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Sökning: WFRF:(Urrutia Cordero Pablo)

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1.
  • Mantzouki, Evanthia, et al. (författare)
  • Temperature Effects Explain Continental Scale Distribution of Cyanobacterial Toxins
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Toxins. - : MDPI. - 2072-6651 .- 2072-6651. ; 10:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Insight into how environmental change determines the production and distribution of cyanobacterial toxins is necessary for risk assessment. Management guidelines currently focus on hepatotoxins (microcystins). Increasing attention is given to other classes, such as neurotoxins (e.g., anatoxin-a) and cytotoxins (e.g., cylindrospermopsin) due to their potency. Most studies examine the relationship between individual toxin variants and environmental factors, such as nutrients, temperature and light. In summer 2015, we collected samples across Europe to investigate the effect of nutrient and temperature gradients on the variability of toxin production at a continental scale. Direct and indirect effects of temperature were the main drivers of the spatial distribution in the toxins produced by the cyanobacterial community, the toxin concentrations and toxin quota. Generalized linear models showed that a Toxin Diversity Index (TDI) increased with latitude, while it decreased with water stability. Increases in TDI were explained through a significant increase in toxin variants such as MC-YR, anatoxin and cylindrospermopsin, accompanied by a decreasing presence of MC-LR. While global warming continues, the direct and indirect effects of increased lake temperatures will drive changes in the distribution of cyanobacterial toxins in Europe, potentially promoting selection of a few highly toxic species or strains.
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2.
  • Choudhury, Maidul I., et al. (författare)
  • Charophytes collapse beyond a critical warming and brownification threshold in shallow lake systems
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - : Elsevier. - 0048-9697 .- 1879-1026. ; 661, s. 148-154
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Charophytes play a critical role for the functioning of shallow lake ecosystems. Although growth of charophytes can be limited by many factors, such as temperature, nutrients and light availability, our understanding about concomitant effects of climate warming and other large-scale environmental perturbations, e.g. increases in humic matter content (‘brownification’) is still limited. Here we conducted an outdoor mesocosm experiment during 71 days with a common charophyte species, Chara vulgaris, along an increasing gradient of temperature and brownification. We hypothesized the growth of C. vulgaris to increase with temperature, but to level off along the combined temperature and brownification gradient when reaching a critical threshold for light limitation via brownification. We show that C. vulgaris increases the relative growth rate (RGR), main and total shoot elongation, as well as number of lateral shoots when temperature and brownification increased by +2 °C and + 100%, respectively above today's levels. However, the RGR, shoot elongation and number of lateral shoots declined at further increment of temperature and brownification. Macrophyte weight-length ratio decreased with increased temperature and brownification, indicating that C. vulgaris allocate more resources or energy for shoot elongation instead of biomass increase at warmer temperatures and higher brownification. Our study shows that C. vulgaris will initially benefit from warming and brownification but will then decline as a future scenario of increased warming and brownification reaches a certain threshold level, in case of our experiment at +4 °C and a 2-fold increase in brownification above today's levels.
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3.
  • Fervier, Veronica, et al. (författare)
  • Evaluating Nutrient Reduction, Grazing and Barley Straw as Measures Against Algal Growth
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Wetlands. - : Springer. - 0277-5212 .- 1943-6246. ; 40:1, s. 193-202
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of our study was to experimentally investigate whether it is possible to reduce nuisance growth of filamentous algae in freshwater ecosystems. We used an experimental set-up mimicking a shallow pond system and performed a field investigation in the eutrophic moat of Krapperup castle (Southern Sweden), which exemplifies an extremely impaired ecosystem with ample growth of filamentous green algae. The indoor experiment tested three treatments: I) reduced nutrient concentrations, II) invertebrate grazers and III) addition of barley straw, which may constitute measures against filamentous algal growth and thereby improve the quality of the ecosystem services provided by water bodies. Our results show a decrease in cyanobacteria and diatom abundances in all mesocosms as filamentous algae biomass increased, suggesting that the microalgae suffered from nutrient and light competition with filamentous algae. A tendency for lower filamentous algae final biomass, as well as coverage, was observed in the treatment where the concentration of nutrients was reduced. Grazers treatment showed a tendency to inhibit filamentous algae growth on artificial macrophytes towards the end of the experiment, suggesting that snails initially fed on their preferred food source (diatoms), until it was almost depleted and then started to feed on filamentous algae. Interestingly, the barley straw treatment was the only treatment promoting macrophytes growth and enhancing diatom biomass, but this did not affect filamentous algae biomass. However, the ratio between filamentous algae and macrophyte final biomasses was significantly lower in the straw treatment. In a broader context, it is likely that in a long-term perspective the positive effect of barley straw on macrophyte growth will promote a shift from dominance by filamentous algae to macrophytes as main primary producer. Moreover, our experiment shows that barley straw may be effective in reducing cyanobacterial growth, which may lead to improved water quality and thereby ecosystem services, such as supporting and cultural ecosystem services, since cyanobacteria may produce potent toxins and pose a serious risk to human and animal health. Altogether, our experimental results have important implications for the challenge of reversing nuisance filamentous algal blooms in highly eutrophic systems.
