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1.
  • Bentham, James, et al. (författare)
  • A century of trends in adult human height
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: eLIFE. - 2050-084X. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Being taller is associated with enhanced longevity, and higher education and earnings. We reanalysed 1472 population-based studies, with measurement of height on more than 18.6 million participants to estimate mean height for people born between 1896 and 1996 in 200 countries. The largest gain in adult height over the past century has occurred in South Korean women and Iranian men, who became 20.2 cm (95% credible interval 17.522.7) and 16.5 cm (13.319.7) taller, respectively. In contrast, there was little change in adult height in some sub-Saharan African countries and in South Asia over the century of analysis. The tallest people over these 100 years are men born in the Netherlands in the last quarter of 20th century, whose average heights surpassed 182.5 cm, and the shortest were women born in Guatemala in 1896 (140.3 cm; 135.8144.8). The height differential between the tallest and shortest populations was 19-20 cm a century ago, and has remained the same for women and increased for men a century later despite substantial changes in the ranking of countries.
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  • Danaei, Goodarz, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of diabetes definition on global surveillance of diabetes prevalence and diagnosis: a pooled analysis of 96 population-based studies with 331288 participants
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology. - : Elsevier. - 2213-8595 .- 2213-8587. ; 3:8, s. 624-637
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Diabetes has been defined on the basis of different biomarkers, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose in an oral glucose tolerance test (2hOGTT), and HbA(1c). We assessed the effect of different diagnostic definitions on both the population prevalence of diabetes and the classification of previously undiagnosed individuals as having diabetes versus not having diabetes in a pooled analysis of data from population-based health examination surveys in different regions. Methods We used data from 96 population-based health examination surveys that had measured at least two of the biomarkers used for defining diabetes. Diabetes was defined using HbA(1c) (HbA(1c) >= 6 . 5% or history of diabetes diagnosis or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs) compared with either FPG only or FPG-or-2hOGTT definitions (FPG >= 7 . 0 mmol/L or 2hOGTT >= 11 . 1 mmol/L or history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated diabetes prevalence, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights. We compared the prevalences of diabetes using different definitions graphically and by regression analyses. We calculated sensitivity and specificity of diabetes diagnosis based on HbA1c compared with diagnosis based on glucose among previously undiagnosed individuals (ie, excluding those with history of diabetes or using insulin or oral hypoglycaemic drugs). We calculated sensitivity and specificity in each survey, and then pooled results using a random-effects model. We assessed the sources of heterogeneity of sensitivity by meta-regressions for study characteristics selected a priori. Findings Population prevalence of diabetes based on FPG- or-2hOGTT was correlated with prevalence based on FPG alone (r= 0 . 98), but was higher by 2-6 percentage points at different prevalence levels. Prevalence based on HbA(1c) was lower than prevalence based on FPG in 42 . 8% of age-sex-survey groups and higher in another 41 . 6%; in the other 15 . 6%, the two definitions provided similar prevalence estimates. The variation across studies in the relation between glucose-based and HbA(1c)-based prevalences was partly related to participants' age, followed by natural logarithm of per person gross domestic product, the year of survey, mean BMI, and whether the survey population was national, subnational, or from specific communities. Diabetes defined as HbA(1c) 6 . 5% or more had a pooled sensitivity of 52 . 8% (95% CI 51 . 3-54 . 3%) and a pooled specificity of 99 . 74% (99 . 71-99 . 78%) compared with FPG 7 . 0 mmol/L or more for diagnosing previously undiagnosed participants; sensitivity compared with diabetes defined based on FPG-or-2hOGTT was 30 . 5% (28 . 7-32 . 3%). None of the preselected study-level characteristics explained the heterogeneity in the sensitivity of HbA(1c) versus FPG. Interpretation Different biomarkers and definitions for diabetes can provide different estimates of population prevalence of diabetes, and differentially identify people without previous diagnosis as having diabetes. Using an HbA(1c)-based definition alone in health surveys will not identify a substantial proportion of previously undiagnosed people who would be considered as having diabetes using a glucose-based test.
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5.
