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1.
  • Fall, Tove, et al. (författare)
  • The Role of Adiposity in Cardiometabolic Traits: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS Medicine. - Public Library of Science. - 1549-1676. ; 10:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The association between adiposity and cardiometabolic traits is well known from epidemiological studies. Whilst the causal relationship is clear for some of these traits, for others it is not. We aimed to determine whether adiposity is causally related to various cardiometabolic traits using the Mendelian randomization approach. Methods and Findings: We used the adiposity-associated variant rs9939609 at the FTO locus as an instrumental variable (IV) for body mass index (BMI) in a Mendelian randomization design. Thirty-six population-based studies of individuals of European descent contributed to the analyses. Age-and sex-adjusted regression models were fitted to test for association between (i) rs9939609 and BMI (n = 198,502), (ii) rs9939609 and 24 traits, and (iii) BMI and 24 traits. The causal effect of BMI on the outcome measures was quantified by IV estimators. The estimators were compared to the BMI-trait associations derived from the same individuals. In the IV analysis, we demonstrated novel evidence for a causal relationship between adiposity and incident heart failure (hazard ratio, 1.19 per BMI-unit increase; 95% CI, 1.03-1.39) and replicated earlier reports of a causal association with type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, dyslipidemia, and hypertension (odds ratio for IV estimator, 1.1-1.4; all p<0.05). For quantitative traits, our results provide novel evidence for a causal effect of adiposity on the liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase and gamma-glutamyl transferase and confirm previous reports of a causal effect of adiposity on systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin, 2-h post-load glucose from the oral glucose tolerance test, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (all p<0.05). The estimated causal effects were in agreement with traditional observational measures in all instances except for type 2 diabetes, where the causal estimate was larger than the observational estimate (p = 0.001). Conclusions: We provide novel evidence for a causal relationship between adiposity and heart failure as well as between adiposity and increased liver enzymes.
2.
  • Hjort, Rebecka, et al. (författare)
  • Interaction Between Overweight and Genotypes of HLA, TCF7L2, and FTO in Relation to the Risk of Latent Autoimmune Diabetes in Adults and Type 2 Diabetes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism. - Oxford University Press. - 1945-7197. ; 104:10, s. 4815-4826
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: We investigated potential interactions between body mass index (BMI) and genotypes of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), TCF7L2-rs7903146, and FTO-rs9939609 in relation to the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We pooled data from two population-based studies: (i) a Swedish study with incident cases of LADA [positive for glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA); n = 394) and type 2 diabetes (negative for GADA; n = 1290) and matched controls without diabetes (n = 2656) and (ii) a prospective Norwegian study that included incident cases of LADA (n = 131) and type 2 diabetes (n = 1901) and 886,120 person-years of follow-up. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, physical activity, and smoking. Interaction between overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) and HLA/TCF7L2/FTO high-risk genotypes was assessed by attributable proportion due to interaction (AP). RESULTS: The combination of overweight and high-risk genotypes of HLA, TCF7L2, and FTO was associated with pooled relative risk (RRpooled) of 7.59 (95% CI, 5.27 to 10.93), 2.65 (95% CI, 1.97 to 3.56), and 2.21 (95% CI, 1.60 to 3.07), respectively, for LADA, compared with normal-weight individuals with low/intermediate genetic risk. There was a significant interaction between overweight and HLA (AP, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.47), TCF7L2 (AP, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.52), and FTO (AP, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.15 to 0.61). The highest risk of LADA was seen in overweight individuals homozygous for the DR4 genotype [RR, 26.76 (95% CI, 15.42 to 46.43); AP, 0.58 (95% CI, 0.32 to 0.83) (Swedish data)]. Overweight and TCF7L2 also significantly interacted in relation to type 2 diabetes (AP, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.19 to 0.33), but no interaction was observed with high-risk genotypes of HLA or FTO. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight interacts with HLA high-risk genotypes but also with genes associated with type 2 diabetes in the promotion of LADA.
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3.
  • Hjort, Rebecka, et al. (författare)
  • Low birthweight is associated with an increased risk of LADA and type 2 diabetes: results from a Swedish case-control study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - Springer. - 1432-0428. ; 58:11, s. 2525-2532
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis Our aim was to investigate the association between birthweight and latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), a common diabetes form with features of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Methods We used data from the Epidemiological Study of Risk Factors for LADA and Type 2 Diabetes (ESTRID), a Swedish population-based study. Eligible for the analysis were 134 incident LADA cases (glutamic acid decarboxylase antibody [GADA] positive), 350 incident type 2 diabetes cases (GADA negative) and 603 randomly selected controls. We present ORs and 95% CIs for LADA and type 2 diabetes in relation to birthweight, adjusted for sex, age, BMI and family history of diabetes. Results Low birthweight increased the risk of LADA as well as the risk of type 2 diabetes; OR per kg reduction was estimated as 1.52 (95% CI 1.12, 2.08) and 1.58 (1.23, 2.04), respectively. The OR for participants weighing < 3 kg compared with >= 4 kg at birth was estimated as 2.38 (1.23, 4.60) for LADA and 2.37 (1.37, 4.10) for type 2 diabetes. A combination of low birthweight (< 3 kg) and current overweight (BMI >= 25) further augmented the risk: LADA, OR 3.26 (1.69, 6.29); and type 2 diabetes, OR 39.93 (19.27, 82.71). Family history of diabetes had little impact on these estimates. Conclusions/interpretation Our results suggest that low birthweight may be a risk factor for LADA of the same strength as for type 2 diabetes. These findings support LADA, despite its autoimmune component, having an aetiology that includes factors related to type 2 diabetes.
