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Sökning: WFRF:(Valente Giorgio)

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1.
  • Crippa, Stefano, et al. (författare)
  • A tug-of-war in intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms management : Comparison between 2017 International and 2018 European guidelines.
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Digestive and Liver Disease. - 1590-8658 .- 1878-3562.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: 2017 International and 2018 European guidelines are the most recent guidelines for intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms management.AIM: to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of these guidelines in identifying malignant IPMN.METHODS: data from resected patients with IPMN were collected in two referral centers. Features of risk associated to cancerous degeneration described in International and European guidelines were retrospectively applied. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value in detecting malignant disease were calculated.RESULTS: the study includes 627 resected patients. European guidelines suggest resection in any patient with at least one feature of moderate-risk. International guidelines suggest that patients with moderate-risk features undergo endoscopic ultrasound before surgery. European guidelines had a higher sensitivity (99.2% vs. 83%) but a lower positive predictive value (59.5% vs. 65.8%) and Specificity (2% vs. 37.5%). European guidelines detected almost all malignancies, but 40% of resected patients had low-grade dysplasia. 297 patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound before surgery. 31/116 (26.7%) tumors radiologically classified as "worrisome features" were reclassified as "high-risk stigmata" by endoscopic ultrasound and 24/31 were malignant IPMN.CONCLUSIONS: European and International guidelines have a relatively low diagnostic accuracy, being European guidelines more aggressive. Endoscopic ultrasound can improve guidelines accuracy in patients with moderate-risk features.
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2.
  • Halimi, Asif, et al. (författare)
  • Isolation of pancreatic microbiota from cystic precursors of pancreatic cancer with intracellular growth and DNA damaging properties
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Gut microbes. - : Taylor & Francis Group. - 1949-0976 .- 1949-0984. ; 13:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Emerging research suggests gut microbiome may play a role in pancreatic cancer initiation and progression, but cultivation of the cancer microbiome remains challenging. This pilot study aims to investigate the possibility to cultivate pancreatic microbiome from pancreatic cystic lesions associated with invasive cancer. Intra-operatively acquired pancreatic cyst fluid samples showed culture-positivity mainly in the intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) group of lesions. MALDI-TOF MS profiling analysis shows Gammaproteobacteria and Bacilli dominate among individual bacteria isolates. Among cultivated bacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, particularly Klebsiella pneumoniae, but also Granulicatella adiacens and Enterococcus faecalis, demonstrate consistent pathogenic properties in pancreatic cell lines tested in ex vivo co-culture models. Pathogenic properties include intracellular survival capability, cell death induction, or causing DNA double-strand breaks in the surviving cells resembling genotoxic effects. This study provides new insights into the role of the pancreatic microbiota in the intriguing link between pancreatic cystic lesions and cancer.
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3.
  • Hecken, Tobias, et al. (författare)
  • Conceptual Design Studies of “Boosted Turbofan” Configuration for short range
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: AIAA 2020-0506 Session: Hybrid Electric Aircraft Design Under Clean Sky 2 (LPA WP1.6.1.4). - : American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc, AIAA.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper describes the current activities at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) and an associated consortium related to conceptual design studies of an aircraft configuration with hybrid electric propulsion for a typical short range commercial transport mission. The work is implemented in the scope of the European Clean Sky 2 program in the project “Advanced Engine and Aircraft Configurations” (ADEC) and “Turbo electric Aircraft Design Environment” (TRADE). The configuration analyzed incorporates parallel hybrid architecture consisting of gas turbines, electric machines, and batteries that adds electric power to the fans of the engines. A conceptual aircraft sizing workflow built in the DLR’s “Remote Component Environment” (RCE) incorporating tools of DLR that are based on semi-empirical and low level physics based methods. The TRADE consortium developed a simulation and optimization design platform with analysis models of higher fidelity for an aircraft with hybrid electric propulsion architecture. An implementation of the TRADE simulation and optimization design platform into the DLR’s RCE workflow by replacing the DLR models was carried out. The focus of this paper is on the quantitative evaluation of the “Boosted Turbofan” configuration utilizing the resulting workflow. In order to understand the cooperation between the DLR and TRADE consortium, a brief overview of the activities is given. Then the multi-disciplinary overall aircraft sizing workflow for hybrid electric aircraft built in RCE is shown. Hereafter, the simulation and optimization models of the TRADE design platform are described. Subsequently, an overview of the aircraft configuration considered in the scope of this work is given. The design space studies of the “Boosted Turbofan” configuration are presented. Finally, the deviations of the results between the workflows with and without the TRADE modules are discussed.
