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Sökning: WFRF:(Uher Rudolf)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 16
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1.
  • Brooks, Samantha J., et al. (författare)
  • Differential Neural Responses to Food Images in Women with Bulimia versus Anorexia Nervosa
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 6:7, s. e22259
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Previous fMRI studies show that women with eating disorders (ED) have differential neural activation to viewing food images. However, despite clinical differences in their responses to food, differential neural activation to thinking about eating food, between women with anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) is not known. Methods: We compare 50 women (8 with BN, 18 with AN and 24 age-matched healthy controls [HC]) while they view food images during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Results: In response to food (vs non-food) images, women with BN showed greater neural activation in the visual cortex, right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right insular cortex and precentral gyrus, women with AN showed greater activation in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, cerebellum and right precuneus. HC women activated the cerebellum, right insular cortex, right medial temporal lobe and left caudate. Direct comparisons revealed that compared to HC, the BN group showed relative deactivation in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus/insula, and visual cortex, and compared to AN had relative deactivation in the parietal lobe and dorsal posterior cingulate cortex, but greater activation in the caudate, superior temporal gyrus, right insula and supplementary motor area. Conclusions: Women with AN and BN activate top-down cognitive control in response to food images, yet women with BN have increased activation in reward and somatosensory regions, which might impinge on cognitive control over food consumption and binge eating.
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2.
  • Brooks, Samantha J., et al. (författare)
  • Subliminal food images compromise superior working memory performance in women with restricting anorexia nervosa
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Consciousness and Cognition. - 1053-8100 .- 1090-2376. ; 21:2, s. 751-763
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Prefrontal cortex (PFC) is dysregulated in women with restricting anorexia nervosa (RAN). It is not known whether appetitive non-conscious stimuli bias cognitive responses in those with RAN. Thirteen women with RAN and 20 healthy controls (HC) completed a dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC) working memory task and an anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) conflict task, while masked subliminal food, aversive and neutral images were presented. During the DLPFC task, accuracy was higher in the RAN compared to the HC group, but superior performance was compromised when subliminal food stimuli were presented: errors positively correlated with self-reported trait anxiety in the RAN group. These effects were not observed in the ACC task. Appetitive activation is intact and anxiogenic in women with RAN, and non-consciously interacts with working memory processes associated with the DLPFC. This interaction mechanism may underlie cognitive inhibition of appetitive processes that are anxiety inducing, in people with AN.
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3.
  • Brooks, Samantha J., et al. (författare)
  • Thinking about Eating Food Activates Visual Cortex with Reduced Bilateral Cerebellar Activation in Females with Anorexia Nervosa An fMRI Study
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 7:3, s. e34000
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Women with anorexia nervosa (AN) have aberrant cognitions about food and altered activity in prefrontal cortical and somatosensory regions to food images. However, differential effects on the brain when thinking about eating food between healthy women and those with AN is unknown.Methods: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) examined neural activation when 42 women thought about eating the food shown in images: 18 with AN (11 RAN, 7 BPAN) and 24 age-matched controls (HC).Results: Group contrasts between HC and AN revealed reduced activation in AN in the bilateral cerebellar vermis, and increased activation in the right visual cortex. Preliminary comparisons between AN subtypes and healthy controls suggest differences in cortical and limbic regions.Conclusions: These preliminary data suggest that thinking about eating food shown in images increases visual and prefrontal cortical neural responses in females with AN, which may underlie cognitive biases towards food stimuli and ruminations about controlling food intake. Future studies are needed to explicitly test how thinking about eating activates restraint cognitions, specifically in those with restricting vs. binge-purging AN subtypes.
4.
  • de Jong, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • Applying polygenic risk scoring for psychiatric disorders to a large family with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Communications Biology. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2399-3642. ; 1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychiatric disorders are thought to have a complex genetic pathology consisting of interplay of common and rare variation. Traditionally, pedigrees are used to shed light on the latter only, while here we discuss the application of polygenic risk scores to also highlight patterns of common genetic risk. We analyze polygenic risk scores for psychiatric disorders in a large pedigree (n ~ 260) in which 30% of family members suffer from major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Studying patterns of assortative mating and anticipation, it appears increased polygenic risk is contributed by affected individuals who married into the family, resulting in an increasing genetic risk over generations. This may explain the observation of anticipation in mood disorders, whereby onset is earlier and the severity increases over the generations of a family. Joint analyses of rare and common variation may be a powerful way to understand the familial genetics of psychiatric disorders.