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4.
  • Hjort, Rebecka, et al. (författare)
  • Overweight, obesity and the risk of LADA : : results from a Swedish case–control study and the Norwegian HUNT Study
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Diabetologia. - Springer. - 0012-186X. ; 61:6, s. 1333-1343
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims/hypothesis: Excessive weight is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes, but its role in the promotion of autoimmune diabetes is not clear. We investigated the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) in relation to overweight/obesity in two large population-based studies. Methods: Analyses were based on incident cases of LADA (n = 425) and type 2 diabetes (n = 1420), and 1704 randomly selected control participants from a Swedish case–control study and prospective data from the Norwegian HUNT Study including 147 people with LADA and 1,012,957 person-years of follow-up (1984–2008). We present adjusted ORs and HRs with 95% CI. Results: In the Swedish data, obesity was associated with an increased risk of LADA (OR 2.93, 95% CI 2.17, 3.97), which was even stronger for type 2 diabetes (OR 18.88, 95% CI 14.29, 24.94). The association was stronger in LADA with low GAD antibody (GADA; <median) (OR 4.25; 95% CI 2.76, 6.52) but present also in LADA with high GADA (OR 2.14; 95% CI 1.42, 3.24). In the Swedish data, obese vs normal weight LADA patients had lower GADA levels, better beta cell function, and were more likely to have low-risk HLA-genotypes. The combination of overweight and family history of diabetes (FHD) conferred an OR of 4.57 (95% CI 3.27, 6.39) for LADA and 24.51 (95% CI 17.82, 33.71) for type 2 diabetes. Prospective data from HUNT indicated even stronger associations; HR for LADA was 6.07 (95% CI 3.76, 9.78) for obesity and 7.45 (95% CI 4.02, 13.82) for overweight and FHD. Conclusions/interpretation: Overweight/obesity is associated with increased risk of LADA, particularly when in combination with FHD. These findings support the hypothesis that, even in the presence of autoimmunity, factors linked to insulin resistance, such as excessive weight, could promote onset of diabetes.
5.
  • Lindgren, Cecilia M., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-Wide Association Scan Meta-Analysis Identifies Three Loci Influencing Adiposity and Fat Distribution
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404. ; 5:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify genetic loci influencing central obesity and fat distribution, we performed a meta-analysis of 16 genome-wide association studies (GWAS, N = 38,580) informative for adult waist circumference (WC) and waist-hip ratio (WHR). We selected 26 SNPs for follow-up, for which the evidence of association with measures of central adiposity (WC and/or WHR) was strong and disproportionate to that for overall adiposity or height. Follow-up studies in a maximum of 70,689 individuals identified two loci strongly associated with measures of central adiposity; these map near TFAP2B (WC, P = 1.9x10(-11)) and MSRA (WC, P=8.9x10(-9)). A third locus, near LYPLAL1, was associated with WHR in women only (P = 2.66x10(-8)). The variants near TFAP2B appear to influence central adiposity through an effect on overall obesity/fat-mass, whereas LYPLAL1 displays a strong female-only association with fat distribution. By focusing on anthropometric measures of central obesity and fat distribution, we have identified three loci implicated in the regulation of human adiposity.
6.
  • Lofvenborg, JE, et al. (författare)
  • Consumption of red meat, genetic susceptibility, and risk of LADA and type 2 diabetes
  • ????
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Nutrition. - Springer. - 1436-6207.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Red meat consumption is positively associated with type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes. We investigated if red meat consumption increases the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and T2D, and potential interaction with family history of diabetes (FHD), HLA and TCF7L2 genotypes. Methods: Analyses were based on Swedish case–control data comprising incident cases of LADA (n = 465) and T2D (n = 1528) with matched, population-based controls (n = 1789; n = 1553 in genetic analyses). Multivariable-adjusted ORs in relation to self-reported processed and unprocessed red meat intake were estimated by conditional logistic regression models. Attributable proportion (AP) due to interaction was used to assess departure from additivity of effects. Results: Consumption of processed red meat was associated with increased risk of LADA (per one servings/day OR 1.27, 95% CI 1.07–1.52), whereas no association was observed for unprocessed red meat. For T2D, there was no association with red meat intake once BMI was taken into account. The combination of high (> 0.3 servings/day vs. less) processed red meat intake and high-risk HLA-DQB1 and -DRB1 genotypes yielded OR 8.05 (95% CI 4.86–13.34) for LADA, with indications of significant interaction (AP 0.53, 95% CI 0.32–0.73). Results were similar for the combination of FHD-T1D and processed red meat. No interaction between processed red meat intake and FHD-T2D or risk variants of TCF7L2 was seen in relation to LADA or T2D. Conclusion: Consumption of processed but not unprocessed red meat may increase the risk of LADA, especially in individuals with FHD-T1D or high-risk HLA genotypes.
