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Sökning: WFRF:(Travier Noemie)

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1.
  • Agudo, Antonio, et al. (författare)
  • Impact of Cigarette Smoking on Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - American Society of Clinical Oncology. - 1527-7755.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSEOur aim was to assess the impact of cigarette smoking on the risk of the tumors classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as causally associated with smoking, referred to as tobacco-related cancers (TRC). METHODSThe study population included 441,211 participants (133,018 men and 308,193 women) from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. We investigated 14,563 participants who developed a TRC during an average follow-up of 11 years. The impact of smoking cigarettes on cancer risk was assessed by the population attributable fraction (AF(p)), calculated using the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CI for current and former smokers, plus either the prevalence of smoking among cancer cases or estimates from surveys in representative samples of the population in each country.ResultsThe proportion of all TRC attributable to cigarette smoking was 34.9% (95% CI, 32.5 to 37.4) using the smoking prevalence among cases and 36.2% (95% CI, 33.7 to 38.6) using the smoking prevalence from the population. The AF(p) were above 80% for cancers of the lung and larynx, between 20% and 50% for most respiratory and digestive cancers and tumors from the lower urinary tract, and below 20% for the remaining TRC. CONCLUSIONUsing data on cancer incidence for 2008 and our AF(p) estimates, about 270,000 new cancer diagnoses per year can be considered attributable to cigarette smoking in the eight European countries with available data for both men and women (Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Sweden, Denmark).
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  • Freisling, Heinz, et al. (författare)
  • Main nutrient patterns are associated with prospective weight change in adults from 10 European countries
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nutrition. - Springer. - 1436-6207. ; 55:6, s. 2093-2104
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Various food patterns have been associated with weight change in adults, but it is unknown which combinations of nutrients may account for such observations. We investigated associations between main nutrient patterns and prospective weight change in adults. Methods: This study includes 235,880 participants, 25–70 years old, recruited between 1992 and 2000 in 10 European countries. Intakes of 23 nutrients were estimated from country-specific validated dietary questionnaires using the harmonized EPIC Nutrient DataBase. Four nutrient patterns, explaining 67 % of the total variance of nutrient intakes, were previously identified from principal component analysis. Body weight was measured at recruitment and self-reported 5 years later. The relationship between nutrient patterns and annual weight change was examined separately for men and women using linear mixed models with random effect according to center controlling for confounders. Results: Mean weight gain was 460 g/year (SD 950) and 420 g/year (SD 940) for men and women, respectively. The annual differences in weight gain per one SD increase in the pattern scores were as follows: principal component (PC) 1, characterized by nutrients from plant food sources, was inversely associated with weight gain in men (−22 g/year; 95 % CI −33 to −10) and women (−18 g/year; 95 % CI −26 to −11). In contrast, PC4, characterized by protein, vitamin B2, phosphorus, and calcium, was associated with a weight gain of +41 g/year (95 % CI +2 to +80) and +88 g/year (95 % CI +36 to +140) in men and women, respectively. Associations with PC2, a pattern driven by many micro-nutrients, and with PC3, a pattern driven by vitamin D, were less consistent and/or non-significant. Conclusions: We identified two main nutrient patterns that are associated with moderate but significant long-term differences in weight gain in adults.
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5.
  • Gallo, Valentina, et al. (författare)
  • Physical activity and risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in a prospective cohort study.
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Epidemiology. - Springer. - 1573-7284.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous case-control studies have suggested a possible increased risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) with physical activity (PA), but this association has never been studied in prospective cohort studies. We therefore assessed the association between PA and risk of death from ALS in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 472,100 individuals were included in the analysis, yielding 219 ALS deaths. At recruitment, information on PA was collected thorough standardised questionnaires. Total PA was expressed by the Cambridge Physical Activity Index (CPAI) and analysed in relation to ALS mortality, using Cox hazard models. Interactions with age, sex, and anthropometric measures were assessed. Total PA was weakly inversely associated with ALS mortality with a borderline statistically significant trend across categories (p = 0.042), with those physically active being 33 % less likely to die from ALS compared to those inactive: HR = 0.67 (95 % CI 0.42-1.06). Anthropometric measures, sex, and age did not modify the association with CPAI. The present study shows a slightly decreased-not increased like in case-control studies-risk of dying from ALS in those with high levels of total PA at enrolment. This association does not appear confounded by age, gender, anthropometry, smoking, and education. Ours was the first prospective cohort study on ALS and physical activity.
