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Sökning: WFRF:(Trummer Olivia)

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  • Estrada, Karol, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 56 bone mineral density loci and reveals 14 loci associated with risk of fracture.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 44:5, s. 491-501
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bone mineral density (BMD) is the most widely used predictor of fracture risk. We performed the largest meta-analysis to date on lumbar spine and femoral neck BMD, including 17 genome-wide association studies and 32,961 individuals of European and east Asian ancestry. We tested the top BMD-associated markers for replication in 50,933 independent subjects and for association with risk of low-trauma fracture in 31,016 individuals with a history of fracture (cases) and 102,444 controls. We identified 56 loci (32 new) associated with BMD at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)). Several of these factors cluster within the RANK-RANKL-OPG, mesenchymal stem cell differentiation, endochondral ossification and Wnt signaling pathways. However, we also discovered loci that were localized to genes not known to have a role in bone biology. Fourteen BMD-associated loci were also associated with fracture risk (P < 5 × 10(-4), Bonferroni corrected), of which six reached P < 5 × 10(-8), including at 18p11.21 (FAM210A), 7q21.3 (SLC25A13), 11q13.2 (LRP5), 4q22.1 (MEPE), 2p16.2 (SPTBN1) and 10q21.1 (DKK1). These findings shed light on the genetic architecture and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying BMD variation and fracture susceptibility.
  • Moayyeri, Alireza, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic determinants of heel bone properties : genome-wide association meta-analysis and replication in the GEFOS/GENOMOS consortium
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Human Molecular Genetics. - : Oxford University Press. - 0964-6906 .- 1460-2083. ; 23:11, s. 3054-3068
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Quantitative ultrasound of the heel captures heel bone properties that independently predict fracture risk and, with bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by X-ray (DXA), may be convenient alternatives for evaluating osteoporosis and fracture risk. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies to assess the genetic determinants of heel broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA; n = 14 260), velocity of sound (VOS; n = 15 514) and BMD (n = 4566) in 13 discovery cohorts. Independent replication involved seven cohorts with GWA data (in silico n = 11 452) and new genotyping in 15 cohorts (de novo n = 24 902). In combined random effects, meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts, nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) had genome-wide significant (P < 5 x 10(-8)) associations with heel bone properties. Alongside SNPs within or near previously identified osteoporosis susceptibility genes including ESR1 (6q25.1: rs4869739, rs3020331, rs2982552), SPTBN1 (2p16.2: rs11898505), RSPO3 (6q22.33: rs7741021), WNT16 (7q31.31: rs2908007), DKK1 (10q21.1: rs7902708) and GPATCH1 (19q13.11: rs10416265), we identified a new locus on chromosome 11q14.2 (rs597319 close to TMEM135, a gene recently linked to osteoblastogenesis and longevity) significantly associated with both BUA and VOS (P < 8.23 x 10(-14)). In meta-analyses involving 25 cohorts with up to 14 985 fracture cases, six of 10 SNPs associated with heel bone properties at P < 5 x 10(-6) also had the expected direction of association with any fracture (P < 0.05), including three SNPs with P < 0.005: 6q22.33 (rs7741021), 7q31.31 (rs2908007) and 10q21.1 (rs7902708). In conclusion, this GWA study reveals the effect of several genes common to central DXA-derived BMD and heel ultrasound/DXA measures and points to a new genetic locus with potential implications for better understanding of osteoporosis pathophysiology.
  • Roth, Olivia, et al. (författare)
  • Factors influencing the rate of radiation-induced dissolution of spent nuclear fuel
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Research on chemical intermediates (Print). - 0922-6168 .- 1568-5675. ; 35:4, s. 465-478
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several countries plan to store spent nuclear fuel in deep geological repositories. Accurate prediction of the spent fuel dissolution rate is a key issue in the safety assessment of a future deep repository. A reliable quantitative model for radiation-induced spent fuel dissolution must be based on an accurate description of the dose distribution around the spent fuel and fundamental knowledge about the elementary processes involved. In this paper, we discuss factors influencing the rate of radiation-induced dissolution of spent nuclear fuel, focusing on solutes (H-2, HCO3 (-), Fe(II) and organic substances affecting the H2O2 concentration and factors influencing the reactivity of the fuel surface towards H2O2. Taking these factors into account, we have also simulated dissolution of spent nuclear fuel under realistic deep repository conditions.
  • Trummer, Martin, et al. (författare)
  • H2  inhibition of radiation induced dissolution of spent nuclear fuel
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of Nuclear Materials. - 0022-3115 .- 1873-4820. ; 383:3, s. 226-230
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In order to elucidate the effect of noble metal clusters in spent nuclear fuel on the kinetics of radiation induced spent fuel dissolution we have used I'd particle doped UO2 pellets. The catalytic effect of Pd particles on the kinetics of radiation induced dissolution Of UO2 during gamma-irradiation in HCO3- containing solutions purged with N-2 and H-2 was studied in this work. Four pellets with Pd concentrations of 0%, 0.1%, 1% and 3% were produced to mimic spent nuclear fuel. The pellets were placed in 10 mM HCO3- aqueous solutions and gamma-irradiated, and the dissolution of UO22+ was measured spectrophotometrically as a function of time. Under N-2 atmosphere, 3% I'd prevent the dissolution of uranium by reduction with the radiolytically produced H-2, while the other pellets show a rate of dissolution of around 1.6 x 10(-9) mol m(-2) s(-1). Under H-2 atmosphere already 0.1% Pd effectively prevents the dissolution of uranium, while the rate of dissolution for the pellet without Pd is 1.4 x 10(-9) mol m(-2) s(-1). It is also shown in experiments without radiation in aqueous solutions containing H2O2 and O-2 that epsilon-particles catalyze the oxidation of the UO2 matrix by these molecular oxidants, and that the kinetics of the catalyzed reactions is close to diffusion controlled.
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