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4.
  • Hansson, Lars Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Different climate scenarios alter dominance patterns among aquatic primary producers in temperate systems
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Limnology and Oceanography. - : ASLO. - 1939-5590 .- 0024-3590. ; 65:10, s. 2328-2336
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In a future climate change perspective, the interactions among different life-forms of primary producers will likely be altered, leading to changes in the relative dominance among macrophytes, filamentous, and planktonic algae. In order to improve the possibilities to forecast future ecosystem services and function, we therefore conducted a long-term mesocosm study where primary producers were exposed to different climate scenarios, including both a mean increase in temperature (4°C) and a similar energy input, but delivered as “heat waves” (fluctuations 0–8°C above ambient). We show that in shallow systems, future climate change scenarios will likely lead to higher total macrophyte biomasses, but also to considerable alterations in the macrophyte community composition. The biomass of filamentous algae (Cladophora) showed no significant difference among treatments, although effect size analyses identified a slight increase at heated conditions. We also show that future climate change will not necessarily lead to more phytoplankton blooms, although a considerable alteration in phytoplankton community composition is to be expected, with a dominance of cyanobacteria and Cryptophytes, whereas Chlorophyceae and diatoms will likely play a less pronounced role than at present. In a broader context, we conclude that the total biomass of macrophytes will likely increase in shallow areas, whereas phytoplankton may not show any strong changes in biomass in a future climate change scenario. Instead, the major changes among primary producers will likely be mirrored in a considerably different species composition than at present.
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5.
  • Li, Zhongqiang, et al. (författare)
  • Heat Waves Alter Macrophyte-Derived Detrital Nutrients Release under Future Climate Warming Scenarios
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology. - : The American Chemical Society (ACS). - 0013-936X .- 1520-5851. ; 55:8, s. 5272-5281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In addition to a rise in global air and water mean temperatures, extreme climate events such as heat waves are increasing in frequency, intensity, and duration in many regions of the globe. Developing a mechanistic understanding of the impacts of heat waves on key ecosystem processes and how they differ from just an increase in mean temperatures is therefore of utmost importance for adaptive management against effects of global change. However, little is known about the impact of extreme events on freshwater ecosystem processes, particularly the decomposition of macrophyte detritus. We performed a mesocosm experiment to evaluate the impact of warming and heat waves on macrophyte detrital decomposition, applied as a fixed increment (+4 °C) above ambient and a fluctuating treatment with similar energy input, ranging from 0 to 6 °C above ambient (i.e., simulating heat waves). We showed that both warming and heat waves significantly accelerate dry mass loss of the detritus and carbon (C) release but found no significant differences between the two heated treatments on the effects on detritus dry mass loss and C release amount. This suggests that moderate warming indirectly enhanced macrophyte detritus dry mass loss and C release mainly by the amount of energy input rather than by the way in which warming was provided (i.e., by a fixed increment or in heat waves). However, we found significantly different amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) released between the two warming treatments, and there was an asymmetric response of N and P release patterns to the two warming treatments, possibly due to species-specific responses of decomposers to short-term temperature fluctuations and litter quality. Our results conclude that future climate scenarios can significantly accelerate organic matter decomposition and C, N, and P release from decaying macrophytes, and more importantly, there are asymmetric alterations in macrophyte-derived detrital N and P release dynamic. Therefore, future climate change scenarios could lead to alterations in N/P ratios in the water column via macrophyte decomposition processes and ultimately affect the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems, especially in the plankton community.
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6.
