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Sökning: WFRF:(Uvelius Bengt)

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1.
  • Arner, Anders, et al. (författare)
  • Intracellular calcium in hypertrophic smooth muscle from rat urinary bladder
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5599. ; 41:4, s. 270-277
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective. To explore whether infravesical outlet obstruction is associated with alterations in calcium activation of detrusor smooth muscle. Material and methods. Outlet obstruction was created by partial ligature of the urethra in female rats. Western blotting was performed using an antibody against the cytoplasmatic region of the alpha(1c) subunit of the L- type Ca2(+) channel. Intracellular calcium was measured using Fura-2 in detrusors that had been obstructed for 10 days and activated by high K+ concentrations at different extracellular Ca2(+) concentrations. The rate of force development after rapid opening of L- type Ca2(+) channels was measured in contractions initiated by flash photolysis of nifedipine in Ca2(+) containing depolarizing solution. Results. Bladder weight increased from 6293 to 254943 mg after 10 days of obstruction. Expression of the alpha(1c) subunit increased after 3 days and continued to increase until it was about fourfold greater after 10 days; however, it had not increased further at 6 weeks. This change was reversible after removal of obstruction. Activation with K+ produced a stable force at different extracellular Ca2(+) concentrations, with no difference in response between controls and rats that had been obstructed for 10 days. Intracellular Ca2(+) concentrations were lower in the obstructed group, showing that the calcium sensitivity of the contraction force had increased. The delay between the opening of L- type channels and the onset of contraction was longer in obstructed detrusors. Conclusions. Growth of detrusor muscle following obstruction is accompanied by attenuated calcium transients following activation, despite upregulation of L- type Ca2(+) channels. The Ca2(+) sensitivity of contraction was increased in obstructed detrusors. We suggest that the decreased surface: volume ratio in hypertrophic smooth muscle cells is partly involved in the lowered Ca2(+) transients. The increases in L- type calcium channels and in calcium sensitivity may be compensatory mechanisms.
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2.
  • Frederiksen, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Nerve induced responses and force-velocity relations of regenerated detrusor muscle after subtotal cystectomy in the rat.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Neurourology and Urodynamics. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0733-2467. ; 23:2, s. 159-165
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIMS: To study the pharmacological and mechanical properties of newly developed detrusor muscle after subtotal cystectomy, to explore if the regenerated detrusor has characteristics similar to the normal bladder base, from which it regenerated, or to the normal bladder body which it replaces. METHODS: Partial cystectomy was performed in female rats. Fifteen weeks later, detrusor strips were cut from supratrigonal and equatorial segments. Unoperated rats served as controls. Responses to field stimulation were obtained in the absence and presence of scopolamine, prazosin, and P2X1 blockade. Dose-response curves were obtained for carbachol, alpha,beta-methylene-ATP, and phenylephrine. Force-velocity data were obtained on maximally activated chemically skinned preparations. RESULTS: Maximal contractile response to field stimulation was 60% of that to high-K+ with no difference between strips from control and cystectomy bladders. Prazosin had no effect. Scopolamine decreased maximal response of supratrigonal strips to 62 +/- 6 (controls) and 61 +/- 4% (operated) of that without blocker. For equatorial strips the decrease was to 81 +/- 5 (controls) and 58 +/- 8% (operated). Frequency-response relations were obtained during blockade with scopolamine, alpha,beta-methylene-ATP, and prazosin. Supratrigonal strips showed a pronounced additional inhibition up to 40 Hz. Equatorial strips from controls were completely inhibited at all frequencies. Equatorial strips from operated bladders were inhibited up to 20 Hz but not at 40 and 60 Hz. Carbachol EC(50) values were similar in all groups. Maximum response to phenylephrine was 10-20% of high-K+ response. Maximal shortening velocity (Vmax) was similar in control supratrigonal and equatorial strips, but was significantly lower in the operated bladders. CONCLUSIONS: (1): A regional difference exists in pharmacological properties of control detrusor, with a considerable contractile response to stimulation remaining in the supratrigonal muscle after simultaneous cholinergic, adrenergic, and purinergic blockade. (2): The new detrusor was functionally well innervated with no supersensitivity to muscarinic stimulation. (3): The newly formed bladder body had pharmacological properties specific for the supratrigonal segment from which it had developed. (4): There was no regional difference in force-velocity characteristics of the control detrusor. (5): The lowered Vmax in the newly formed bladder might thus be related to growth and regeneration of muscle cells.
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3.
  • Frederiksen, Hans, et al. (författare)
  • Regeneration of detrusor muscle after subtotal cystectomy in the rat; effects on contractile proteins and bladder mechanics.
