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Sökning: WFRF:(Valachis Antonis 1984 )

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1.
  • Karakatsanis, A., et al. (författare)
  • Axillary evaluation in ductal cancer in situ of the breast: challenging the diagnostic accuracy of clinical practice guidelines
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Surgery. - : Oxford University Press. - 0007-1323 .- 1365-2168. ; 108:9, s. 1120-1125
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Staging of the axilla is not routine in ductal cancer in situ (DCIS) although invasive cancer is observed in 20-25 per cent of patients at final pathology. Upfront sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) is advocated in clinical practice guidelines in certain situations. These include expected challenges in subsequent SLN detection and when the risk for invasion is high. Clinical practice guidelines are, however, inconsistent and lead to considerable practice variability. Methods: Clinical practice guidelines for upfront SLND in DCIS were identified and applied to patients included in the prospective SentiNot study. These patients were evaluated by six independent, blinded raters. Agreement statistics were performed to assess agreement and concordance. Receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed, to assess guideline accuracy in identifying patients with underlying invasion. Results: Eight guidelines with relevant recommendations were identified. Interobserver agreement varied greatly (kappa: 0.23-0.9) and the interpretation as to whether SLND should be performed ranged from 40-90 per cent and with varying concordance (32-88 per cent). The diagnostic accuracy was low with area under the curve ranging from 0.45 to 0.55. Fifty to 90 per cent of patients with pure DCIS would undergo unnecessary SLNB, whereas 10-50 per cent of patients with invasion were not identified as 'high risk'. Agreement across guidelines was low (kappa=0.24), meaning that different patients had a similar risk of being treated inaccurately. Conclusion: Available guidelines are inaccurate in identifying patients with DCIS who would benefit from upfront SLNB. Guideline refinement with detailed preoperative work-up and novel techniques for SLND identification could address this challenge and avoid overtreatment.
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2.
  • Paakkola, N.-M., et al. (författare)
  • The prognostic and predictive impact of low estrogen receptor expression in early breast cancer : a systematic review and meta-analysis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: ESMO open. - : Elsevier. - 2059-7029. ; 6:6
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Traditionally, estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer has been defined as tumors with ≥1% positive for ER. The updated American Society of Clinical Oncology/College of American Pathologists (ASCO/CAP) guidelines recommend that tumors with ER expression of 1%-10% should be classified as ER-low-positive, recognizing the limited clinical evidence on the prognostic and predictive role of low ER expression. We aimed to investigate the predictive role of ER-low expression to neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NeoCT) and the prognostic significance of ER-low expressing breast tumors compared with ER-positive or ER-negative breast tumors.METHODS: A meta-analysis was conducted using the Meta-analyses Of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE) guidelines and eligible articles were identified on PubMed and ISI Web of Science databases. The primary outcome was pathologic complete response and secondary outcomes were disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Twelve retrospective cohort studies were included in the meta-analysis. NeoCT resulted in higher pathologic complete response among patients with ER-low expression compared with ER-positive and comparable to ER-negative. Patients with ER-low breast cancer had a statistically significant worse DFS and OS compared with patients with ER-positive breast cancer, whereas no difference in DFS or OS was observed between ER-low and ER-negative subgroups.DISCUSSION: The current evidence suggests that ER-low breast cancer has a more similar outcome to ER-negative than to ER-positive breast cancer in terms of DFS and OS. ER-low expression seems also to have a predictive role regarding NeoCT. Considering the certainty of current evidence categorized as low to moderate, our results urge the need for well-designed prospective studies investigating the molecular background and the most appropriate treatment strategy for ER-low expressing breast cancer.
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3.
