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  • Abbott, Benjamin W., et al. (författare)
  • Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire : an expert assessment
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters. - : IOP Publishing: Open Access Journals / IOP Publishing. - 1748-9326 .- 1748-9326. ; 11:3
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.
  • Downing, J. A., et al. (författare)
  • Global abundance and size distribution of streams and rivers
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Inland Waters. - 2044-2041. ; 2:4, s. 229-236
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To better integrate lotic ecosystems into global cycles and budgets, we provide approximations of the size-distribution and areal extent of streams and rivers. One approach we used was to employ stream network theory combined with data on stream width. We also used detailed stream networks on 2 continents to estimate the fraction of continental area occupied by streams worldwide and corrected remote sensing stream inventories for unresolved small streams. Our estimates of global fluvial area are 485 000 to 662 000 km2 and are +30–300% of published appraisals. Moderately sized rivers (orders 5–9) seem to comprise the greatest global area, with less area covered by low and high order streams, while global stream length, and therefore the riparian interface, is dominated by 1st order streams. Rivers and streams are likely to cover 0.30–0.56% of the land surface and make contributions to global processes and greenhouse gas emissions that may be +20–200% greater than those implied by previous estimates.
  • Barros, Nathan, et al. (författare)
  • Carbon emission from hydroelectric reservoirs linked to reservoir age and latitude
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Nature Geoscience. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1752-0894 .- 1752-0908. ; 4:9, s. 593-596
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hydroelectric reservoirs cover an area of 3.4 x 10(5) km(2) and comprise about 20% of all reservoirs. In addition, they contain large stores of formerly terrestrial organic carbon. Significant amounts of greenhouse gases are emitted(2), especially in the early years following reservoir creation, but the global extent of these emissions is poorly known. Previous estimates of emissions from all types of reservoir indicate that these human-made systems emit 321 Tg of carbon per year (ref. 4). Here we assess the emissions of carbon dioxide and methane from hydroelectric reservoirs, on the basis of data from 85 globally distributed hydroelectric reservoirs that account for 20% of the global area of these systems. We relate the emissions to reservoir age, location biome, morphometric features and chemical status. We estimate that hydroelectric reservoirs emit about 48 Tg C as CO(2) and 3 Tg C as CH(4), corresponding to 4% of global carbon emissions from inland waters. Our estimates are smaller than previous estimates on the basis of more limited data. Carbon emissions are correlated to reservoir age and latitude, with the highest emission rates from the tropical Amazon region. We conclude that future emissions will be highly dependent on the geographic location of new hydroelectric reservoirs.
  • Cole, J.J., et al. (författare)
  • Plumbing the global carbon cycle : Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Ecosystems (New York. Print). - 1432-9840 .- 1435-0629. ; 10:1, s. 172-185
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth’s surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the carbon cycle at either global or regional scales. By taking published estimates of gas exchange, sediment accumulation, and carbon transport for a variety of aquatic systems, we have constructed a budget for the role of inland water ecosystems in the global carbon cycle. Our analysis conservatively estimates that inland waters annually receive, from a combination of background and anthropogenically altered sources, on the order of 1.9 Pg C y−1 from the terrestrial landscape, of which about 0.2 is buried in aquatic sediments, at least 0.8 (possibly much more) is returned to the atmosphere as gas exchange while the remaining 0.9 Pg y−1 is delivered to the oceans, roughly equally as inorganic and organic carbon. Thus, roughly twice as much C enters inland aquatic systems from land as is exported from land to the sea. Over prolonged time net carbon fluxes in aquatic systems tend to be greater per unit area than in much of the surrounding land. Although their area is small, these freshwater aquatic systems can affect regional C balances. Further, the inclusion of inland, freshwater ecosystems provides useful insight about the storage, oxidation and transport of terrestrial C, and may warrant a revision of how the modern net C sink on land is described.
