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Sökning: WFRF:(Unger Elizabeth)

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  • Bissett, Sara L., et al. (författare)
  • Human Papillomavirus Antibody Reference Reagents for Use in Postvaccination Surveillance Serology
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology. - : American Society for Microbiology. - 1556-6811 .- 1556-679X. ; 19:3, s. 449-451
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Suitably controlled serosurveillance surveys are essential for evaluating human papillomavirus (HPV) immunization programs. A panel of plasma samples from 18-year-old females was assembled, the majority of the samples being from recipients of the bivalent HPV vaccine. Antibody specificities were evaluated by three independent laboratories, and 3 pools that displayed no antibodies to any HPV type tested or intermediate or high levels of antibody to HPV16, HPV18, HPV31, and HPV45 were created. These pools will be useful as control reagents for HPV serology.
  • Eklund, Carina, et al. (författare)
  • International collaborative proficiency study of Human Papillomavirus type 16 serology.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Vaccine. - : Elsevier. - 1873-2518. ; 30, s. 294-299
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We performed an international proficiency study of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 serology. A common methodology for serology based on virus-like particle (VLP) ELISA was used by 10 laboratories in 6 continents. The laboratories used the same VLP reference reagent, which was selected as the most stable, sensitive and specific VLP preparation out of VLPs donated from 5 different sources. A blinded proficiency panel consisting of 52 serum samples from women with PCR-verified HPV 16-infection, 11 control serum samples from virginal women and the WHO HPV 16 International Standard (IS) serum were distributed. The mean plus 3 standard deviations of the negative control serum samples was the most generally useful "cut-off" criterion for distinguishing positive and negative samples. Using sensitivity of at least 50% and a specificity of 100% as proficiency criteria, 6/10 laboratories were proficient. In conclusion, an international Standard Operating Procedure for HPV serology, an international reporting system in International Units (IU) and a common "cut-off" criterion have been evaluated in an international HPV serology proficiency study.
  • Mesher, David, et al. (författare)
  • Population-level effects of human papillomavirus vaccination programs on infections with nonvaccine genotypes
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Emerging Infectious Diseases. - : Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. - 1080-6040 .- 1080-6059. ; 22:10, s. 1732-1740
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We analyzed human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalences during prevaccination and postvaccination periods to consider possible changes in nonvaccine HPV genotypes after introduction of vaccines that confer protection against 2 high-risk types, HPV16 and HPV18. Our meta-analysis included 9 studies with data for 13,886 girls and women ≤19 years of age and 23,340 women 20–24 years of age. We found evidence of cross-protection for HPV31 among the younger age group after vaccine introduction but little evidence for reductions of HPV33 and HPV45. For the group this same age group, we also found slight increases in 2 nonvaccine high-risk HPV types (HPV39 and HPV52) and in 2 possible high-risk types (HPV53 and HPV73). However, results between age groups and vaccines used were inconsistent, and the increases had possible alternative explanations; consequently, these data provided no clear evidence for type replacement. Continued monitoring of these HPV genotypes is important.
  • Markt, Sarah C., et al. (författare)
  • Sniffing out significant "Pee values" : genome wide association study of asparagus anosmia
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: BMJ-BRITISH MEDICAL JOURNAL. - London, United Kingdom : B M J Group. - 1756-1833. ; 355
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: To determine the inherited factors associated with the ability to smell asparagus metabolites in urine.Design: Genome wide association study.Sstting: Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts.Participants: 6909 men and women of European-American descent with available genetic data from genome wide association studies.Main outcome measure: Participants were characterized as asparagus smellers if they strongly agreed with the prompt "after eating asparagus, you notice a strong characteristic odor in your urine," and anosmic if otherwise. We calculated per-allele estimates of asparagus anosmia for about nine million single nucleotide polymorphisms using logistic regression. P values <5×10(-8) were considered as genome wide significant.Results: 58.0% of men (n=1449/2500) and 61.5% of women (n=2712/4409) had anosmia. 871 single nucleotide polymorphisms reached genome wide significance for asparagus anosmia, all in a region on chromosome 1 (1q44: 248139851-248595299) containing multiple genes in the olfactory receptor 2 (OR2) family. Conditional analyses revealed three independent markers associated with asparagus anosmia: rs13373863, rs71538191, and rs6689553.Conclusion: A large proportion of people have asparagus anosmia. Genetic variation near multiple olfactory receptor genes is associated with the ability of an individual to smell the metabolites of asparagus in urine. Future replication studies are necessary before considering targeted therapies to help anosmic people discover what they are missing.
  • Unger, Elizabeth A., et al. (författare)
  • Bicyclist injuries leading to emergency room visits
  • 2018
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Bicycle usage has been on the rise in Iceland and other western nations, in part due to government policies intending to increase bicycling as a transportation mode. As city planners and transportation engineers move forward with the development of sustainable transport policies and designing the infrastructure that supports bicycle utilization of all forms, safety is paramount.  Unfortunately, often resources and funding for these types of projects may be limited, leaving those in charge of planning needing to prioritize projects that will maximize benefits while being cost effective. This paper reviews the literature to identify important factors that have been found to either promote or decrease bicyclist safety. Then this paper will investigate bicycle crashes in Iceland that resulted in an emergency room visit using emergency room data. In this way the paper is able to explore bicycle crashes that do not involve automobiles, but police recorded data generally only contains bicycle-automobile crashes. The aim of this study is therefore to further enhance understanding of bicycle safety in general based on hospital records from emergency room visits.
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