  • Schiza, Aglaia, et al. (författare)
  • Predictive role of HER2-status on the effectiveness of endocrine adjuvant treatment in postmenopausal breast cancer patients : a population-based cohort study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment. - : Springer. - 0167-6806 .- 1573-7217. ; 186, s. 779-789
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: There are conflicting results on the potential role of HER2-status on the efficacy of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) and tamoxifen (TAM) in patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer (BC). The purpose of this population-based cohort study was to investigate the potential benefit of AIs compared to TAM as adjuvant therapy in postmenopausal BC patients by HER2-status in the era of modern therapy with HER2-blockade.METHODS: A population-based cohort study was performed including all postmenopausal women diagnosed with HR-positive BC without distant metastasis between 2007 and 2012 in three healthcare regions in Sweden. We analyzed the breast cancer-specific survival (BCSS) and overall survival (OS) in two distinct cohorts (HER2-negative, HER2-positive) based on the type of endocrine therapy (ET) used. A propensity score matching was performed separately in the HER2-negative and HER2-positive cohorts, respectively.RESULTS: After propensity score matching, 4368 patients with HER2-negative and 214 patients with HER2-positive BC were available for analysis. In the HER2-negative cohort, an improved BCSS [Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.51; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.34-0.77, p value < 0.001] and a trend toward improved OS (HR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.41-1.08, p value = 0.093) in favor of AI-based therapy was observed. In the HER2-positive cohort, no statistically significant difference between AI-based ET and TAM was found in terms of either BCSS or OS, although the direction of HR was similar as in the HER2-negative cohort (HR for BCSS: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.14-5.04, p = 0.849; HR for OS: 0.62; 95% CI: 0.10-3.38, p = 0.345).CONCLUSION: Our study results, based on propensity-matched cohorts, did not support any predictive value of HER2-status on endocrine therapy in postmenopausal BC patients. AI-based ET remains the treatment of choice for postmenopausal BC patients with HR-positive disease in the modern era of HER2-directed therapy irrespective of HER2-status.
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4.
  • Boman, Caroline, et al. (författare)
  • Discordance of PD-L1 status between primary and metastatic breast cancer : A systematic review and meta-analysis
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Cancer Treatment Reviews. - : Elsevier. - 0305-7372 .- 1532-1967. ; 99
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • INTRODUCTION: Programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression is predictive for benefit from immunotherapy in several human malignancies including triple negative breast cancer. Lower positivity rates but a larger relative benefit from atezolizumab has been implied when PD-L1 status is assessed at metastatic sites. We aimed to study the discordance of PD-L1 expression between primary tumor and metastasis in breast cancer due to its potential clinical utility.METHODS: Cochrane Library, Embase, Medline and Web of science were searched for studies reporting on PD-L1 expression in primary and metastatic breast cancer, followed by data extraction. Outcomes included pooled PD-L1 positivity rates in tumor cells, immune cells or both in primary tumor and metastasis, PD-L1 discordance between matched primary tumors and metastasis and direction of discordance.RESULTS: Of 2552 identified entries following de-duplication, 20 studies fulfilled the predefined inclusion criteria. Pooled PD-L1 positivity rate was higher in primary tumors compared to metastasis when assessed in immune cells (51.2% vs 37.1% p < 0.001) and tumor/immune cells (30.1% vs 14.6% p < 0.001), but not in tumor cells (18.7% vs 17.8% p = 0.65). PD-L1 positivity was lowest when assessed in bone metastases (12%) and highest in lymph nodes (60%). Discordance between primary tumors and metastasis was bidirectional, with higher pooled discordance rates when PD-L1 expression was assessed in immune compared to tumor cells (39.5% vs 13.6%, p < 0.001).CONCLUSION: The observed considerable discordance between PD-L1 status in primary and metastatic breast cancer emphasizes the importance of appropriate tissue sampling when selecting patients for immunotherapy.
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5.
  • Matikas, Alexios, et al. (författare)
  • PD-1 protein and gene expression as prognostic factors in early breast cancer
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ESMO open. - : BMJ Publishing Group Ltd. - 2059-7029. ; 5:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: There is a paucity of data on the prognostic value of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) protein and gene expression in early breast cancer (BC) and the present study's aim was to comprehensively investigate it.Methods: The study consisted of three parts: a correlative analysis of PD-1 protein and gene expression from an original patient cohort of 564 patients with early BC; a systematic review and trial-level meta-analysis on the association between PD-1 protein expression and disease-free survival/overall survival (OS) in early BC; and a pooled gene expression analysis from publicly available transcriptomic datasets regarding PDCD1 expression.Results: In the study cohort, PD-1 protein, but not gene expression, was associated with improved OS (HRadj=0.73, 95% CI 0.55 to 0.97, p=0.027 and HRadj=0.88, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.13, p=0.312, respectively). In the trial-level meta-analysis, PD-1 protein expression was not found to be statistically significantly associated with outcomes in the overall population. Finally, in the pooled gene expression analysis, higher PDCD1 expression was associated with better OS in multivariable analysis in the entire population (HRadj=0.89, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.99, p=0.025) and in basal-like tumours.Conclusions: PD-1 protein and gene expression seem to be promising prognostic factors in early BC. Standardisation of detection and assessment methods is of utmost importance.
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6.
