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  • Checa, A., et al. (författare)
  • Dysregulations in circulating sphingolipids associate with disease activity indices in female patients with systemic lupus erythematosus : a cross-sectional study
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Lupus. - : SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD. - 0961-2033 .- 1477-0962. ; 26:10, s. 1023-1033
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the association of clinical and renal disease activity with circulating sphingolipids in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.Methods We used liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to measure the levels of 27 sphingolipids in plasma from 107 female systemic lupus erythematosus patients and 23 controls selected using a design of experiment approach. We investigated the associations between sphingolipids and two disease activity indices, the Systemic Lupus Activity Measurement and the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index. Damage was scored according to the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics damage index. Renal activity was evaluated with the British Island Lupus Activity Group index. The effects of immunosuppressive treatment on sphingolipid levels were evaluated before and after treatment in 22 female systemic lupus erythematosus patients with active disease.Results Circulating sphingolipids from the ceramide and hexosylceramide families were increased, and sphingoid bases were decreased, in systemic lupus erythematosus patients compared to controls. The ratio of C-16:0-ceramide to sphingosine-1-phosphate was the best discriminator between patients and controls, with an area under the receiver-operating curve of 0.77. The C-16:0-ceramide to sphingosine-1-phosphate ratio was associated with ongoing disease activity according to the Systemic Lupus Activity Measurement and the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index, but not with accumulated damage according to the Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index. Levels of C-16:0- and C-24:1-hexosylceramides were able to discriminate patients with current versus inactive/no renal involvement. All dysregulated sphingolipids were normalized after immunosuppressive treatment.Conclusion We provide evidence that sphingolipids are dysregulated in systemic lupus erythematosus and associated with disease activity. This study demonstrates the utility of simultaneously targeting multiple components of a pathway to establish disease associations.
  • Idborg, Helena, et al. (författare)
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 72, s. A80-A80
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background. Systemic autoimmune diseases (SAIDs) affect about 2% of the population in Western countries. Sufficient diagnostic criteria are lacking due to the heterogeneity within diagnostic categories and apparent overlap regarding symptoms and patterns of autoantibodies between different diagnoses. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is regarded as a prototype for SAIDs and we hypothesise that subgroups of patients with SLE may have different pathogenesis and should consequently be subject to different treatment strategies.Objectives. Our goal is to find new biomarkers to be used for the identification of more homogenous patient populations for clinical trials and to identify sub-groups of patients with high risk of for example cardiovascular events.Methods. In this study we have utilised 320 SLE patients from the Karolinska lupus cohort and 320 age and gender matched controls. The SLE cohort was characterised based on clinical, genetic and serological data and combined by multivariate data analysis in a systems biology approach to study possible subgroups. A pilot study was designed to verify and investigate suggested subgroups of SLE. Two main subgroups were defined: One group was defined as having SSA and SSB antibodies and a negative lupus anticoagulant test (LAC), i.e., a “Sjögren-like” group. The other group was defined as being negative for SSA and SSB antibodies but positive in the LAC test.i.e. an “APS-like” group. EDTA-plasma from selected patients in these two groups and controls were analysed using a mass spectrometry (MS) based proteomic and metabolomic approach. Pathway analysis was then performed on the obtained data.Results. Our pilot study showed that differences in levels of proteins and metabolites could separate disease groups from population controls. The profile/pattern of involved factors in the complement system supported a division of SLE in two major subgroups, although each individual factor was not significantly different between subgroups. Complement factor 2 (C2) and membrane attack complex (MAC) were analysed in the entire cohort with complementary methods and C2 verifies our results while the levels of MAC did not differ between SLE subgroups. The generated metabolomics data clearly separated SLE patients from controls in both gas chromatography (GC)-MS and liquid chromatography (LC)-MS data. We found for example that tryptophan was lower in the SLE patients compared to controls.Conclusions. Our systems biology approach may lead to a better understanding of the disease and its pathogenesis, and assigning patients into subgroups will result in improved diagnosis and better outcome measures of SLE.
  • Madsen, Rasmus Kirkegaard, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Diagnostic properties of metabolic perturbations in rheumatoid arthritis
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Arthritis Research & Therapy. - : BioMed Central. - 1478-6354 .- 1478-6362. ; 13:1, s. R19-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to assess the feasibility of diagnosing early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by measuring selected metabolic biomarkers. METHODS: We compared the metabolic profile of patients with RA with those of healthy controls and patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsoA). The metabolites were measured using two different chromatography-mass spectrometry platforms, thereby giving a broad overview of serum metabolites. The metabolic profiles of patient and control groups were compared using multivariate statistical analysis. The findings were validated in a follow-up study of RA patients and healthy volunteers. RESULTS: RA patients were diagnosed with a sensitivity of 93 % and a specificity of 70 % in a validation study using detection of 52 metabolites. Patients with RA or PsoA could be distinguished with a sensitivity of 90 % and a specificity of 94 %. Glyceric acid, D-ribofuranoise and hypoxanthine were increased in RA patients, whereas histidine, threonic acid, methionine, cholesterol, asparagine and threonine were all decreased when compared with healthy controls. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolite profiling (metabolomics) is a potentially useful technique for diagnosing RA. The predictive value was irrespective of the presence of antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (ACPA).