5.
  • Juszczak, Edmund, et al. (författare)
  • Introducing the CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) using cohorts and routinely collected health data
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Trials. - BMC. - 1745-6215. ; 20:Suppl. 1, s. 131-131
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Background: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are increasingly being conducted using existing sources of data, such as cohorts, administrative databases, disease registries and electronic health records. RCTs conducted using existing data sources require additional information to be reported. This reporting guideline is an extension of the 2010 version of the Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statement for RCTs using cohorts and routinely collected health data.Methods: A long-list of potential items for the checklist was identified through two methods: firstly, modifications to the current CONSORT checklist were generated using existing reporting guidelines, including the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) and REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely-collected health Data (RECORD) statements. Secondly, ascoping review of RCTs conducted in the last decade using cohorts and routinely collected health data facilitated the modification and identification of other potential items. Using the long-list, a three-stage Delphi exercise was conducted to assess the importance of each item for inclusion in the final extension checklist, which was finalised at a face-to-face meeting of experts.Results: A long-list of 27 items was created and 125 experts registered for the three-round Delphi exercise (92, 77 and 62 experts participated in each round respectively). Consensus was reached on 21 out of 27 items. The results of the Delphi exercise informed a face-to-face consensus meeting in May 2019; core items to be included in the extension checklist were finalised at this meeting. Corresponding explanations of extensions and new items with examples of good reporting were developed subsequently.Conclusion: The guideline checklist can facilitate transparent reporting of RCTs using cohorts and routinely collected health data, to assist evaluations of rigour and reproducibility, enhance understanding of the methodology, and make the results more useful for clinicians, journal editors, reviewers, guideline authors, and funders.
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6.
  • Kwakkenbos, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Protocol for a scoping review to support development of a CONSORT extension for randomised controlled trials using cohorts and routinely collected health data
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - British Medical Journal Publishing Group. - 2044-6055. ; 8:8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted using cohorts and routinely collected health data, including registries, electronic health records and administrative databases, are increasingly used in healthcare intervention research. The development of an extension of the CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement for RCTs using cohorts and routinely collected health data is being undertaken with the goal of improving reporting quality by setting standards early in the process of uptake of these designs. To develop this extension to the CONSORT statement, a scoping review will be conducted to identify potential modifications or clarifications of existing reporting guideline items, as well as additional items needed for reporting RCTs using cohorts and routinely collected health data. Methods and analysis In separate searches, we will seek publications on methods or reporting or that describe protocols or results from RCTs using cohorts, registries, electronic health records and administrative databases. Data sources will include Medline and the Cochrane Methodology Register. For each of the four main types of RCTs using cohorts and routinely collected health data, separately, two investigators will independently review included publications to extract potential checklist items. A potential item will either modify an existing CONSORT 2010, Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology or REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely collected health Data item or will be proposed as a new item. Additionally, we will identify examples of good reporting in RCTs using cohorts and routinely collected health data. Ethics and dissemination The proposed scoping review will help guide the development of the CONSORT extension statement for RCTs conducted using cohorts and routinely collected health data.
7.
  • Kwakkenbos, Linda, et al. (författare)
  • Protocol for a scoping review to support development of a CONSORT extension for randomised controlled trials using cohorts and routinely collected health data
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2044-6055. ; 8:8
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduction: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) conducted using cohorts and routinely collected health data, including registries, electronic health records and administrative databases, are increasingly used in healthcare intervention research. The development of an extension of the CONsolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) statement for RCTs using cohorts and routinely collected health data is being undertaken with the goal of improving reporting quality by setting standards early in the process of uptake of these designs. To develop this extension to the CONSORT statement, a scoping review will be conducted to identify potential modifications or clarifications of existing reporting guideline items, as well as additional items needed for reporting RCTs using cohorts and routinely collected health data.Methods and analysis: In separate searches, we will seek publications on methods or reporting or that describe protocols or results from RCTs using cohorts, registries, electronic health records and administrative databases. Data sources will include Medline and the Cochrane Methodology Register. For each of the four main types of RCTs using cohorts and routinely collected health data, separately, two investigators will independently review included publications to extract potential checklist items. A potential item will either modify an existing CONSORT 2010, Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology or REporting of studies Conducted using Observational Routinely collected health Data item or will be proposed as a new item. Additionally, we will identify examples of good reporting in RCTs using cohorts and routinely collected health data.Ethics and dissemination: The proposed scoping review will help guide the development of the CONSORT extension statement for RCTs conducted using cohorts and routinely collected health data.
