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  • de Jong, Simone, et al. (författare)
  • Applying polygenic risk scoring for psychiatric disorders to a large family with bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Communications Biology. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2399-3642. ; 1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Psychiatric disorders are thought to have a complex genetic pathology consisting of interplay of common and rare variation. Traditionally, pedigrees are used to shed light on the latter only, while here we discuss the application of polygenic risk scores to also highlight patterns of common genetic risk. We analyze polygenic risk scores for psychiatric disorders in a large pedigree (n ~ 260) in which 30% of family members suffer from major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. Studying patterns of assortative mating and anticipation, it appears increased polygenic risk is contributed by affected individuals who married into the family, resulting in an increasing genetic risk over generations. This may explain the observation of anticipation in mood disorders, whereby onset is earlier and the severity increases over the generations of a family. Joint analyses of rare and common variation may be a powerful way to understand the familial genetics of psychiatric disorders.
  • Pabst, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Decomposing social inequalities in alcohol consumption in Germany 1995-2015 : an age-period-cohort analysis
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Addiction. - 0965-2140. ; 114:8, s. 1359-1368
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background and aims Previous research indicates that compared with individuals with lower socio-economic status (SES), individuals in higher SES groups are more often drinkers but those who drink report drinking smaller amounts more frequently. We aimed to decompose trends in self-reported alcohol consumption in Germany into age, period and birth cohort effects and examine whether these effects varied by SES. Design Age-period-cohort (APC) analysis using data from eight waves of the cross-sectional German Epidemiological Survey of Substance Abuse (ESA) collected between 1995 and 2015. Setting Germany. Participants The analytical sample included n=65821 individuals aged 18-64years reporting alcohol use within the last 30days. Measurements Alcohol measures included drinking prevalence, alcohol volume and prevalence of episodic heavy drinking (EHD). Educational attainment was used as an indicator of SES. A series of generalized linear and logistic regression models, including both main and interaction effects of age, period and cohort with SES, were estimated. Findings Regression models revealed significant interactions between APC effects and SES on two alcohol consumption measures. Higher SES was consistently associated with drinking prevalence across age (P<0.001), period (P=0.016) and cohort (P=0.016), and with volume of drinking in younger cohorts (P=0.002) and 50+-year-olds (P=0.001). Model results were inconclusive as to whether or not APC effects on EHD prevalence differed by SES. Conclusions In Germany, there are positive associations between socio-economic status and alcohol consumption during the life-course, over time and among birth cohorts. Three groups appear vulnerable to risky drinking: high socio-economic status young birth cohorts who drink high average quantities, low socio-economic status young birth cohorts who show a risky drinking pattern and high socio-economic status adults in their 50s and older who increase their drinking volume beyond that age.
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