  • Mantzouki, Evanthia, et al. (författare)
  • A European Multi Lake Survey dataset of environmental variables, phytoplankton pigments and cyanotoxins
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Scientific Data. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 2052-4463. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Under ongoing climate change and increasing anthropogenic activity, which continuously challenge ecosystem resilience, an in-depth understanding of ecological processes is urgently needed. Lakes, as providers of numerous ecosystem services, face multiple stressors that threaten their functioning. Harmful cyanobacterial blooms are a persistent problem resulting from nutrient pollution and climate-change induced stressors, like poor transparency, increased water temperature and enhanced stratification. Consistency in data collection and analysis methods is necessary to achieve fully comparable datasets and for statistical validity, avoiding issues linked to disparate data sources. The European Multi Lake Survey (EMLS) in summer 2015 was an initiative among scientists from 27 countries to collect and analyse lake physical, chemical and biological variables in a fully standardized manner. This database includes in-situ lake variables along with nutrient, pigment and cyanotoxin data of 369 lakes in Europe, which were centrally analysed in dedicated laboratories. Publishing the EMLS methods and dataset might inspire similar initiatives to study across large geographic areas that will contribute to better understanding lake responses in a changing environment. © The Author(s) 2018.
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7.
  • Urrutia Cordero, Pablo, et al. (författare)
  • Climate warming and heat waves alter harmful cyanobacterial blooms along the benthic-€“pelagic interface
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Ecology. - : Wiley. - 0012-9658 .- 1939-9170. ; 101:7, s. 1-12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In addition to a rise in mean air and water temperatures, more frequent and intense extreme climate events (such as heat waves) have been recorded around the globe during the past decades. These environmental changes are projected to intensify further in the future, and we still know little about how they will affect ecological processes driving harmful cyanobacterial bloom formation. Therefore, we conducted a long-term experiment in 400-L shallow freshwater mesocosms, where we evaluated the effects of a constant +4°C increase in mean water temperatures and compared it with a fluctuating warming scenario ranging from 0 to +8°C (i.e., including heat waves) but with the same +4°C long-term elevation in mean water temperatures. We focused on investigating not only warming effects on cyanobacterial pelagic dynamics (phenology and biomass levels), but also on their recruitment from sediments—which are a fundamental part of their life history for which the response to warming remains largely unexplored. Our results demonstrate that (1) a warmer environment not only induces a seasonal advancement and boosts biomass levels of specific cyanobacterial species in the pelagic environment, but also increases their recruitment rates from the sediments, and (2) these species-specific benthic and pelagic processes respond differently depending on whether climate warming is expressed only as an increase in mean water temperatures or, in addition, through an increased warming variability (including heat waves). These results are important because they show, for the first time, that climate warming can affect cyanobacterial dynamics at different life-history stages, all the way from benthic recruitment up to their establishment in the pelagic community. Furthermore, it also highlights that both cyanobacterial benthic recruitment and pelagic biomass dynamics may be different as a result of changes in the variability of warming conditions. We argue that these findings are a critical first step to further our understanding of the relative importance of increased recruitment rates for harmful cyanobacterial bloom formation under different climate change scenarios.
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8.
  • Urrutia-Cordero, Pablo, et al. (författare)
  • Functionally reversible impacts of disturbances on lake food webs linked to spatial and seasonal dependencies
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Ecology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0012-9658 .- 1939-9170. ; 102:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Increasing human impact on the environment is causing drastic changes in disturbance regimes and how they prevail over time. Of increasing relevance is to further our understanding on biological responses to pulse disturbances (short duration) and how they interact with other ongoing press disturbances (constantly present). Because the temporal and spatial contexts of single experiments often limit our ability to generalize results across space and time, we conducted a modularized mesocosm experiment replicated in space (five lakes along a latitudinal gradient in Scandinavia) and time (two seasons, spring and summer) to generate general predictions on how the functioning and composition of multitrophic plankton communities (zoo-, phyto- and bacterioplankton) respond to pulse disturbances acting either in isolation or combined with press disturbances. As pulse disturbance, we used short-term changes in fish presence, and as press disturbance, we addressed the ongoing reduction in light availability caused by increased cloudiness and lake browning in many boreal and subarctic lakes. First, our results show that the top-down pulse disturbance had the strongest effects on both functioning and composition of the three trophic levels across sites and seasons, with signs for interactive impacts with the bottom-up press disturbance on phytoplankton communities. Second, community composition responses to disturbances were highly divergent between lakes and seasons: temporal accumulated community turnover of the same trophic level either increased (destabilization) or decreased (stabilization) in response to the disturbances compared to control conditions. Third, we found functional recovery from the pulse disturbances to be frequent at the end of most experiments. In a broader context, these results demonstrate that top-down, pulse disturbances, either alone or with additional constant stress upon primary producers caused by bottom-up disturbances, can induce profound but often functionally reversible changes across multiple trophic levels, which are strongly linked to spatial and temporal context dependencies. Furthermore, the identified dichotomy of disturbance effects on the turnover in community composition demonstrates the potential of disturbances to either stabilize or destabilize biodiversity patterns over time across a wide range of environmental conditions.