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4.
  • Klionsky, Daniel J., et al. (författare)
  • Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Autophagy. - : Landes Bioscience. - 1554-8635 .- 1554-8627. ; 8:4, s. 445-544
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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5.
  • Schnitzbauer, Andreas A, et al. (författare)
  • A prospective randomised, open-labeled, trial comparing sirolimus-containing versus mTOR-inhibitor-free immunosuppression in patients undergoing liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma.
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: BMC cancer. - 1471-2407. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The potential anti-cancer effects of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are being intensively studied. To date, however, few randomised clinical trials (RCT) have been performed to demonstrate anti-neoplastic effects in the pure oncology setting, and at present, no oncology endpoint-directed RCT has been reported in the high-malignancy risk population of immunosuppressed transplant recipients. Interestingly, since mTOR inhibitors have both immunosuppressive and anti-cancer effects, they have the potential to simultaneously protect against immunologic graft loss and tumour development. Therefore, we designed a prospective RCT to determine if the mTOR inhibitor sirolimus can improve hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)-free patient survival in liver transplant (LT) recipients with a pre-transplant diagnosis of HCC.
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7.
  • Sielemann, M., et al. (författare)
  • ON the SHAFT SPEED SELECTION of PARALLEL HYBRID AERO ENGINES
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo. - : American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). - 9780791884898 ; 1
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The boosted turbo fan or parallel hybrid is a promising means to reduce fuel consumption of gas turbines on aircraft. With an electric drive on the low-pressure spool of the gas turbine, it requires a trade-off between the characteristics of the gas turbine and the electric power sub-systems. Reducing specific thrust at a given thrust requirement results in a larger fan with a lower pressure ratio. This leads to improved propulsive efficiency but at the expense of increased weight and nacelle drag. At a given design relative tip Mach number, increasing fan size and hence tip diameter means the fan shaft speed will need to be reduced. This will, according to occasionally quoted rules of thumb', make the directly coupled electrical drive more efficient but heavier. The objective of this paper is to expose some key aspects of this trade-off in terms of efficiency and weight, and relate them to these guidelines. The paper applies sophisticated methodology in both addressed domains. For the gas turbine, multi-point design is used. Here, established synthesis matching schemes focusing on gas turbine performance parameters are extended with parameters from the sizing and weight estimation such as diameters and tip speeds. For the electrical machine, fully analytical sizing capturing the impact of cooling supply is used. The paper reports estimated gas path and machine geometries. It gives an understanding of the interactions between both sub-systems and allows concluding which low pressure spool speed gives the best instantaneous performance. It largely confirms the quoted rules of thumb but exposes that the factors affecting machine efficiency are more involved than implied for an integrated design.
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8.
  • Xin, Zhao, et al. (författare)
  • A framework for optimization of hybrid aircraft
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the ASME Turbo Expo. - : American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). - 9780791858608 ; 3
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To achieve the goals of substantial improvements in efficiency and emissions set by Flightpath 2050, fundamentally different concepts are required. As one of the most promising solutions, electrification of the aircraft primary propulsion is currently a prime focus of research and development. Unconventional propulsion sub-systems, mainly the electrical power system, associated thermal management system and transmission system, provide a variety of options for integration in the existing propulsion systems. Different combinations of the gas turbine and the unconventional propulsion sub-systems introduce different configurations and operation control strategies. The trade-off between the use of the two energy sources, jet fuel and electrical energy, is primarily a result of the trade-offs between efficiencies and sizing characteristics of these sub-systems. The aircraft structure and performance are the final carrier of these trade-offs. Hence, full design space exploration of various hybrid derivatives requires global investigation of the entire aircraft considering these key propulsion sub-systems and the aircraft structure and performance, as well as their interactions. This paper presents a recent contribution of the development for a physics-based simulation and optimization platform for hybrid electric aircraft conceptual design. Modeling of each subsystem and the aircraft structure are described as well as the aircraft performance modeling and integration technique. With a focus on the key propulsion sub-systems, aircraft structure and performance that interfaces with existing conceptual design frameworks, this platform aims at full design space exploration of various hybrid concepts at a low TRL level.
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