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Sökning: WFRF:(Ullen S)

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1.
  • Dankiewicz, J., et al. (författare)
  • Hypothermia versus Normothermia after Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: New England Journal of Medicine. - : MASSACHUSETTS MEDICAL SOC. - 0028-4793 .- 1533-4406. ; 384:24, s. 2283-2294
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hypothermia or Normothermia after Cardiac Arrest This trial randomly assigned patients with coma after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest to undergo targeted hypothermia at 33 degrees C or normothermia with treatment of fever. At 6 months, there were no significant between-group differences regarding death or functional outcomes. Background Targeted temperature management is recommended for patients after cardiac arrest, but the supporting evidence is of low certainty. Methods In an open-label trial with blinded assessment of outcomes, we randomly assigned 1900 adults with coma who had had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest of presumed cardiac or unknown cause to undergo targeted hypothermia at 33 degrees C, followed by controlled rewarming, or targeted normothermia with early treatment of fever (body temperature, >= 37.8 degrees C). The primary outcome was death from any cause at 6 months. Secondary outcomes included functional outcome at 6 months as assessed with the modified Rankin scale. Prespecified subgroups were defined according to sex, age, initial cardiac rhythm, time to return of spontaneous circulation, and presence or absence of shock on admission. Prespecified adverse events were pneumonia, sepsis, bleeding, arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise, and skin complications related to the temperature management device. Results A total of 1850 patients were evaluated for the primary outcome. At 6 months, 465 of 925 patients (50%) in the hypothermia group had died, as compared with 446 of 925 (48%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.94 to 1.14; P=0.37). Of the 1747 patients in whom the functional outcome was assessed, 488 of 881 (55%) in the hypothermia group had moderately severe disability or worse (modified Rankin scale score >= 4), as compared with 479 of 866 (55%) in the normothermia group (relative risk with hypothermia, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.92 to 1.09). Outcomes were consistent in the prespecified subgroups. Arrhythmia resulting in hemodynamic compromise was more common in the hypothermia group than in the normothermia group (24% vs. 17%, P<0.001). The incidence of other adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions In patients with coma after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, targeted hypothermia did not lead to a lower incidence of death by 6 months than targeted normothermia. (Funded by the Swedish Research Council and others; TTM2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, .)
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2.
  • Jerlström, Tomas, et al. (författare)
  • No increased risk of short-term complications after radical cystectomy for muscle-invasive bladder cancer among patients treated with preoperative chemotherapy : a nation-wide register-based study
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: World Journal of Urology. - : Springer. - 0724-4983 .- 1433-8726. ; 38:2, s. 381-388
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Preoperative chemotherapy is underused in conjunction with radical cystectomy (RC) for muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) due to concerns for complications and delay of surgery. Prospective data on short-term complications from population-based settings with frequent use of preoperative chemotherapy and standardised reporting of complications is lacking. Methods: We identified 1,340 patients who underwent RC between 2011 and 2015 in Sweden due to MIBC according to the Swedish Cystectomy Register. These individuals were followed through linkages to several national registers. Propensity score adjusted logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for complications and death within 90 days of surgery, comparing patients receiving preoperative chemotherapy or not. Results: Minimum two cycles of preoperative chemotherapy were given to 519 (39%) of the patients, who on average tended to be younger, have higher education, better physical status, and more advanced bladder cancer than patients not receiving chemotherapy. After adjusting for these and other parameters, there was no association between treatment with preoperative chemotherapy and short-term complications (OR 1.06 95% CI 0.82–1.39) or mortality (OR 0.75 95% CI 0.36–1.55). We observed a risk reduction for gastrointestinal complications among patients who received preoperative chemotherapy compared with those who did not (OR 0.49 95% CI 0.30–0.81). Conclusion: This nation-wide population-based observational study does not suggest that preoperative chemotherapy, in a setting with high utilisation of such treatment, is associated with an increased risk of short-term complications in MIBC patients treated with radical cystectomy.
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3.
  • Liedberg, F., et al. (författare)
  • Survival after radical cystectomy during holiday periods
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2168-1805 .- 2168-1813. ; 55:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective For patients undergoing radical cystectomy for bladder cancer, a procedure requiring complex urinary tract reconstruction prone to major postoperative complications, the timing and quality of the surgery have been associated with outcomes. Patients and methods This study investigated if radical cystectomy for bladder cancer performed during holiday periods had worse disease-specific (DSS) and overall survival (OS), higher 90-day mortality and risk of readmissions. All patients operated on with radical cystectomy for primary bladder cancer during 1997-2014 with holiday periods as exposure (with one narrow (7 weeks) and one wider (14 weeks) definition) in the Swedish population-based bladder cancer research-database (BladderBaSe) were studied. DSS and OS after radical cystectomy during holiday periods were analysed with Cox regression models adjusted for sex, age, comorbidity, marital status, T-stage and nodal metastases, neoadjuvant chemotherapy, hospital volume and year of cystectomy. Results Surgery during the holiday periods (narrow and wide definitions) were not associated with DSS (Hazard ratio [HR] = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.90-1.21 and HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.91-1.17), respectively. HRs for OS were similar, and no associations between radical cystectomy during any of the holiday period definitions and 90-day mortality and readmission were found. Conclusion Survival after radical cystectomy in Sweden is similar during holiday and non-holiday periods.
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4.