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Neurourology and Urodynamics. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0733-2467. ; 20:6, s. 685-697
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of the present study was to determine to what extent adult rats can produce new contracting bladder muscle and to see if such newly formed bladder tissue possesses characteristic mechanical properties or whether the ability to recover mechanically is so pronounced that the prehistory of the bladder is unimportant. Subtotal cystectomy was performed in adult female rats, leading to a pronounced decrease in total bladder weight. At 10 weeks, bladder weight had normalized. The histological appearance of such bladders was similar to that of the controls. Active and passive length-tension relations for the detrusor muscle were determined in controls and up to 10 weeks after surgery. Immediately after surgery active and passive forces showed a leftward shift and maximum active force decreased markedly. With time the length-tension curves shifted back to normal, but a decreased active force still remained at 10 weeks. Detrusor actin concentration and detrusor myosin/actin ratio were unaffected by the subtotal cystectomy. Intermediate filament protein/actin ratio showed a significant but transitory increase. We conclude that there is a remarkable recovery of detrusor muscle function after subtotal cystectomy, leading to a normalization of optimum length for active force and a net synthesis of contractile and cytoskeletal proteins. The ability to produce active force does, however, not fully recover.
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4.
  • Hjortswang, Henrik, et al. (författare)
  • Contractile properties of ureters from rats with infravesical urinary outlet obstruction
  • 1998
  • Ingår i: Urological Research. - Springer. - 0300-5623. ; 26:5, s. 337-342
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mechanical properties of ureters from rats with infravesical urinary outflow obstruction were studied in vitro. Urinary outflow obstruction was created by partial ligation of the urethra in female rats. After 10 days a marked hypertrophy of the urinary bladder and a dilatation of the ureters were observed. Proximal and distal segments of the ureters from these animals were isolated and mounted in a wire myograph for force registration. Comparisons were made with ureters from control rats. The ureters from the rats with urinary outflow obstruction exhibited a large increase in lumen diameter and an unchanged thickness of the muscle layer. These data suggest that the dilatation of the ureters is associated with growth of the smooth muscle in the wall. All ureter preparations were relaxed in normal physiological salt solution. When the extracellular K+ concentration was increased to 20 mM the dilated ureters became spontaneously active. At [K+] in the range 20-40 mM in the presence of noradrenaline (10(-5) M) all ureters exhibited high-frequency spontaneous contractions. The dilated ureters had a lower frequency of spontaneous contractions and a higher force. The results show a pronounced remodelling of the ureter wall following infravesical outlet obstruction. The structural changes were associated with alterations in the contraction pattern of the preparations, most probably reflecting changes in the excitation-contraction coupling of the growing cells.
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5.
  • Karbalaei, Mardjaneh, et al. (författare)
  • Detrusor Induction of miR-132/212 following Bladder Outlet Obstruction: Association with MeCP2 Repression and Cell Viability.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-132 and miR-212 have been found to regulate synaptic plasticity and cholinergic signaling and recent work has demonstrated roles outside of the CNS, including in smooth muscle. Here, we examined if miR-132 and miR-212 are induced in the urinary bladder following outlet obstruction and whether this correlates with effects on gene expression and cell growth. Three to seven-fold induction of miR-132/212 was found at 10 days of obstruction and this was selective for the detrusor layer. We cross-referenced putative binding sites in the miR-132/212 promoter with transcription factors that were predicted to be active in the obstruction model. This suggested involvement of Creb and Ahr in miR-132/212 induction. Creb phosphorylation (S-133) was not increased, but the number of Ahr positive nuclei increased. Moreover, we found that serum stimulation and protein kinase C activation induced miR-132/212 in human detrusor cells. To identify miR-132/212 targets, we correlated the mRNA levels of validated targets with the miRNA levels. Significant correlations between miR-132/212 and MeCP2, Ep300, Pnkd and Jarid1a were observed, and the protein levels of MeCP2, Pnkd and Ache were reduced after obstruction. Reduction of Ache however closely matched a 90% reduction of synapse density arguing that its repression was unrelated to miR-132/212 induction. Importantly, transfection of antimirs and mimics in cultured detrusor cells increased and decreased, respectively, the number of cells and led to changes in MeCP2 expression. In all, these findings show that obstruction of the urethra increases miR-132 and miR-212 in the detrusor and suggests that this influences gene expression and limits cell growth.
6.
  • Krawczyk, Katarzyna K., et al. (författare)
  • Assessing the contribution of thrombospondin-4 induction and ATF6α activation to endoplasmic reticulum expansion and phenotypic modulation in bladder outlet obstruction
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Scientific Reports. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2045-2322. ; 6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Phenotypic modulation of smooth muscle cells is a hallmark of disease. The associated expansion of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) volume remains unexplained. Thrombospondin-4 was recently found to promote ATF6α activation leading to ER expansion. Using bladder outlet obstruction as a paradigm for phenotypic modulation, we tested if thrombospondin-4 is induced in association with ATF6α activation and ER expansion. Thrombospondin-4 was induced and ATF6α was activated after outlet obstruction in rodents. Increased abundance of spliced of Xbp1, another ER-stress sensor, and induction of Atf4 and Creb3l2 was also seen. Downstream of ATF6α, Calr, Manf, Sdf2l1 and Pdi increased as did ER size, whereas contractile markers were reduced. Overexpression of ATF6α, but not of thrombospondin-4, increased Calr, Manf, Sdf2l1 and Pdi and caused ER expansion, but the contractile markers were inert. Knockout of thrombospondin-4 neither affected bladder growth nor expression of ATF6α target genes, and repression of contractile markers was the same, even if ATF6α activation was curtailed. Increases of Xbp1s, Atf4 and Creb3l2 were similar. Our findings demonstrate reciprocal regulation of the unfolded protein response, including ATF6α activation and ER expansion, and reduced contractile differentiation in bladder outlet obstruction occurring independently of thrombospondin-4, which however is a sensitive indicator of obstruction.
