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Sökning: WFRF:(Tuomisto J)

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  • Dekker, Joost, et al. (författare)
  • Definition and Characteristics of Behavioral Medicine, and Main Tasks and Goals of the International Society of Behavioral Medicine-an International Delphi Study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. - New York : Springer Nature. - 1070-5503 .- 1532-7558. ; 28, s. 268-276
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: In the past decades, behavioral medicine has attained global recognition. Due to its global reach, a critical need has emerged to consider whether the original definition of behavioral medicine is still valid, comprehensive, and inclusive, and to reconsider the main tasks and goals of the International Society of Behavioral Medicine (ISBM), as the umbrella organization in the field. The purpose of the present study was to (i) update the definition and scope of behavioral medicine and its defining characteristics; and (ii) develop a proposal on ISBM's main tasks and goals.METHOD: Our study used the Delphi method. A core group prepared a discussion paper. An international Delphi panel rated questions and provided comments. The panel intended to reach an a priori defined level of consensus (i.e., 70%).RESULTS: The international panel reached consensus on an updated definition and scope of behavioral medicine as a field of research and practice that builds on collaboration among multiple disciplines. These disciplines are concerned with development and application of behavioral and biomedical evidence across the disease continuum in clinical and public health domains. Consensus was reached on a proposal for ISBM's main tasks and goals focused on supporting communication and collaboration across disciplines and participating organizations; stimulating research, education, and practice; and supporting individuals and organizations in the field.CONCLUSION: The consensus on definition and scope of behavioral medicine and ISBM's tasks and goals provides a foundational step toward achieving these goals.
  • Herlin, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Quantitative characterization of changes in bone geometry, mineral density and biomechanical properties in two rat strains with different Ah-receptor structures after long-term exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Toxicology. - 0300-483X .- 1879-3185. ; 273:1-3, s. 1-11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Both industrial chemicals and environmental pollutants can interfere with bone modeling and remodeling. Recently, detailed toxicological bone studies have been performed following exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), which exerts most of its toxic effects through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to quantitatively evaluate changes in bone geometry, mineral density and biomechanical properties following long-term exposure to TCDD, and to further investigate the role of AhR in TCDD-induced bone alterations. To this end, tissue material used in the study was derived from TCDD-exposed Long-Evans (L-E) and Han/Wistar (H/W) rats, which differ markedly in sensitivity to TCDD-induced toxicity due to a strain difference in AhR structure. METHODS: Ten weeks old female L-E and H/W rats were administered TCDD s.c. once per week for 20 weeks, at doses corresponding to calculated daily doses of 0, 1, 10, 100 and 1000ngTCDD/kgbw (H/W only). Femur, tibia and vertebra from the L-E and H/W rats were analyzed by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and biomechanical testing at multiple sites. Dose-response modeling was performed to establish benchmark doses for the analyzed bone parameters, and to quantify strain sensitivity differences for those parameters, which were affected by TCDD exposure in both rat strains. RESULTS: Bone geometry and bone biomechanical parameters were affected by TCDD exposure, while bone mineral density parameters were less affected. The trabecular area at proximal tibia and the endocortical circumference at tibial diaphysis were the parameters that showed the highest maximal responses. Significant strain differences in response to TCDD treatment were observed, with the L-E rat being the most sensitive strain. For the parameters that were affected in both strains, the differences in sensitivity were quantified, showing the most pronounced (about 49-fold) strain difference for cross-sectional area of proximal tibia. CONCLUSION: The study provides novel information about TCDD-induced bone alterations at doses, which are of relevance from a health risk assessment point of view. In addition, the obtained results provide further support for a distinct role of the AhR in TCDD-induced bone alterations, and suggest that the benchmark dose modeling approach is appropriate for quantitative evaluation of bone toxicity parameters.
  • Fletcher, Nick, et al. (författare)
  • Altered retinoid metabolism in female Long-Evans and Han/Wistar rats following long-term 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-treatment
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Toxicological Sciences. - 1096-6080 .- 1096-0929. ; 86:2, s. 264-272
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study investigated the effects of long-term low-dose 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure on retinoid, thyroid hormone, and vitamin D homeostasis in Long-Evans and Han/Wistar rats using a tumor promotion exposure protocol. Female rats (ten/group) were partially hepatectomized, initiated with nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA), and given TCDD once per week by sc injection for 20 weeks at calculated daily doses of 0, 1, 10, 100, or 1000 ng/kg bw/day. Groups of nonhepatectomized/uninitiated rats (five/group) were identically maintained. After 20 weeks, the rats were killed, and apolar retinoid levels were determined in the liver and kidneys. No consistent differences were seen between partially hepatectomized/initiated and nonhepatectomized/uninitiated animals with respect to apolar retinoid levels or hepatic TCDD concentration. Further analyses of polar and apolar retinoid levels in liver, plasma, and kidney, as well as free thyroxine (FT4) and vitamin D (25-OH-D(3)) concentrations were carried out in partially hepatectomized/inititated animals. In Long-Evans rats, TCDD exposure dose-dependently decreased hepatic retinyl ester concentrations at doses of 1-100 ng/kg bw/day. Likewise, hepatic all-trans-retinoic acid (all-trans-RA) concentration was decreased 39 and 54% at 10 and 100 ng/kg bw/day respectively, whereas 9-cis-4-oxo-13,14-dihydro-retinoic acid (9-cis-4-oxo-13,14-dihydro-RA), a recently discovered retinoic acid metabolite, was decreased approximately 60% in the liver at 1 ng/kg bw/day. TCDD dose-dependently increased plasma retinol and kidney retinol concentrations, whereas all-trans-RA concentration was also increased in the plasma and kidney at 10 and 100 ng/kg bw/day. Plasma 9-cis-4-oxo-13,14-dihydro-RA was decreased to below detection limits from doses of 1 ng/kg bw/day TCDD. A qualitatively similar pattern of retinoid disruption was observed in the Han/Wistar rat strain following TCDD exposure. FT4 was decreased to a similar extent in both strains, whereas 25-OH-D(3) was decreased only at 100 ng/kg bw/day in Long-Evans rats. Together these results show that TCDD disrupts both retinoid storage and metabolism of retinoic acid and retinoic acid metabolites in liver, kidney, and plasma from doses as low as 1 ng/kg bw/day. Furthermore, 9-cis-4-oxo-13,14-dihydro-RA was identified as a novel and sensitive indicator of TCDD exposure, in a resistant and sensitive rat strain, thereby extending the database of low-dose TCDD effects.