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6.
  • Gonzalez, Carlos A., et al. (författare)
  • Dietary factors and in situ and invasive cervical cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 129:2, s. 449-459
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Some dietary factors could be involved as cofactors in cervical carcinogenesis, but evidence is inconclusive. There are no data about the effect of fruits and vegetables intake (F&V) on cervical cancer from cohort studies. We examined the association between the intake of F&V and selected nutrients and the incidence of carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive squamous cervical cancer (ISC) in a prospective study of 299,649 women, participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). A calibration study was used to control measurement errors in the dietary questionnaire. After a mean of 9 years of follow-up, 253 ISC and 817 CIS cases were diagnosed. In the calibrated model, we observed a statistically significant inverse association of ISC with a daily increase in intake of 100 g of total fruits (HR 0.83; 95% CI 0.72-0.98) and a statistically nonsignificant inverse association with a daily increase in intake of 100 g of total vegetables (HR 0.85: 95% CI 0.65-1.10). Statistically nonsignificant inverse associations were also observed for leafy vegetables, root vegetables, garlic and onions, citrus fruits, vitamin C, vitamin E and retinol for ISC. No association was found regarding beta-carotene, vitamin D and folic acid for ISC. None of the dietary factors examined was associated with CIS. Our study suggests a possible protective role of fruit intake and other dietary factors on ISC that need to be confirmed on a larger number of ISC cases.
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7.
  • Kyrø, Cecilie, et al. (författare)
  • Pre-diagnostic polyphenol intake and breast cancer survival: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - Springer. - 1573-7217. ; 154:2, s. 389-401
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim was to investigate the association between pre-diagnostic intakes of polyphenol classes (flavonoids, lignans, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and other polyphenols) in relation to breast cancer survival (all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality). We used data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort. Pre-diagnostic usual diet was assessed using dietary questionnaires, and polyphenol intakes were estimated using the Phenol-Explorer database. We followed 11,782 breast cancer cases from time of diagnosis until death, end of follow-up or last day of contact. During a median of 6 years, 1482 women died (753 of breast cancer). We related polyphenol intake to all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality using Cox proportional hazard models with time since diagnosis as underlying time and strata for age and country. Among postmenopausal women, an intake of lignans in the highest versus lowest quartile was related to a 28 % lower risk of dying from breast (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 0.72, 95 % CI 0.53; 0.98). In contrast, in premenopausal women, a positive association between lignan intake and all-cause mortality was found (adjusted model: HR, quartile 4 vs. quartile 1, 1.63, 95 % CI 1.03; 2.57). We found no association for other polyphenol classes. Intake of lignans before breast cancer diagnosis may be related to improved survival among postmenopausal women, but may on the contrary worsen the survival for premenopausal women. This suggests that the role of phytoestrogens in breast cancer survival is complex and may be dependent of menopausal status.
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8.
  • Ricceri, Fulvio, et al. (författare)
  • Risk of second primary malignancies in women with breast cancer: Results from the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC)
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 137:4, s. 940-948
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Women with a diagnosis of breast cancer are at increased risk of second primary cancers, and the identification of risk factors for the latter may have clinical implications. We have followed-up for 11 years 10,045 women with invasive breast cancer from a European cohort, and identified 492 second primary cancers, including 140 contralateral breast cancers. Expected and observed cases and Standardized Incidence Ratios (SIR) were estimated using Aalen-Johansen Markovian methods. Information on various risk factors was obtained from detailed questionnaires and anthropometric measurements. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate the role of risk factors. Women with breast cancer had a 30% excess risk for second malignancies (95% confidence interval-CI 18-42) after excluding contralateral breast cancers. Risk was particularly elevated for colorectal cancer (SIR, 1.71, 95% CI 1.43-2.00), lymphoma (SIR 1.80, 95% CI 1.31-2.40), melanoma (2.12; 1.63-2.70), endometrium (2.18; 1.75-2.70) and kidney cancers (2.40; 1.57-3.52). Risk of second malignancies was positively associated with age at first cancer, body mass index and smoking status, while it was inversely associated with education, post-menopausal status and a history of full-term pregnancy. We describe in a large cohort of women with breast cancer a 30% excess of second primaries. Among risk factors for breast cancer, a history of full-term pregnancy was inversely associated with the risk of second primary cancer. What's new? For the first time, researchers have used cohort data to show that people who survive breast cancer have a higher risk of developing another cancer later. By collecting data on 10,000 breast cancer patients over 11 years, these authors calculated a 30% boost in the patients' risk of developing a second primary malignancy, particularly colorectal cancer, lymphoma, melanoma, endometrial cancer, and kidney cancer. These findings, plus the data they collected on risk factors such as age, smoking, body mass index, and others, will help guide clinicians in screening procedures and follow up care for breast cancer patients.