7.
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8.
  • Vinter-Jensen, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Acute contractile effects of epidermal growth factor on bladder smooth muscles. An in vivo and in vitro study in rats
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - Taylor & Francis. - 0036-5599. ; 31:3, s. 231-235
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulates growth of all wall layers of the urinary tract in pigs and rats. Herein, we investigated the acute effects of EGF on detrusor smooth muscle activity. For in vivo examination, awake rats received EGF (75 micrograms/kg) intravenously and detrusor smooth muscle activity was monitored cystometrically. The EGF bolus caused no alteration in diuresis but a doubling of the micturition frequency, a 25% increase in micturition pressures, and increased irregular baseline contractile activity. For in vitro examination detrusor smooth muscle strips were exposed to EGF (1 microgram/ml). EGF caused contraction and increase in the spontaneous activity. In conclusion, EGF increases rat detrusor smooth muscle contractile activity in vivo and in vitro. The finding suggests that a direct effect of EGF on bladder smooth muscles is part of the genesis to the growth of the detrusor smooth muscle observed after chronic EGF treatment.
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9.
  • Zeng, Jianwen, et al. (författare)
  • Vasopressin-induced mouse urethral contraction is modulated by caveolin-1.
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Pharmacology. - Elsevier. - 1879-0712. ; 750, s. 59-65
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Caveolae are 50-100nm large invaginations in the cell membrane that are considered to play roles in receptor signaling. Here we aimed to investigate the expression and distribution of the arginine-vasopressin (AVP) V1a receptor and its functional dependence on caveolin-1 (Cav1) in the mouse urethra. Female Cav1 knockout (KO) and wild type (WT) mice were used, and urethral preparations were micro-dissected for mechanical experiments. Methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβcd) was used to deplete cholesterol and to disrupt caveolae. Protein expression and localization was determined using immunofluorescence and western blotting and transcript expression was determined by qRT-PCR. We found that Cav1 and AVP V1a receptors were expressed in urethral smooth muscle cells with apparent co-localization at the cell membrane. AVP caused urethral contraction that was inhibited by the V1a receptor antagonist SR49059. Concentration-response curves for AVP were right-shifted and maximal contraction was reduced in Cav1 KO mice and after mβcd treatment. In addition to caveolin-1 we also detected caveolin-2, cavin-1 and cavin-3 in the mouse urethra by western blotting. Caveolin-2, cavin-1 and cavin-3 as well as V1a receptor expression was reduced in KO urethra. We conclude that AVP regulates urethral contractility via the V1a receptor through a Cav1-dependent mechanism involving, in part, altered V1a receptor expression.
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10.
  • Zhu, Baoyi, et al. (författare)
  • Antagonistic relationship between the unfolded protein response and myocardin-driven transcription in smooth muscle
  • ????
  • Ingår i: Journal of Cellular Physiology. - John Wiley and Sons Inc.. - 0021-9541.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are characterized by a high degree of phenotypic plasticity. Contractile differentiation is governed by myocardin-related transcription factors (MRTFs), in particular myocardin (MYOCD), and when their drive is lost, the cells become proliferative and synthetic with an expanded endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER is responsible for assembly and folding of secreted proteins. When the load on the ER surpasses its capacity, three stress sensors (activating transcription factor 6 [ATF6], inositol-requiring enzyme 1α [IRE1α]/X-box binding protein 1 [XBP1], and PERK/ATF4) are activated to expand the ER and increase its folding capacity. This is referred to as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Here, we hypothesized that there is a reciprocal relationship between SMC differentiation and the UPR. Tight negative correlations between SMC markers (MYH11, MYOCD, KCNMB1, SYNPO2) and UPR markers (SDF2L1, CALR, MANF, PDIA4) were seen in microarray data sets from carotid arterial injury, partial bladder outlet obstruction, and bladder denervation, respectively. The UPR activators dithiothreitol (DTT) and tunicamycin (TN) activated the UPR and reduced MYOCD along with SMC markers in vitro. The IRE1α inhibitor 4μ8C counteracted the effect of DTT and TN on SMC markers and MYOCD expression. Transfection of active XBP1s was sufficient to reduce both MYOCD and the SMC markers. MRTFs also antagonized the UPR as indicated by reduced TN and DTT-mediated induction of CRELD2, MANF, PDIA4, and SDF2L1 following overexpression of MRTFs. The latter effect did not involve the newly identified MYOCD/SRF target MSRB3, or reduced production of either XBP1s or cleaved ATF6. The UPR thus counteracts SMC differentiation via the IRE1α/XBP1 arm of the UPR and MYOCD repression.
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