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Sökning: WFRF:(Tuvemo Torsten)

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  • [1]234567...9Nästa
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1.
  • Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Growth Hormone Dose-Dependent Pubertal Growth: A Randomized Trial in Short Children with Low Growth Hormone Secretion
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hormone Research in Paediatrics. - Karger. - 1663-2826. ; 82:3, s. 158-170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Aims: Growth hormone (GH) treatment regimens do not account for the pubertal increase in endogenous GH secretion. This study assessed whether increasing the GH dose and/or frequency of administration improves pubertal height gain and adult height (AH) in children with low GH secretion during stimulation tests, i. e. idiopathic isolated GH deficiency. Methods: A multicenter, randomized, clinical trial (No. 88-177) followed 111 children (96 boys) at study start from onset of puberty to AH who had received GH(33) mu g/kg/day for >= 1 year. They were randomized to receive 67 mu g/kg/day (GH(67)) given as one (GH(67x1); n = 35) or two daily injections (GH(33x2); n = 36), or to remain on a single 33 mu g/kg/day dose (GH(33x1); n = 40). Growth was assessed as height SDS gain for prepubertal, pubertal and total periods, as well as AH SDS versus the population and the midparental height. Results: Pubertal height SDS gain was greater for patients receiving a high dose (GH(67), 0.73) than a low dose (GH(33x1), 0.41, p < 0.05). AH(SDS) was greater on GH(67) (GH(67x1), -0.84; GH(33x2), -0.83) than GH(33) (-1.25, p < 0.05), and height SDS gain was greater on GH(67) than GH(33) (2.04 and 1.56, respectively; p < 0.01). All groups reached their target height SDS. Conclusion: Pubertal height SDS gain and AH SDS were dose dependent, with greater growth being observed for the GH(67) than the GH(33) randomization group; however, there were no differences between the once-and twice-daily GH(67) regimens. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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  • Proos, Lemm A., et al. (författare)
  • Can the TW3 bone age determination method provide additional criteria for growth hormone treatment in adopted girls with early puberty? : A comparison of the Tanner-Whitehouse 3 method with the Greulich-Pyle and the Tanner-Whitehouse 2 methods
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Hormone research in pædiatrics. - 1663-2818. ; 73:1, s. 35-40
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND/AIMS: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) are the accepted treatment of idiopathic central precocious puberty. As it has been found that growth velocity may be decreased with GnRHa treatment, clinical trials with GnRHa combined with growth hormone (GH) have been carried out. In a recent study 46 adopted girls with early or precocious puberty were randomly assigned to treatment with either GnRHa or GnRHa combined with GH, and followed to final height (FH). It was found that FH was significantly higher in the combined treatment group, 158.9 compared with 155.8 cm in the GnRHa treated group. In order to select the patients who could benefit from added GH, predictions of FH at the start of treatment according to the methods of bone age determination of Greulich-Pyle (GP) and Tanner-Whitehouse 2 (TW2) were compared. It was found that the GP method was the most useful method for patient selection. Recently, a revision of the Tanner-Whitehouse method, named Tanner-Whitehouse 3 (TW3), has been developed. The present study examined the usefulness of the TW3 method in selecting suitable patients for combined treatment. METHOD: The TW3 method bone age determinations of the 46 girls were compared to the GP and TW2 method determinations, using the differences between actual FH and predicted adult height (PAH). Beside accuracy of prediction of FH, the criteria of efficiency of selection and replicability were applied in the comparison. RESULTS: We found that the GP method, also when compared to the TW3 method, gave the most accurate prediction of the FH on only GnRHa treatment. This gives the best ground for selection of patients who can benefit from combined treatment. The GP method was also the most efficient in selecting patients, i.e., it could select the least number of patients that needed the combined treatment. The only drawback of the GP method was that it requires an experienced pediatric radiologist. Automated methods are being developed and may soon facilitate the use of the GP method for those less experienced. The FH after combined treatment could be predicted with an equation including PAH GP as well as PAH TW3 as variables. CONCLUSION: The GP method remains the most useful method for selection of those patients who will benefit most from the addition of GH to GnRHa in the treatment of idiopathic central precocious or early puberty. FH prediction after combined treatment requires PAH GP as well as PAH TW3.</p>
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5.
