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Sökning: WFRF:(Tuvemo Torsten Docent)

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  • Afoke, Anthony Okoro (författare)
  • Some epidemiological aspects of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in Nigeria and Sweden
  • 1993
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In the western world diabetes mellitus is one of the most common severe diseases in childhood, but it is rarely seen in black African populations. However, there are very few epidemiological studies of childhood diabetes in Africa and almost nothing is known of the Nigerian population. One aim of this study was therefore to estimate the prevalence of insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) in children and adolescents and to characterize their type of diabetes.A screening of almost 78,000 school children was performed and beside some already known diabetic patients several new cases were diagnosed. It was found that IDDM is much less common than in Europe but on the other hand more common than in several Asian countries. In addition the prevalence found may be underestimated because of cultural and social factors, health care problems and high mortality in diabetes. Although most patients had a clinical picture of Malnutrition Related Diabetes (MRD) we found in some cases autoantibodies towards islet cells and insulin and furthermore the same HLA-DQ-type-associations as seen to Type 1 diabetes in caucasian diabetics.While we saw no seasonal variation of diagnosis of Nigerian IDDM, there is a pronounced such seasonal variation in Sweden. This study has tried to elucidate whether this seasonal variation is related to any differences in manifestation and clinical course. Patients diagnosed during incidence peaks had more often short duration of symptoms before diagnosis,ketonuria at diagnosis, rapid loss of endogenous insulin secretion but increase of insulin antibodies and of glycosylated haemoglobin. They had also more often infections before diagnosis and high serum immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) up to 9 months after diagnosis. HLA-DR4 was more common in these patients. The results suggest that IDDM in Swedish children is heterogenous.
  • Berg, Anna-Karin, 1976- (författare)
  • Enterovirus Infections of β-Cells : A Mechanism of Induction of Type 1 Diabetes?
  • 2005
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The process of β-cell destruction that leads to type 1 diabetes (T1D) is incompletely understood and it is believed to be a result of both genetic and environmental factors. Enterovirus (EV) infections of the β-cells have been proposed to be involved, however, the effects of EV infections on human β-cells have been little investigated. This thesis summarises studies of three different Coxsackie B4 virus strains that have previously been shown to infect human islets. The effects of infections with these EV were studied in vitro in human islets and in a rat insulin-producing cell line. In addition, a pilot study was performed on isolated human islets to investigate the ability to treat such infections with an antiviral compound.It was found that one of the virus strains replicated in human β-cells without affecting their main function for at least seven days, which in vivo may increase a virus’s ability to persist in islets.Nitric oxide was induced by synthetic dsRNA, poly(IC), but not by viral dsRNA in rat insulinoma cells in the presence of IFN-γ, suggesting that this mediator is not induced by EV infection in β-cells and that poly(IC) does not mimic an EV infection in this respect.All three virus strains were able to induce production of the T-cell chemoattractant interferon-γ-inducible protein 10 (IP-10) during infection of human islets, suggesting that an EV infection of the islets might trigger insulitis in vivo.Antiviral treatment was feasible in human islets, but one strain was resistant to the antiviral compound used in this study.To conclude, a potential mechanism is suggested for the involvement of EV infections in T1D. If EV infections induce IP-10 production in human islet cells in vivo, they might recruit immune cells to the islets. Together with viral persistence and/or virus-induced β-cell damage, this might trigger further immune-mediated β-cell destruction in vivo.
  • Elmund, Anna Mi Ra, 1967- (författare)
  • Overrepresentation of Internationally Adopted Adolescents in Swedish §12-institutions
  • 2007
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • In order to study internationally adopted delinquents, internationally adopted controls, delinquent controls and an additional group of healthy non-adopted, non-delinquent controls, the following tests were used: WISC/WAIS, TOL, WCST, a questionnaire, I think I am, ISSI, an attachment test, KSP, and SCL-90. In the register study, data were obtained from the registers of The National Board of Health and Welfare and Statistics Sweden and multivariate analyses were performed using logistic regression models. Odds ratios (OR) for different forms of out-of-home care placements were calculated.It was found that the adopted delinquents had a significantly lower full scale IQ (WISC/WAIS) and significantly lower results on several measurements in the WISC /WAIS compared to the adopted controls. In addition, both groups of adoptees scored low in the WISC/WAIS subscale arithmetics when compared to the population mean. The adopted delinquents clearly had disruptive and infectious relations to their parents which was demonstrated in I think I am, ISSI, the attachment test and the questionnaire. The adopted controls demonstrated good relations to adoptive parents. When personality and self-perception were measured and analyzed in a two-way ANOVA, the results clearly pointed to ”delinquency” as the explaining factor to the variance of the results as opposed to ”adoption”. Finally, the regression analyses of the register data demonstrated an OR of 3.0 (after adjustments for age and sex) for placements of intercountry adoptees in residental care from age 10 and an OR of 5.1 in model 2 (after adjustments for socio-demographic background variables). More over, higher child age at adoption, origin from Latin America, single parent adoption and maternal age above 35 at birth of the child were identified as significant predictors of out-of-home care from age 10.