  • Peolsson, Michael, et al. (författare)
  • Modelling human musculoskeletal functional movements using ultrasound imaging
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC Medical Imaging. - 1471-2342 .- 1471-2342. ; 10, s. 9-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: A widespread and fundamental assumption in the health sciences is that muscle functions are related to a wide variety of conditions, for example pain, ischemic and neurological disorder, exercise and injury. It is therefore highly desirable to study musculoskeletal contributions in clinical applications such as the treatment of muscle injuries, post-surgery evaluations, monitoring of progressive degeneration in neuromuscular disorders, and so on.The spatial image resolution in ultrasound systems has improved tremendously in the last few years and nowadays provides detailed information about tissue characteristics. It is now possible to study skeletal muscles in real-time during activity.Methods: The ultrasound images are transformed to be congruent and are effectively compressed and stacked in order to be analysed with multivariate techniques. The method is applied to a relevant clinical orthopaedic research field, namely to describe the dynamics in the Achilles tendon and the calf during real-time movements.Results: This study introduces a novel method to medical applications that can be used to examine ultrasound image sequences and to detect, visualise and quantify skeletal muscle dynamics and functions.Conclusions: This new objective method is a powerful tool to use when visualising tissue activity and dynamics of musculoskeletal ultrasound registrations.
  • Pinto, R. C., et al. (författare)
  • Advantages of orthogonal inspection in chemometrics
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of Chemometrics. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0886-9383 .- 1099-128X. ; 26:6, s. 231-235
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The demand for chemometrics tools and concepts to study complex problems in modern biology and medicine has prompted chemometricians to shift their focus away from a traditional emphasis on model predictive capacity toward optimizing information exchange via model interpretation for biological validation. The interpretation of projection-based latent variable models is not straightforward because of its confounding of different systematic variations in the model components. Over the last 15?years, this has spurred the development of orthogonal-based methods that are capable of separating the correlated variation (to Y) from the noncorrelated (orthogonal to Y) variations in a single model. Here, we aim to provide a conceptual explanation of the advantages of orthogonal variation inspection in the context of Partial Least Squares (PLS) in multivariate classification and calibration. We propose that by inspecting the orthogonal variation, both model interpretation and information quality are improved by enhancement of the resulting level of knowledge. Although the predictive capacity of PLS using orthogonal methods may be identical to that of PLS alone, the combined result can be superior when it comes to the model interpretation. By discussing theory and examples, several new advantages revealed by inspection of orthogonal variation are highlighted. Copyright (c) 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
  • Surowiec, Izabella, et al. (författare)
  • Multivariate strategy for the sample selection and integration of multi-batch data in metabolomics
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Metabolomics. - : SPRINGER. - 1573-3882 .- 1573-3890. ; 13:10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Availability of large cohorts of samples with related metadata provides scientists with extensive material for studies. At the same time, recent development of modern high-throughput 'omics' technologies, including metabolomics, has resulted in the potential for analysis of large sample sizes. Representative subset selection becomes critical for selection of samples from bigger cohorts and their division into analytical batches. This especially holds true when relative quantification of compound levels is used.Objectives We present a multivariate strategy for representative sample selection and integration of results from multi-batch experiments in metabolomics.Methods Multivariate characterization was applied for design of experiment based sample selection and subsequent subdivision into four analytical batches which were analyzed on different days by metabolomics profiling using gas-chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOFMS). For each batch OPLS-DA (R) was used and its p(corr) vectors were averaged to obtain combined metabolic profile. Jackknifed standard errors were used to calculate confidence intervals for each metabolite in the average p(corr) profile.Results A combined, representative metabolic profile describing differences between systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients and controls was obtained and used for elucidation of metabolic pathways that could be disturbed in SLE.Conclusion Design of experiment based representative sample selection ensured diversity and minimized bias that could be introduced at this step. Combined metabolic profile enabled unified analysis and interpretation.
  • Torell, Frida, et al. (författare)
  • Cytokine Profiles in Autoantibody Defined Subgroups of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Proteome Research. - : American Chemical Society (ACS). - 1535-3893 .- 1535-3907. ; 18:3, s. 1208-1217
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to evaluate how the cytokine profiles differed between autoantibody based subgroups of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE is a systemic autoimmune disease, characterized by periods of flares (active disease) and remission (inactive disease). The disease can affect many organ systems, e.g., skin, joints, kidneys, heart, and the central nervous system (CNS). SLE patients often have an overproduction of cytokines, e.g., interferons, chemokines, and interleukins. The high cytokine levels are part of the systemic inflammation, which can lead to tissue injury. In the present study, SLE patients were divided into five groups based on their autoantibody profiles. We thus defined these five groups: ANA negative, antiphospholipid (aPL) positive, anti-Sm/anti-RNP positive, Sjögren’s syndrome (SS) antigen A and B positive, and patients positive for more than one type of autoantibodies (other SLE). Cytokines were measured using Mesoscale Discovery (MSD) multiplex analysis. On the basis of the cytokine data, ANA negative patients were the most deviating subgroup, with lower levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-12/IL-23p40, and interferon gamma-induced protein (IP)-10. Despite low cytokine levels in the ANA negative group, autoantibody profiles did not discriminate between different cytokine patterns.
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