  • Movérare, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Differential effects on bone of estrogen receptor alpha and androgen receptor activation in orchidectomized adult male mice.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 100:23, s. 13573-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Androgens may regulate the male skeleton either directly by stimulation of the androgen receptor (AR) or indirectly by aromatization of androgens into estrogens and, thereafter, by stimulation of the estrogen receptors (ERs). To directly compare the effect of ER activation on bone in vivo with the effect of AR activation, 9-month-old orchidectomized wild-type and ER-inactivated mice were treated with the nonaromatizable androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, 17beta-estradiol, or vehicle. Both ERalpha and AR but not ERbeta activation preserved the amount of trabecular bone. ERalpha activation resulted both in a preserved thickness and number of trabeculae. In contrast, AR activation exclusively preserved the number of trabeculae, whereas the thickness of the trabeculae was unaffected. Furthermore, the effects of 17beta-estradiol could not be mediated by the AR, and the effects of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone were increased rather than decreased in ER-inactivated mice. ERalpha, but not AR or ERbeta, activation resulted in preserved thickness, volumetric density, and mechanical strength of the cortical bone. ERalpha activation increased serum levels of insulin-like growth factor I, which were positively correlated with all the cortical and trabecular bone parameters that were specifically preserved by ERalpha activation but not by AR activation, suggesting that insulin-like growth factor I might mediate these effects of ERalpha activation. Thus, the in vivo bone-sparing effect of ERalpha activation is distinct from the bone-sparing effect of AR activation in adult male mice. Because these two pathways are clearly distinct from each other, one may speculate that a combined treatment of selective ER modulators and selective AR modulators might be beneficial in the treatment of osteoporosis.
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  • Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia, et al. (författare)
  • Dihydrotestosterone treatment results in obesity and altered lipid metabolism in orchidectomized mice.
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.). - 1930-7381. ; 14:4, s. 662-72
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To determine the role of androgen receptor (AR) activation for adipose tissue metabolism. Sex steroids are important regulators of adipose tissue metabolism in men. Androgens may regulate the adipose tissue metabolism in men either directly by stimulation of the AR or indirectly by aromatization of androgens into estrogens and, thereafter, by stimulation of the estrogen receptors. Previous studies have shown that estrogen receptor alpha stimulation results in reduced fat mass in men. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Orchidectomized mice were treated with the non-aromatizable androgen 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 17beta-estradiol, or vehicle. Vo(2), Vco(2), resting metabolic rate, locomotor activity, and food consumption were measured. Furthermore, changes in hepatic gene expression were analyzed. RESULTS: DHT treatment resulted in obesity, associated with reduced energy expenditure and fat oxidation. In contrast, DHT did not affect food consumption or locomotor activity. Furthermore, DHT treatment resulted in increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglyceride levels associated with markedly decreased 7alpha-hydroxylase gene expression, indicating decreased bile acid production. DISCUSSION: We showed that AR activation results in obesity and altered lipid metabolism in orchidectomized mice. One may speculate that AR antagonists might be useful in the treatment of obesity in men.
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7.
  • Ohlsson, Claes, 1965, et al. (författare)
  • Comparisons of Immunoassay and Mass Spectrometry Measurements of Serum Estradiol Levels and Their Influence on Clinical Association Studies in Men
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. - : Oxford University Press. - 0021-972X .- 1945-7197. ; 98:6, s. E1097-E1102
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Immunoassay-based techniques, routinely used to measure serum estradiol (E2), are known Objective: Our objective was to compare immunoassay and MS measurements of E2 levels in men and Design and Setting: Middle-aged and older male subjects participating in the population-based Main Outcome Measures: Immunoassay and MS measurements of serum E2 were compared and Results: Within each cohort, serum E2 levels obtained by immunoassay and MS correlated moderately Conclusions: Our findings suggest interference in the immunoassay E2 analyses, possibly by CRP or a
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8.
  • Tivesten, Åsa, 1969, et al. (författare)
  • Additive protective effects of estrogen and androgen treatment on trabecular bone in ovariectomized rats.