7.
  • Löfvenborg, J E, et al. (författare)
  • Fatty fish consumption and risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nutrition & diabetes. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2044-4052. ; 4, s. 139-139
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • It has been suggested that intake of fatty fish may protect against both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Hypotheses rest on the high marine omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid+docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA) and vitamin D contents, with possible beneficial effects on immune function and glucose metabolism. Our aim was to investigate, for the first time, fatty fish consumption in relation to the risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA).
8.
  • Löfvenborg, Josefin E., et al. (författare)
  • Sweetened beverage intake and risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and type 2 diabetes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology. - 0804-4643. ; 175:6, s. 605-614
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Sweetened beverage intake is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes, but its association with autoimmune diabetes is unclear. We aimed to investigate sweetened beverage intake and risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA); autoimmune diabetes with features of type 2 diabetes. Design/methods: Data from a Swedish population-based study was used, including incident cases of LADA (n = 357) and type 2 diabetes (n = 1136) and randomly selected controls (n = 1371). Diabetes classification was based on onset age (≥35), glutamic acid decarboxylase autoantibodies (GADA) and C-peptide. Sweetened beverage intake information was derived from a validated food frequency questionnaire. ORs adjusted for age, sex, family history of diabetes, education, lifestyle, diet, energy intake and BMI were estimated using logistic regression. Results: Daily intake of >2 servings of sweetened beverages (consumed by 6% of participants) was associated with increased risk of LADA (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.11-3.56), and for each 200 mL daily serving, OR was 1.15 (95% CI: 1.02-1.29). Findings were similar for sugar-sweetened (OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.00-1.39) and artificially sweetened beverages (OR: 1.12, 95% CI: 0.95-1.32). Similarly, each daily serving increment in total sweetened beverage conferred 20% higher type 2 diabetes risk (95% CI: 1.07-1.34). In type 2 diabetes patients, high consumers displayed higher HOMA-IR levels (4.5 vs 3.5, P = 0.0002), but lower HOMA-B levels (55 vs 70, P = 0.0378) than non-consumers. Similar tendencies were seen in LADA. Conclusions: High intake of sweetened beverages was associated with increased risk of LADA. The observed relationship resembled that with type 2 diabetes, suggesting common pathways possibly involving insulin resistance.
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9.
  • Morris, Andrew P., et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analysis provides insights into the genetic architecture and pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718. ; 44:9, s. 981-981
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To extend understanding of the genetic architecture and molecular basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D), we conducted a meta-analysis of genetic variants on the Metabochip, including 34,840 cases and 114,981 controls, overwhelmingly of European descent. We identified ten previously unreported T2D susceptibility loci, including two showing sex-differentiated association. Genomewide analyses of these data are consistent with a long tail of additional common variant loci explaining much of the variation in susceptibility to T2D. Exploration of the enlarged set of susceptibility loci implicates several processes, including CREBBP-related transcription, adipocytokine signaling and cell cycle regulation, in diabetes pathogenesis.
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10.
  • Rasouli, Bahareh, et al. (författare)
  • Alcohol and the risk for LADA: results based on the Swedish ESTRID study.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - Society of the European Journal of Endocrinology. - 1479-683X. ; 171:5, s. 535-543
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to investigate whether alcohol consumption is associated with risk of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA), an autoimmune form of diabetes with features of type 2 diabetes. Design Population-based case-control study Methods We used data from ESTRID case-control study carried out between 2010 and 2013, including 250 incident cases of LADA (glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies [GADA] positive) and 764 cases of type 2 diabetes (GADA negative), and 1012 randomly selected controls aged ≥35. Logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of diabetes in relation to alcohol intake, adjusted for age, sex, BMI, family history of diabetes, smoking, and education. Results Alcohol consumption was inversely associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes (OR 0.95, 95% confidence interval (CI); 0.92-0.99 for every 5-g increment in daily intake). Similar results were seen for LADA, but stratification by median GADA levels revealed that the results only pertained to LADA with low GADA (OR 0.85; 95% 0.76-0.94 per 5g alcohol/day), whereas no association was seen with LADA high GADA (OR 1.00, 95% CI; 0.94-1.06 per 5g/day). Every 5-g increment of daily alcohol intake was associated with a 10% increase in GADA levels (p=0.0312), and a10% reduction in HOMA-IR (p=0.0418). Conclusions Our findings indicate that alcohol intake may reduce risk of type 2 diabetes and type 2-like LADA, but has no beneficial effects on diabetes-related autoimmunity.
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