  • Magnusson, J., et al. (författare)
  • Cumulative incidence of ureteroenteric strictures after radical cystectomy in a population-based Swedish cohort
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2168-1805 .- 2168-1813. ; 55:5, s. 361-365
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective The incidence of benign ureteroenteric strictures following radical cystectomy (RC) for urinary bladder cancer (UBC) is investigated mainly in single-centre studies from high-volume centres. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative incidence of strictures and risk factors in a population-based cohort. Patients and methods Data was collected from Bladder Cancer Data Base Sweden (BladderBaSe). The primary endpoint was stricture with intervention. Secondary endpoint included hydronephrosis both with/without intervention. Results In total, 5,816 patients were registered as having had RC due to UBC between 1997 and 2014. After a median follow-up of 23.5 months (IQR = 9.0-63.1 months; range = 0.0-214.0 months), we found that 515 (8.9%) patients underwent intervention for stricture. Seven hundred and sixty-one (13.1%) patients were diagnosed with hydronephrosis without intervention. The cumulative incidence of strictures with intervention was 19.7% (95% CI = 16.7-23.1%) during the 17 years of follow-up. In the first year, the cumulative incidence of strictures was 5.6% (95% CI = 5.0-6.2%), and in the first 2 years 8.4% (95% CI = 7.6-9.3%). For the secondary endpoint, the cumulative incidence was 30.4% (95% CI = 26.7-33.1%) after 17 years. Only the year of RC was associated with stricture incidence in Cox regression analysis, whereas hospital cystectomy volume, patient age and patient sex were not. Conclusion Ureteroenteric strictures requiring intervention may be more common than previously reported, affecting nearly one fifth of patients who have undergone RC for UBC. The annual incidence was highest in the first 2 years after surgery but the cumulative incidence increased continuously during 17 years of follow-up.
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5.
  • Magnusson, Patrik K. E., et al. (författare)
  • The Swedish Twin Registry : establishment of a biobank and other recent developments
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Twin Research and Human Genetics. - Cambridge, United Kingdom : Cambridge University Press. - 1832-4274 .- 1839-2628. ; 16:1, s. 317-329
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Swedish Twin Registry (STR) today contains more than 194,000 twins and more than 75,000 pairs have zygosity determined by an intra-pair similarity algorithm, DNA, or by being of opposite sex. Of these, approximately 20,000, 25,000, and 30,000 pairs are monozygotic, same-sex dizygotic, and opposite-sex dizygotic pairs, respectively. Since its establishment in the late 1950s, the STR has been an important epidemiological resource for the study of genetic and environmental influences on a multitude of traits, behaviors, and diseases. Following large investments in the collection of biological specimens in the past 10 years we have now established a Swedish twin biobank with DNA from 45,000 twins and blood serum from 15,000 twins, which effectively has also transformed the registry into a powerful resource for molecular studies. We here describe the main projects within which the new collections of both biological samples as well as phenotypic measures have been collected. Coverage by year of birth, zygosity determination, ethnic heterogeneity, and influences of in vitro fertilization are also described.
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6.
  • Dankiewicz, J., et al. (författare)
  • Targeted hypothermia versus targeted Normothermia after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (TTM2): A randomized clinical trial - Rationale and design
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: American Heart Journal. - : Mosby. - 0002-8703 .- 1097-6744. ; 217, s. 23-31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Less than 500 participants have been included in randomized trials comparing hypothermia with regular care for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients, and many of these trials were small and at a high risk of bias. Consequently, the accrued data on this potentially beneficial intervention resembles that of a drug following small phase II trials. A large confirmatory trial is therefore warranted. Methods: The TTM2-trial is an international, multicenter, parallel group, investigator-initiated, randomized, superiority trial in which a target temperature of 33°C after cardiac arrest will be compared with a strategy to maintain normothermia and early treatment of fever (≥37.8°C). Participants will be randomized within 3 hours of return of spontaneous circulation with the intervention period lasting 40 hours in both groups. Sedation will be mandatory for all patients throughout the intervention period. The clinical team involved with direct patient care will not be blinded to allocation group due to the inherent difficulty in blinding the intervention. Prognosticators, outcome-assessors, the steering group, the trial coordinating team, and trial statistician will be blinded. The primary outcome will be all-cause mortality at 180 days after randomization. We estimate a 55% mortality in the control group. To detect an absolute risk reduction of 7.5% with an alpha of 0.05 and 90% power, 1900 participants will be enrolled. The main secondary neurological outcome will be poor functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale 4–6) at 180 days after arrest. Discussion: The TTM2-trial will compare hypothermia to 33°C with normothermia and early treatment of fever (≥37.8°C) after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. © 2019
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9.
  • Kozlov, Alexander K., et al. (författare)
  • Mechanisms for lateral turns in lamprey in response to descending unilateral commands : a modeling study
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Biological Cybernetics. - 0340-1200 .- 1432-0770. ; 86:1, s. 1-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Straight locomotion in the lamprey is, at the segmental level, characterized by alternating bursts of motor activity with equal duration and spike frequency on the left and the right sides of the body. Lateral turns are characterized by three main changes in this pattern: (1) in the turn cycle, the spike frequency, burst duration, and burst proportion (burst duration/cycle duration) increase on the turning side; (2) the cycle duration increases in both the turn cycle and the succeeding cycle; and (3) in the cycle succeeding the turn cycle, the burst duration increases on the non-turning side (rebound). We investigated mechanisms for the generation of turns in single-segment models of the lamprey locomotor spinal network. Activation of crossing inhibitory neurons proved a sufficient mechanism to explain all three changes in the locomotor rhythm during a fictive turn. Increased activation of these cells inhibits the activity of the opposite side during the prolonged burst of the turn cycle, and slows down the locomotor rhythm. Secondly, this activation of the crossing inhibitory neurons is accompanied by an increased calcium influx into the cells. This gives a suppressed activity on the turning side and a contralateral rebound after the turn, through activation of calcium-dependent potassium channels.
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