  • Matikas, Alexios, et al. (författare)
  • Prognostic implications of PD-L1 expression in breast cancer : systematic review and meta-analysis of immunohistochemistry and pooled analysis of transcriptomic data
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Clinical Cancer Research. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1078-0432 .- 1557-3265. ; 25:18, s. 5717-5726
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • PURPOSE: Conflicting data have been reported on the prognostic value of PD-L1 protein and gene expression in breast cancer.EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science Core Collection were searched and data were extracted independently by two researchers. Outcomes included pooled PD-L1 protein positivity in tumor cells, immune cells or both, per subtype and per antibody used; and its prognostic value for disease-free and overall survival. A pooled gene expression analysis of 39 publicly available transcriptomic datasets was also performed.RESULTS: Of the initial 4184 entries, 38 retrospective studies fulfilled the predefined inclusion criteria. The overall pooled PD-L1 protein positivity rate was 24% (95% CI 15 - 33%) in tumor cells and 33% (95% CI 14 - 56%) in immune cells. PD-L1 protein expression in tumor cells was prognostic for shorter overall survival (HR = 1.63; 95% CI 1.07 - 2.46, p=0.02); there was significant heterogeneity (I2 = 80%, pheterogeneity<0.001). In addition, higher PD-L1 gene expression predicted better survival in multivariate analysis in the entire population (HR=0.82, 95% CI 0.74 - 0.90, p<0.001 for OS) and in basal-like tumors (HR=0.64, 95% CI 0.52 - 0.80, p<0.001 for OS), pinteraction 0.005.CONCLUSION: The largest to our knowledge meta-analysis on the subject informs on PD-L1 protein positivity rates and its prognostic value in breast cancer. Standardization is needed prior to routine implementation. PD-L1 gene expression is a promising prognostic factor, especially in basal-like BC. Discrepant prognostic information might be related to PD-L1 gene expression in the stroma.
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7.
  • Mörth, Charlott, et al. (författare)
  • Autoimmune disease in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma : occurrence and impact on outcome
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Acta Oncologica. - : Taylor & Francis. - 0284-186X .- 1651-226X. ; 58:8, s. 1170-1177
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Patients with certain autoimmune diseases (AID) have an increased risk of developing diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). However, the occurrence of AID in patients with DLBCL as well as the impact of AID on outcome has not been extensively studied. The main purpose of this study was to establish the occurrence of AIDs in a population-based cohort of DLBCL patients and to compare outcomes in patients with or without AID treated with rituximab(R)-CHOP/CHOP-like treatment. We also aimed to analyse gender differences and the potential role of different AIDs on outcome and the frequency of treatment-associated neutropenic fever.Patients and methods: All adult patients treated 2000–2013 with R-CHOP/CHOP-like treatment for DLBCL in four counties of Sweden were included (n = 612). Lymphoma characteristics, outcome and the presence of AID were obtained through medical records.Results: The number of patients with AID was 106 (17.3%). Thyroid disease dominated (n = 33, 31.1%) followed by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (n = 24, 22.6%). The proportion of AID was significantly higher in females (59/254, 23.2%) vs. in males (47/358, 13.1%) (p = .001). In the whole cohort there was no difference in event free survival (EFS) or overall survival (OS) between patients with or without AID. However, patients with an AID primarily mediated by B-cell responses (thyroid disorders excluded) had a worse OS (p = .037), which seemed to affect only women. The AID group more often had neutropenic fever after first treatment (16.0% vs 8.7%, p = .034) and those with neutropenic fever had a worse OS (p = .026) in Kaplan-Meier analyses.Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of AID among patients with DLBCL. AIDs categorized as primarily B-cell mediated (in this study mainly RA, systemic lupus erythematosus and Sjögren’s syndrome) may be associated with inferior OS. AID patients may be more prone to neutropenic fever compared to patients without concomitant AID.
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8.
  • Mörth, Charlott, et al. (författare)
  • Does the omission of vincristine in patients with diffuse large B cell lymphoma affect treatment outcome?