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9.
  • Urrutia-Cordero, Pablo, et al. (författare)
  • Phytoplankton diversity loss along a gradient of future warming and brownification in freshwater mesocosms
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Freshwater Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0046-5070 .- 1365-2427. ; 62:11, s. 1869-1878
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Globally, freshwater ecosystems are warming at unprecedented rates and northern temperate lakes are simultaneously experiencing increased runoff of humic substances (brownification), with little known consequences for future conservation of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. We employed an outdoor mesocosm experiment during spring and summer to investigate the combined effects of gradually increasing warming and brownification perturbations on the phytoplankton community structure (biodiversity and composition) and functioning (biomass). While we did not observe overall significant treatment effects on total phytoplankton biomasses, we show that predicted increases in warming and brownification can reduce biodiversity considerably, occasionally up to 90% of Shannon diversity estimates. Our results demonstrate that the loss of biodiversity is driven by the dominance of mixotrophic algae (Dinobryon and Cryptomonas), whereas several other phytoplankton taxa may be temporarily displaced from the community, including Cyclotella, Desmodesmus, Monoraphidium, Tetraedron, Nitzschia and Golenkinia. The observed loss of biodiversity coincided with an increase in bacterial production providing resources for potential mixotrophs along the gradient of warming and brownification. This coupling between bacterial production and mixotrophs was likely a major cause behind the competitive displacement of obligate phototrophs and supports evidence for the importance of consumer–prey dynamics in shaping environmental impacts on phytoplankton communities. We conclude that warming and brownification are likely to cause a profound loss of biodiversity by indirectly affecting competitive interactions among phytoplankton taxa. Importantly, our results did not show an abrupt loss of biodiversity; instead the reduction in taxa richness levelled off after exceeding a threshold of warming and brownification. These results exemplify the complex nonlinear responses of biodiversity to environmental perturbations and provide further insights for predicting biodiversity patterns to the future warming and brownification of freshwaters.
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10.
  • Zhang, Huan, et al. (författare)
  • Life-history traits buffer against heat wave effects on predator-prey dynamics in zooplankton
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 24:10, s. 4747-4757
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In addition to an increase in mean temperature, extreme climatic events, such as heat waves, are predicted to increase in frequency and intensity with climate change, which are likely to affect organism interactions, seasonal succession, and resting stage recruitment patterns in terrestrial as well as in aquatic ecosystems. For example, freshwater zooplankton with different life-history strategies, such as sexual or parthenogenetic reproduction, may respond differently to increased mean temperatures and rapid temperature fluctuations. Therefore, we conducted a long-term (18 months) mesocosm experiment where we evaluated the effects of increased mean temperature (4°C) and an identical energy input but delivered through temperature fluctuations, i.e., as heat waves. We show that different rotifer prey species have specific temperature requirements and use limited and species-specific temperature windows for recruiting from the sediment. On the contrary, co-occurring predatory cyclopoid copepods recruit from adult or subadult resting stages and are therefore able to respond to short-term temperature fluctuations. Hence, these different life-history strategies affect the interactions between cyclopoid copepods and rotifers by reducing the risk of a temporal mismatch in predator-prey dynamics in a climate change scenario. Thus, we conclude that predatory cyclopoid copepods with long generation time are likely to benefit from heat waves since they rapidly "wake up" even at short temperature elevations and thereby suppress fast reproducing prey populations, such as rotifers. In a broader perspective, our findings suggest that differences in life-history traits will affect predator-prey interactions, and thereby alter community dynamics, in a future climate change scenario.
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