  • Funkquist, Eva-Lotta, 1965- (författare)
  • Policies and Practice in Neonatal Nursing Related to Nutrition
  • 2010
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of these studies was to increase knowledge about hospital feeding routines in high-risk neonates. A retrospective medical chart review procedure was used to study routines at the neonatal units of two Swedish hospitals. In Papers I and II, the sample (Uppsala n=21 and Umeå n=21) comprised of small for gestational age (SGA) infants, in Papers III (Uppsala n=64 and Umeå n=59) and IV (n=127), the samples comprised of appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants. Paper I indicated large enteral/oral milk volumes rendered i.v. administration of glucose unnecessary, reduced weight loss and helped SGA infants regain birth weight earlier. More rapid postnatal growth did not remain up to 18 months with corrected age in any growth variable (Paper II). In Paper III, effects were compared whether the infants’ volume of breast milk intake in hospital was estimated by “clinical indices” or determined by test-weighing. Infants treated in hospitals where test-weighing was practised attained exclusive breastfeeding at an earlier postmenstrual age (PMA), and they were discharged at an earlier PMA. However, the two study units were similar regarding the proportion of infants attaining exclusive breastfeeding. Paper IV revealed preterm AGA infants with higher standard deviation scores (SDS) at birth had more negative changes from birth to discharge for all growth variables. Conclusions: Papers I and II indicated that early initiation of enteral/oral feeding with proactive increases in milk volume was beneficial short term. No evidence was found for a proactive nutrition regimen with initial large volumes of milk resulting in a different pattern of growth up to the corrected age of 18 months. Test-weighing before and after breastfeeding might help infants to attain exclusive breastfeeding at an earlier PMA (study III). Finally, preterm AGA infants with higher SDS at birth are at higher risk of inadequate growth during their hospital stay (study IV).
  • Särnblad, Stefan, 1963- (författare)
  • Body Composition in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes : Aspects of Glycaemic Control and Insulin Sensitivity
  • 2004
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Excessive weight gain has frequently been reported in adolescents with type 1 diabetes, especially in girls. In general, puberty is associated with reduced insulin sensitivity that is further diminished by overweight. The causes and consequences of excessive weight gain in adolescents with type 1 diabetes are not fully understood. The studies described in this thesis addressed body composition in adolescents with type 1 diabetes and the relationships between physical activity, energy intake and changes in body composition. Furthermore, the effect of metformin as additional therapy on glycaemic control and insulin sensitivity was examined in a randomised placebo-controlled study. Body mass index (BMI) and percentage body fat (%BF) were significantly higher in girls with type 1 diabetes compared to healthy control girls. Mean HbA1c during puberty, but not mean insulin dose, was positively related to BMI at the age of 18 in girls with diabetes. A centralised fat distribution was associated with poor glycaemic control, increased daily dosage of insulin and elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Neither total physical activity nor total energy intake differed between adolescent girls with type 1 diabetes and healthy age-matched control girls. A high dietary fat intake was positively related to gain in %BF in girls with type 1 diabetes. Additional therapy with metformin for three months improved glycaemic control and peripheral insulin sensitivity in adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes. The improvement in glycaemic control was related to insulin sensitivity at baseline, implying that the most insulin resistant subjects benefited most from the metformin therapy. It is concluded that the excessive weight gain observed in girls with type 1 diabetes is mainly attributable to an increased fat mass and that dietary fat intake is of importance for this gain in body fat. Additional treatment with metformin improves glycaemic control in adolescents with poorly controlled type 1 diabetes.
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