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Annals of Hematology. - : Springer. - 0939-5555 .- 1432-0584. ; 97, s. 2129-2135
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The standard treatment for diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is rituximab with CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine (VCR), and prednisone). Maintaining high dose intensity of cytotoxic treatment has been associated with better outcome but little is known about the role of maintaining VCR. This study aimed to answer whether the omission of vincristine due to neurotoxicity affects patient outcome. A Swedish cohort of patients primarily treated with curative intent for DLBCL or high-grade malignant B cell lymphoma was retrospectively analyzed. In total, 541 patients treated between 2000 and 2013 were included. Omission of VCR was decided in 95 (17.6%) patients and was more often decided during the last three cycles (n = 86, 90.5%). The omission of VCR did not affect disease-free or overall survival neither in the whole cohort nor in elderly patients. On the contrary, the relative dose intensity of doxorubicin was associated with overall survival (p = 0.014). Kidney or adrenal involvement (p = 0.014) as well as bulky disease (p = 0.037) was found to be associated with worse overall survival. According to our results, clinicians can safely decide to omit VCR in case of severe neurotoxicity due to VCR but should be aware of the importance of giving adequate doses of doxorubicin during treatment given the growing body of evidence on the role of dose intensity on survival. Considering the association of bulky disease and kidney/adrenal manifestation of lymphoma on survival, further studies should focus on whether the treatment options for these subgroups need to be individualized.
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9.
  • Sund, Maria, 1983-, et al. (författare)
  • Aromatase inhibitors use and risk for cardiovascular disease in breast cancer patients : A population-based cohort study
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Breast. - : Elsevier. - 0960-9776 .- 1532-3080. ; 59, s. 157-164
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Prior studies regarding use of Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) and risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) have shown conflicting results. This retrospective cohort study aimed to investigate whether AIs use affects risk for CVD events in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors.METHODS: Using a retrospective cohort study design, four CVD outcomes; heart failure or cardiomyopathy, arrhythmia, acute ischemic heart disease and ischemic stroke or Transient Ischemic Attack were compared with uni- and multivariate Cox regression analyses according to exposure to endocrine therapy (use of AI, tamoxifen or AI/tamoxifen sequentially) or no endocrine therapy.RESULTS: In total 15815 postmenopausal women, surgically treated to early breast cancer during 2006-2012, were included. No significantly increased risk for CVD events was observed in patients with AI use in the whole cohort. However, two subgroup analyses showed increased risk for CVD events in the AI/tamoxifen sequential group; heart failure in patients older than 75 years (Hazard Ratio (HR) 2.44; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.32-4.54) and arrhythmia in patients without prior CVD (HR 1.45; 95% CI: 1.01-2.10). An increased risk for arrhythmia and acute ischemic heart disease in patients with at least four years of AI treatment compared with no or short-time exposure was observed (HR 2.12; 95% CI: 1.40-3.25 for arrhythmia; HR 2.03; 95% CI: 1.15-3.58 for ischemic heart disease).CONCLUSION: Our results indicate an increased risk for ischemic heart disease and arrhythmia in patients treated for more than four years with AIs. This should be considered in the risk-benefit assessment concerning endocrine therapy.
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10.
  • Valachis, Antonios, et al. (författare)
  • Improved survival without increased toxicity with influenza vaccination in cancer patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Oncoimmunology. - : Taylor & Francis. - 2162-4011 .- 2162-402X. ; 10:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In international guidelines, influenza vaccination is recommended to cancer patients receiving antitumor treatment. Whether this recommendation should include patients treated with the recently introduced and now widely used checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs) is unclear. The immune hyperactivation after vaccination in a patient on CPI treatment may strengthen the antitumor immunity and improve patients ' prognosis. On the other hand, the hyperactivation might increase the risk for immune-related adverse events (IRAEs). Furthermore, there is a risk for decreased antitumor effect by the phenomenon of antigenic competition. Only results from few studies addressing survival have been reported and the results from studies on IRAEs are contradictory. We performed a multi-center retrospective cohort study at three Swedish centers in patients with metastatic cancer. All patients previously not treated with CPIs and who received monotherapy with a PD-1 or PD-L1 blocker between January 1st, 2016 until May 31st, 2019 were included. The most common type of malignancy was melanoma (47.8%) followed by non-small cell lung cancer (31.0%). Statistically significant longer PFS and OS were observed in multivariate analyses at 6-month landmark time in the vaccinated compared to the non-vaccinated group after adjustment for age, gender, comorbidity, performance status, CNS metastasis and line of treatment (p = .041 and 0.028, respectively). Furthermore, the incidence of any IRAE grade was comparable between vaccinated and non-vaccinated group (p = .85). In conclusion, the current study indicates that survival improves with influenza vaccination while not increasing the risk for side effects in cancer patients treated with checkpoint inhibitors. Hence, our results strongly support influenza vaccination in cancer patients receiving checkpoint inhibitors.
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