  • Afoke, Anthony Okoro (författare)
  • Some epidemiological aspects of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Nigeria and Sweden
  • 1993
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>In the western world diabetes mellitus is one of the most common severe diseases in childhood, but it is rarely seen in black African populations. However, there are very few epidemiological studies of childhood diabetes in Africa and almost nothing is known of the Nigerian population. One aim of this study was therefore to estimate the prevalence of insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) in children and adolescents and to characterize their type of diabetes.</p><p>A screening of almost 78,000 school children was performed and beside some already known diabetic patients several new cases were diagnosed. It was found that IDDM is much less common than in Europe but on the other hand more common than in several Asian countries. In addition the prevalence found may be underestimated because of cultural and social factors, health care problems and high mortality in diabetes. Although most patients had a clinical picture of Malnutrition Related Diabetes (MRD) we found in some cases autoantibodies towards islet cells and insulin and furthermore the same HLA-DQ-type-associations as seen to Type 1 diabetes in caucasian diabetics.</p><p>While we saw no seasonal variation of diagnosis of Nigerian IDDM, there is a pronounced such seasonal variation in Sweden. This study has tried to elucidate whether this seasonal variation is related to any differences in manifestation and clinical course. Patients diagnosed during incidence peaks had more often short duration of symptoms before diagnosis,ketonuria at diagnosis, rapid loss of endogenous insulin secretion but increase of insulin antibodies and of glycosylated haemoglobin. They had also more often infections before diagnosis and high serum immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) up to 9 months after diagnosis. HLA-DR4 was more common in these patients. The results suggest that IDDM in Swedish children is heterogenous.</p>
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6.
  • Ahlsson, Fredrik, 1967- (författare)
  • Being Born Large for Gestational Age Metabolic and Epidemiological Studies
  • 2008
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • <p>Obesity is a major health problem in the Western world. Mean birth weight has increased during the last 25 years. One explanation is that the proportion of large for gestational age (LGA) infants has increased. Such infants risk developing obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes later in life. Despite the risk of neonatal hypoglycemia, their postnatal metabolic adaptation has not been investigated. Our data, obtained with stable isotope labeled compounds, demonstrate that newborn LGA infants have increased lipolysis and decreased insulin sensitivity. After administration of glucagon, the plasma levels of glucose and the rate of glucose production increased. The simultaneous increase in insulin correlated with the decrease in lipolysis, indicating an antilipolytic effect of insulin in these infants.</p><p>We also demonstrated an intergenerational effect of being born LGA, since women born LGA, were at higher risk of giving birth to LGA infants than women not born LGA. Further, the LGA infants formed three subgroups: born long only, born heavy only, and born both long and heavy. Infants born LGA of women with high birth weight or adult obesity were at higher risk of being LGA concerning weight alone, predisposing to overweight and obesity at childbearing age. In addition we found that pregnant women with gestational diabetes were at increased risk of giving birth to infants that were heavy alone. This could explain the risk of both perinatal complications and later metabolic disease in infants of this group of women.</p><p>To identify determinants of fetal growth, 20 pregnant women with a wide range of fetal weights were investigated at 36 weeks of gestation. Maternal fat mass was strongly associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was related to glucose production, which correlated positively with fetal size. The variation in resting energy expenditure, which was closely related to fetal weight, was largely explained by BMI, insulin resistance, and glucose production. Lipolysis was not rate limiting for fetal growth in this group of women. Consequently, high maternal glucose production due to a high fat mass may result in excessive fetal growth.</p>
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7.
