proteins across the glomerular capillary wall (GCW) may increase several fold in glomerular diseases. The occurrence of IgM in urine is a consequence of the presence of large defects or shunts in the GCW, whereas albuminuria is probably a result of an altered charge- and size-selectivity of the GCW. In order to examine whether patho-morphological differences influence the renal outcome in proteinuric glomerulopathies, we examined urinary excretion of IgM and albumin as prognostic markers of glomerular disease. METHODS: An observational study over a median of 41 (+/-3) months was conducted in 84 patients with biopsy-verified glomerular disease. The patients were subdivided into groups with low (< or =0.002) and high (>0.002) proteinuria selectivity index based upon IgM (IgM-SI), and into groups with low (< or =200 mg/mmol) and high (>200 mg/mmol) albumin creatinine index (ACI). RESULTS: In the high IgM-SI group, the median creatinine clearance (Ccr) decreased by 26%, and 62% of the patients decreased in Ccr by >5 ml/ min/year during the follow-up time. In comparison, the median Ccr decreased by 8% in the low IgM-SI group (P<0.001) and only 18% of the patients in this group deteriorated by >5 ml/min/year in the Ccr. Eleven (21%) of the 51 patients in the high IgM-SI group developed end-stage renal failure compared with none of the 33 patients in the low IgM-SI group. All the patients that progressed to uraemia had decreased Ccr (<60 ml/min) at entry into the study. However, among all these patients, only those with high IgM-SI, and none with low IgM-SI, developed end stage renal failure. The fall in Ccr did not differ significantly between the patients in high (12%) and low (16%) ACI groups. CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that an increased IgM-SI value is a stronger predictor of clinical outcome in proteinuric glomerulopathies than baseline albuminuria. This finding may reflect different patho-histological mechanisms influencing renal survival in glomerular diseases.
9.
  • Bakoush, Omran, et al. (författare)
  • Higher urinary IgM excretion in type 2 diabetic nephropathy compared to type 1 diabetic nephropathy.
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Kidney International. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1523-1755. ; 61:1, s. 203-208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Proteinuria, due to impairment of the charge- and/or size selectivity of the glomerular capillary wall (GCW) is the earliest clinical evidence of diabetic nephropathy (DN). To study the pathophysiological differences between patients with DN in type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DN) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DN), we compared the patterns of urinary proteins of different size and charge in the two entities of diabetic kidney disease. METHODS: Urine concentrations of albumin, IgG2, IgG4 and IgM were assessed in 22 (15 males and 7 females) patients with type 1 DN, and in 20 (18 males and 2 females) patients with type 2 DN. Comparisons with one control group of 13 (12 males and one female) patients with nephrosclerosis due to systemic hypertension and a second control group of 16 (14 males and 2 females) healthy controls were made. RESULTS: The urine excretion of IgG2 and IgM and the ratio of IgG2 to IgG4 (IgG2/IgG4), were significantly higher in type 2 DN compared to type 1 DN (P < 0.01). Patients with type 2 DN and patients with nephrosclerosis had significantly higher urine excretion of IgG and IgM compared to the age-matched healthy subjects (P < 0.001). The IgG2/IgG4 ratio was higher in type 2 DN compared to nephrosclerosis and healthy controls (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: The increased urine excretion of IgG and IgM that accompanies albuminuria in type 2 DN suggests that the dominant pathophysiological mechanism of proteinuria in type 2 DN might be an alteration of the size selective properties of the glomerular capillary wall, including the occurrence of non-discriminatory "shunt pathways." The charge selective properties of the glomerular capillary wall seem to be intact in type 2 DN, as indicated by the high IgG2/IgG4 ratio. The mechanisms of proteinuria in type 1 DN seem to be merely a consequence of an impaired charge selectivity of the glomerular capillary wall.
10.
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