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of bone and mineral research : the official journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. - 0884-0431. ; 19:11, s. 1833-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Both ER and AR activation regulates trabecular bone mass. We show that combined estrogen and androgen treatment results in additive protection of trabecular bone in OVX rats. This may in part be attributable to the effect of AR activation to attenuate the inhibitory effect of ER activation on bone formation. INTRODUCTION: Sex steroids are important regulators of trabecular bone mass. Both estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) activation results in increased trabecular bone mass. The aim of this study was to investigate if combined estrogen and androgen treatment might be beneficial in the treatment of trabecular bone loss. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve-week-old female rats were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with vehicle (V), 17beta-estradiol (E2; ER activation), dihydrotestosterone (DHT; AR activation), or the combination (E2 + DHT) for 6 weeks. The skeletal phenotype was analyzed by pQCT, microCT, histomorphometry of growth plates, and serum levels of biochemical bone markers. RESULTS: Both E2 (+121% over V) and DHT (+34%) preserved the trabecular volumetric BMD (tvBMD) in OVX rats. The effect of E2 and DHT on tvBMD was additive, resulting in a 182% increase over V in the rats given E2 + DHT. MicroCT analyses of the trabecular bone microstructure revealed that the effect of E2 and DHT was additive on the number of trabeculae. E2 treatment reduced serum markers of both bone resorption (collagen C-terminal telopeptide) and bone formation (osteocalcin), indicating reduced bone turnover. Addition of DHT to E2 treatment did not modulate the effects of E2 on the marker of bone resorption, whereas it attenuated the inhibitory effect of E2 on the bone formation marker, which might explain the additive protective effect of E2 and DHT on trabecular bone mass. In contrast, DHT partially counteracted the suppressive effect of E2 on longitudinal bone growth and the E2-induced alterations in growth plate morphology. CONCLUSIONS: These findings show that combined estrogen and androgen treatment results in additive protective effects on trabecular bone in OVX rats. Our data suggest that a combined treatment with selective ER and AR modulators might be beneficial in the treatment of osteoporosis.
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9.
  • Yeap, B. B., et al. (författare)
  • Androgens in men study (AIMS): Protocol for meta-analyses of individual participant data investigating associations of androgens with health outcomes in men
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: BMJ Open. - : BMJ Publishing Group. - 2044-6055. ; 10:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Introduction This study aims to clarify the role(s) of endogenous sex hormones to influence health outcomes in men, specifically to define the associations of plasma testosterone with incidence of cardiovascular events, cancer, dementia and mortality risk, and to identify factors predicting testosterone concentrations. Data will be accrued from at least three Australian, two European and four North American population-based cohorts involving approximately 20 000 men. Methods and analysis Eligible studies include prospective cohort studies with baseline testosterone concentrations measured using mass spectrometry and 5 years of follow-up data on incident cardiovascular events, mortality, cancer diagnoses or deaths, new-onset dementia or decline in cognitive function recorded. Data for men, who were not taking androgens or drugs suppressing testosterone production, metabolism or action; and had no prior orchidectomy, are eligible. Systematic literature searches were conducted from 14 June 2019 to 31 December 2019, with no date range set for searches. Aggregate level data will be sought where individual participant data (IPD) are not available. One-stage IPD random-effects meta-analyses will be performed, using linear mixed models, generalised linear mixed models and either stratified or frailty-augmented Cox regression models. Heterogeneity in estimates from different studies will be quantified and bias investigated using funnel plots. Effect size estimates will be presented in forest plots and non-negligible heterogeneity and bias investigated using subgroup or meta-regression analyses. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approvals obtained for each of the participating cohorts state that participants have consented to have their data collected and used for research purposes. The Androgens In Men Study has been assessed as exempt from ethics review by the Human Ethics office at the University of Western Australia (file reference number RA/4/20/5014). Each of the component studies had obtained ethics approvals; please refer to respective component studies for details. Research findings will be disseminated to the scientific and broader community via the publication of four research articles, with each involving a separate set of IPD meta-analyses (articles will investigate different, distinct outcomes), at scientific conferences and meetings of relevant professional societies. Collaborating cohort studies will disseminate findings to study participants and local communities. PROSPERO registration number CRD42019139668. © Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. Re-use permitted under CC BY. Published by BMJ.
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