8.
  • Marouli, Eirini, et al. (författare)
  • Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 542:7640, s. 186-190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Height is a highly heritable, classic polygenic trait with approximately 700 common associated variants identified through genome-wide association studies so far. Here, we report 83 height-associated coding variants with lower minor-allele frequencies (in the range of 0.1-4.8%) and effects of up to 2 centimetres per allele (such as those in IHH, STC2, AR and CRISPLD2), greater than ten times the average effect of common variants. In functional follow-up studies, rare height increasing alleles of STC2 (giving an increase of 1-2 centimetres per allele) compromised proteolytic inhibition of PAPP-A and increased cleavage of IGFBP-4 in vitro, resulting in higher bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors. These 83 height-associated variants overlap genes that are mutated in monogenic growth disorders and highlight new biological candidates (such as ADAMTS3, IL11RA and NOX4) and pathways (such as proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan synthesis) involved in growth. Our results demonstrate that sufficiently large sample sizes can uncover rare and low-frequency variants of moderate-to-large effect associated with polygenic human phenotypes, and that these variants implicate relevant genes and pathways.
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9.
  • Marouli, Eirini, et al. (författare)
  • Rare and low-frequency coding variants alter human adult height
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 542:7640, s. 186-190
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Height is a highly heritable, classic polygenic trait with approximately 700 common associated variants identified through genome-wide association studies so far. Here, we report 83 height-associated coding variants with lower minor-allele frequencies (in the range of 0.1-4.8%) and effects of up to 2 centimetres per allele (such as those in IHH, STC2, AR and CRISPLD2), greater than ten times the average effect of common variants. In functional follow-up studies, rare height increasing alleles of STC2 (giving an increase of 1-2 centimetres per allele) compromised proteolytic inhibition of PAPP-A and increased cleavage of IGFBP-4 in vitro, resulting in higher bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors. These 83 height-associated variants overlap genes that are mutated in monogenic growth disorders and highlight new biological candidates (such as ADAMTS3, IL11RA and NOX4) and pathways (such as proteoglycan and glycosaminoglycan synthesis) involved in growth. Our results demonstrate that sufficiently large sample sizes can uncover rare and low-frequency variants of moderate-to-large effect associated with polygenic human phenotypes, and that these variants implicate relevant genes and pathways.
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10.
  • Relton, Clare, et al. (författare)
  • Review of use of the Trials within Cohorts (TwiCs) design approach
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Trials. - BMC. - 1745-6215. ; 20:Suppl. 1, s. 112-113
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Introduction: Trials within Cohorts (TwiCs) is an innovative approach to the design and conduct of multiple randomised controlled trials (RCTs) (Relton et al, 2010). This approach utilises an observational cohort to recruit trial populations and obtain short and longer term outcomes. We describe what is currently known about the use of this design approach.Methods: An extension of the 2010 Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT) Statements for RCTs using cohorts and/or routinely collected health data is in development, supported by a scoping review that includes publications of methods or reports ofprotocols or results from RCTs using cohorts, registries, electronic health records and administrative databases. Data sources for this scoping review included Medline and Cochrane Methodology Register and were limited to English language.This review of use of the TwiCs approach uses publications of methods or reports of protocols or results from RCTs that use cohorts to recruit identified in the scoping review. This is supplemented with information from topic experts.We report: (i) types of cohorts (setting, population, condition/ disease area), (ii) how the cohorts are utilised (identifying potential trial participants, recruitment, randomisation, process and outcome data collection including bespoke and/or routine health record data, types of trials conducted/ planned), (iii) approaches to informed consent, e.g. staged approach (Young-Afat et al, 2016), and (iv) any purported and/or real study design (in)efficiencies.Timing of Potential Results: Early results indicate 75+ eligible full text articles, including 23 trial protocols and 23 articles reporting the results of trials using cohorts. Full results will be available in August 2019 and presented at the conference.Potential Relevance and Impact: Standard approaches to trial design are often costly and frequently fail to recruit sufficiently large or representative samples. This review will help provide information on the use and potential (in)efficiency of the TwiCs approach
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