  • Ahlsson, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Females born large for gestational age have a doubled risk of giving birth to large for gestational age infants
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - 0803-5253 .- 1651-2227. ; 96:3, s. 358-362
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Aim: To analyse if females born large for gestational age (LGA) have an increased risk to give birth to LGA infants and to study anthropometric characteristics in macrosomic infants of females born LGA.Methods: The investigation was performed as an intergenerational retrospective study of women born between 1973 and 1983, who delivered their first infant between 1989 and 1999. Birth characteristics of 47 783 females, included in the Swedish Birth Register both as newborns and mothers were analysed. LGA was defined as &gt;2 SD in either birth weight or length for gestational age. The infants were divided into three subgroups: born tall only, born heavy only and born both tall and heavy for gestational age. Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were performed.Results: Females, born LGA with regard to length or weight, had a two-fold (adjusted OR 1.96, 95% Cl 1.54-2.48) increased risk to give birth to an LGA infant. Females, born LGA concerning weight only, had a 2.6 (adjusted OR 2.63, 95%, 1.85-3.75) fold increased risk of having an LGA offspring heavy only and no elevated risk of giving birth to an offspring that was tall only, compared to females born not LGA. In addition, maternal obesity was associated with a 2.5 (adjusted OR 2.56, 95%, 2.20-2.98) fold increased risk of having an LGA newborn, compared to mothers with normal weight.Conclusion: Females, born LGA, have an increased risk to give birth to LGA infants, compared to mothers born not LGA. Maternal overweight increases this risk even further. <strong></strong></p>
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8.
  • Ahlsson, Fredrik, et al. (författare)
  • Gestational diabetes and offspring body disproportion
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - 0803-5253 .- 1651-2227. ; 99:1, s. 89-93
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Aim:   It has been demonstrated that females born large for gestational age   (LGA) in weight but not length are at increased risk of being obese at   childbearing age. We addressed the question whether women with   gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk of giving   birth to such infants.   Methods:   Birth characteristics of 884 267 infants of non-diabetic mothers and   7817 of mothers with GDM were analysed. LGA was defined as birth weight   or birth length &gt; 2 standard deviation scores for gestational age.   Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed.   Results:   The odds ratio (OR) for a woman with GDM to give birth to an LGA infant   that was heavy alone was four times increased (OR: 3.71, 95% CI:   3.41-4.04). Furthermore, in the population of mothers giving birth to   LGA infants, the proportion heavy alone was 68% in the group of women   with GDM compared with 64.4% in the group of non-diabetic women. The   risks were independent of gender of the foetus.   Conclusion:   Women with GDM have an almost four times higher risk of delivering an   LGA infant that is heavy alone. The noted disproportion between weight   and length in infants of such mothers may have an impact on the risk of   later obesity.</p>
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10.
  • Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Dose-Dependent Effect of Growth Hormone on Final Height in Children with Short Stature without Growth Hormone Deficiency
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. - 0021-972X. ; 93:11, s. 4342-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Effect of GH therapy in short non GH deficient children, especially idiopathic short stature (ISS) has not been clearly established owing to lack of controlled trials until final height (FH). Objective: To investigate the effect of two GH doses compared with untreated controls on growth to FH in short children mainly with ISS. Design and Setting: A randomized, controlled, long-term multicenter trial in Sweden. Intervention: Two doses of GH (Genotropin): 33 or 67 microg/kg/d plus untreated controls. Subjects: 177 subjects with short stature were enrolled. Of these, 151 were included in the Intent to Treat (AllITT) Population and 108 in the Per Protocol (AllPP) Population. Analysis of ISS subjects included 126 children in the ITT (ISSITT) Population and 68 subjects in the PP (ISSPP) Population. Main Outcome Measures: FH SDS, difference in SDS to midparenteral height (diff MPHSDS), and gain in HeightSDS. Results: After 5.9+/-1.1 yr on GH therapy, the FHSDS in the AllPP Population treated with GH vs. controls was -1.5+/-0.81 (33 microg/kg/d: -1.7+/-0.70, 67 microg/kg/d: -1.4+/-0.86; P<0.032), vs. -2.4+/-0.85 (P<0.001), the diff MPHSDS -0.2+/-1.0 vs. -1.0+/-0.74 (P<0.001), and the gain in HeightSDS 1.3+/-0.78 vs. 0.2+/-0.69 (P<0.001). GH therapy was safe and had no impact on time to onset of puberty. A dose-response relationship identified after 1 yr remained to FH for all growth outcome variables in all four populations. Conclusion: GH treatment significantly increased FH in ISS children in a dose-dependent manner, with a mean gain of 1.3 SDS (8 cm), and a broad range of response from no gain to 3 SDS compared to a mean gain of 0.2 SDS in the untreated controls.
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