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9.
  • Rinaldi, Sabina, et al. (författare)
  • Body size and risk of differentiated thyroid carcinomas: Findings from the EPIC study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 131:6, s. 1004-1014
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results from case-control and prospective studies suggest a moderate positive association between obesity and height and differentiated thyroid carcinoma (TC). Little is known on the relationship between other measures of adiposity and differentiated TC risk. Here, we present the results of a study on body size and risk of differentiated TC based on a large European prospective study (EPIC). During follow-up, 508 incident cases of differentiated TC were identified in women, and 58 in men. 78% of cases were papillary TC. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs). In women, differentiated TC risk was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) (HR highest vs lowest quintile = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.031.94); height (HR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.182.20); HR highest vs lowest tertile waist (HR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.001.79) and waist-to-hip ratio (HR = 1.42, 95% CI: 1.051.91). The association with BMI was somewhat stronger in women below age 50. Corresponding associations for papillary TC were similar to those for all differentiated TC. In men the only body size factors significantly associated with differentiated TC were height (non linear), and leg length (HR highest vs. lowest tertile = 3.03, 95% CI: 1.307.07). Our study lends further support to the presence of a moderate positive association between differentiated TC risk and overweight and obesity in women. The risk increase among taller individuals of both sexes suggests that some genetic characteristics or early environmental exposures may also be implicated in the etiology of differentiated TC.
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10.
  • Roura, Esther, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking as a major risk factor for cervical cancer and pre-cancer: Results from the EPIC cohort
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Cancer. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0020-7136. ; 135:2, s. 453-466
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A total of 308,036 women were selected from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study to evaluate the association between tobacco smoking and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 3 (CIN3)/carcinoma in situ (CIS) and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). At baseline, participants completed a questionnaire and provided blood samples. During a mean follow-up time of 9 years, 261 ICC cases and 804 CIN3/CIS cases were reported. In a nested case-control study, the baseline sera from 609 cases and 1,218 matched controls were tested for L1 antibodies against HPV types 11, 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 45, 52, 58, and antibodies against Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), and Human Herpes Virus 2 (HHV-2). Cervical samples were not available for HPV-DNA analysis in this study. Multivariate analyses were used to estimate associations between smoking and risk of CIN3/CIS and ICC in the cohort and the case-control studies. In the cohort analyses smoking status, duration and intensity showed a two-fold increased risk of CIN3/CIS and ICC, while time since quitting was associated with a two-fold reduced risk. In the nested case-control study, consistent associations were observed after adjustment for HPV, CT and HHV-2 serostatus, in both HPV seronegative and seropositive women. Results from this large prospective study confirm the role of tobacco smoking as an important risk factor for both CIN3/CIS and ICC, even after taking into account HPV exposure as determined by HPV serology. The strong beneficial effect of quitting smoking is an important finding that will further support public health policies for smoking cessation. What's new? Tobacco smoking is a cited cause of cervical cancer, but whether it causes cervical malignancy independent of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is unclear. Here, strong associations were found between most measures of tobacco smoking and the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia of grade 3/carcinoma in situ and invasive cervical cancer, after taking into account past exposure to HPV infection. Quitting smoking was associated with a 2-fold risk reduction. The findings confirm the role of tobacco smoking in cervical carcinogenesis and show that quitting the habit has important benefits for cancer protection.
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