  • Downing, J. A., et al. (författare)
  • The global abundance and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and impoundments
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography. - 0024-3590 .- 1939-5590. ; 51:5, s. 2388-2397
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • One of the major impediments to the integration of lentic ecosystems into global environmental analyses has been fragmentary data on the extent and size distribution of lakes, ponds, and impoundments. We use new data sources, enhanced spatial resolution, and new analytical approaches to provide new estimates of the global abundance of surface-water bodies. A global model based on the Pareto distribution shows that the global extent of natural lakes is twice as large as previously known (304 million lakes; 4.2 million km(2) in area) and is dominated in area by millions of water bodies smaller than 1 km(2). Similar analyses of impoundments based on inventories of large, engineered dams show that impounded waters cover approximately 0.26 million km(2). However, construction of low-tech farm impoundments is estimated to be between 0.1% and 6% of farm area worldwide, dependent upon precipitation, and represents > 77,000 km(2) globally, at present. Overall, about 4.6 million km(2) of the earth's continental "land" surface (> 3%) is covered by water. These analyses underscore the importance of explicitly considering lakes, ponds, and impoundments, especially small ones, in global analyses of rates and processes.
  • Marotta, H., et al. (författare)
  • Greenhouse gas production in low-latitude lake sediments responds strongly to warming
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Climate Change. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1758-678X .- 1758-6798. ; 4:6, s. 467-470
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inland water sediments receive large quantities of terrestrial organic matter(1-5) and are globally important sites for organic carbon preservation(5,6). Sediment organic matter mineralization is positively related to temperature across a wide range of high-latitude ecosystems(6-10), but the situation in the tropics remains unclear. Here we assessed temperature effects on the biological production of CO2 and CH4 in anaerobic sediments of tropical lakes in the Amazon and boreal lakes in Sweden. On the basis of conservative regional warming projections until 2100 (ref. 11), we estimate that sediment CO2 and CH4 production will increase 9-61% above present rates. Combining the CO2 and CH4 as CO2 equivalents (CO(2)eq; ref. 11), the predicted increase is 2.4-4.5 times higher in tropical than boreal sediments. Although the estimated lake area in low latitudes is 3.2 times smaller than that of the boreal zone, we estimate that the increase in gas production from tropical lake sediments would be on average 2.4 times higher for CO2 and 2.8 times higher for CH4. The exponential temperature response of organic matter mineralization, coupled with higher increases in the proportion of CH4 relative to CO2 on warming, suggests that the production of greenhouse gases in tropical sediments will increase substantially. This represents a potential large-scale positive feedback to climate change.
  • von Wachenfeldt, Eddie, et al. (författare)
  • Linking allochthonous dissolved organic matter and boreal lake sediment carbon sequestration : The role of light-mediated flocculation
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography. - 0024-3590 .- 1939-5590. - 0024-3590 ; 53:6, s. 2416-2426
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We measured flocculation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the water from a humic lake (DOC = 14.9 mg C L-1) and from an adjacent mire (DOC = 25.7 mg C L-1), in in situ enclosure experiments with different light regimes. Light stimulated the formation of organic particles in both waters, and organic particle formation was observed at all incubation depths, even in the dark controls. Production of phytoplankton biomass was negligible, and allochthonous DOC was the most important precursor of the sinking particles. 8-22% and 25-60% of the loss of DOC in lake and mire water, respectively, could be accounted for by flocculation. Depth-integrated flocculation based on the enclosure experiments was 14.7 mg C m(-2) d(-1). Lake-water DOC concentration and water color has been increasing during the last decade, and sediment trap studies show that gross sedimentation of organic carbon also increased. Thus flocculation of allochthonous DOC, stimulated by light, constitutes a pathway for the sequestration of carbon in lake sediments.
  • Bartels, Pia, et al. (författare)
  • Reciprocal subsidies between freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems structure consumer resource dynamics
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Ecology. - 0012-9658 .- 1939-9170. ; 93:5, s. 1173-1182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cross-ecosystem movements of material and energy, particularly reciprocal resource fluxes across the freshwater-land interface, have received major attention. Freshwater ecosystems may receive higher amounts of subsidies (i.e., resources produced outside the focal ecosystem) than terrestrial ecosystems, potentially leading to increased secondary production in freshwaters. Here we used a meta-analytic approach to quantify the magnitude and direction of subsidy inputs across the freshwater-land interface and to determine subsequent responses in recipient animals. Terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems differed in the magnitude of subsidies they received, with aquatic ecosystems generally receiving higher subsidies than terrestrial ecosystems. Surprisingly, and despite the large discrepancy in magnitude, the contribution of these subsidies to animal carbon inferred from stable isotope composition did not differ between freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, likely due to the differences in subsidy quality. The contribution of allochthonous subsidies was highest to primary consumers and predators, suggesting that bottom-up and top-down effects may be affected considerably by the input of allochthonous resources. Future work on subsidies will profit from a food web dynamic approach including indirect trophic interactions and propagating effects.
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