  • Pakkasela, J., et al. (författare)
  • Age-specific incidence of allergic and non-allergic asthma
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine. - : BioMed Central. - 1471-2466. ; 20:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Onset of allergic asthma has a strong association with childhood but only a few studies have analyzed incidence of asthma from childhood to late adulthood in relation to allergy. The purpose of the study was to assess age-specific incidence of allergic and non-allergic asthma. Methods Questionnaires were sent to 8000 randomly selected recipients aged 20-69 years in Finland in 2016. The response rate was 52.3% (n = 4173). The questionnaire included questions on e.g. atopic status, asthma and age at asthma diagnosis. Asthma was classified allergic if also a physician-diagnosed allergic rhinitis was reported. Results The prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma and allergic rhinitis were 11.2 and 17.8%, respectively. Of the 445 responders with physician-diagnosed asthma, 52% were classified as allergic and 48% as non-allergic. Median ages at diagnosis of allergic and non-allergic asthma were 19 and 35 years, respectively. Among subjects with asthma diagnosis at ages 0-9, 10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 and 60-69 years, 70, 62, 58, 53, 38, 19 and 33%, respectively, were allergic. For non-allergic asthma, the incidence rate was lowest in children and young adults (0.7/1000/year). It increased after middle age and was highest in older age groups (2.4/1000/year in 50-59 years old). Conclusions The incidence of allergic asthma is highest in early childhood and steadily decreases with advancing age, while the incidence of non-allergic asthma is low until it peaks in late adulthood. After approximately 40 years of age, most of the new cases of asthma are non-allergic.
  • Parodi, A., et al. (författare)
  • The potential of future foods for sustainable and healthy diets
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Sustainability. - 2398-9629. ; 1:12, s. 782-789
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Altering diets is increasingly acknowledged as an important solution to feed the world’s growing population within the planetary boundaries. In our search for a planet-friendly diet, the main focus has been on eating more plant-source foods, and eating no or less animal-source foods, while the potential of future foods, such as insects, seaweed or cultured meat has been underexplored. Here we show that compared to current animal-source foods, future foods have major environmental benefits while safeguarding the intake of essential micronutrients. The complete array of essential nutrients in the mixture of future foods makes them good-quality alternatives for current animal-source foods compared to plant-source foods. Moreover, future foods are land-efficient alternatives for animal-source foods, and if produced with renewable energy, they also offer greenhouse gas benefits. Further research on nutrient bioavailability and digestibility, food safety, production costs and consumer acceptance will determine their role as main food sources in future diets.
  • Tuomisto, Jouko, et al. (författare)
  • Maternal smoking during pregnancy and testicular cancer in the sons: A nested case-control study and a meta-analysis
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Cancer. - : Elsevier. - 1879-0852 .- 0959-8049. ; 45:9, s. 1640-1648
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Some large ecological studies have noted a significant association of testicular cancer (TC) with maternal smoking during pregnancy, while several more controlled studies have been negative. It has been difficult to obtain reliable data on exposure because of the long lag time to cancer diagnosis. We performed a case-control study nested within Finnish, Swedish and Icelandic maternity cohorts exploiting early pregnancy serum samples to evaluate the role of maternal smoking in the risk of TC in the offspring. After reviewing the literature, we also performed a meta-analysis of published studies. For each index mother of the TC patient, three to nine matched control mothers with a cancer-free son born at the same time as the TC case were identified within each cohort. First trimester sera were retrieved from the 70 index mothers and 519 control mothers and were tested for cotinine level by a novel HPLC-MS-MS method developed. No statistically significant association between maternal cotinine level and risk of TC in the offspring was found (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.35, 1.34). This is the first study based on individual exposure measurements. Its results agree with our meta-analysis of seven previous epidemiological studies (total number of 2149 cases, 2762 controls) using indirect exposure assessment (OR 1.0; 95% CI 0.88, 1.12). (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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