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Sökning: WFRF:(Varenhorst E.)

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  • Sandblom, G, et al. (författare)
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen for Prostate Cancer Staging in a Population-based Register
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - 0036-5599. ; 36:2, s. 99-105
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Previous studies have shown a relationship between serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level and prostate tumour volume. Reports based on selected case series have also indicated that serum PSA may be used for staging, although a varying prevalence of metastasizing tumours complicates the interpretation of these studies. In order to determine the accuracy of the serum level of PSA in predicting the presence of metastases we performed a prospective cohort study of a geographically defined population of men with prostate cancer.Methods: Serum level of PSA and the results of investigations for regional lymph node and distant metastases were recorded for all 8328 men with prostate cancer registered in the Swedish National Prostate Cancer Register 1996-1997.Results: The prevalence of lymph node metastases among men who had undergone lymph node exploration was 4%, 16% and 33% for well, moderately and poorly differentiated tumours. The corresponding prevalence of distant metastases was 12%, 30% and 48%. With serum PSA <20 ng/ml as a cut-off point the negative likelihood ratios for well and moderately differentiated tumours were found to be 0.47 and 0.45 for lymph node metastases and 0.24 and 0.18 for distant metastases, resulting in post-test probabilities >92% for the exclusion of metastases. In men with poorly differentiated tumours, the negative likelihood ratio would need to be even lower to safely exclude disseminated disease.Conclusion: For well to moderately differentiated tumours, further investigations to assess the presence of metastases may be omitted with no great risk for understaging if serum PSA <20 ng/ml.
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  • Bill-Axelson, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Radical prostatectomy versus watchful waiting in localized prostate cancer : the Scandinavian prostate cancer group-4 randomized trial
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 100:16, s. 1144-54
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The benefit of radical prostatectomy in patients with early prostate cancer has been assessed in only one randomized trial. In 2005, we reported that radical prostatectomy improved prostate cancer survival compared with watchful waiting after a median of 8.2 years of follow-up. We now report results after 3 more years of follow-up. METHODS: From October 1, 1989, through February 28, 1999, 695 men with clinically localized prostate cancer were randomly assigned to radical prostatectomy (n = 347) or watchful waiting (n = 348). Follow-up was complete through December 31, 2006, with histopathologic review and blinded evaluation of causes of death. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using the Cox proportional hazards model. Statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During a median of 10.8 years of follow-up (range = 3 weeks to 17.2 years), 137 men in the surgery group and 156 in the watchful waiting group died (P = .09). For 47 of the 347 men (13.5%) who were randomly assigned to surgery and 68 of the 348 men (19.5%) who were not, death was due to prostate cancer. The difference in cumulative incidence of death due to prostate cancer remained stable after about 10 years of follow-up. At 12 years, 12.5% of the surgery group and 17.9% of the watchful waiting group had died of prostate cancer (difference = 5.4%, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.2 to 11.1%), for a relative risk of 0.65 (95% CI = 0.45 to 0.94; P = .03). The difference in cumulative incidence of distant metastases did not increase beyond 10 years of follow-up. At 12 years, 19.3% of men in the surgery group and 26% of men in the watchful waiting group had been diagnosed with distant metastases (difference = 6.7%, 95% CI = 0.2 to 13.2%), for a relative risk of 0.65 (95% CI = 0.47 to 0.88; P = .006). Among men who underwent radical prostatectomy, those with extracapsular tumor growth had 14 times the risk of prostate cancer death as those without it (RR = 14.2, 95% CI = 3.3 to 61.8; P < .001). CONCLUSION: Radical prostatectomy reduces prostate cancer mortality and risk of metastases with little or no further increase in benefit 10 or more years after surgery.
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  • Sandblom, G, et al. (författare)
  • Prostate-specific antigen as surrogate for characterizing prostate cancer subgroups
  • 2002
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology. - 0036-5599 .- 1651-2065. ; 36:2, s. 106-112
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVETo evaluate how serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels in a population-based cohort of men with prostate cancer vary with age and intensity in the diagnostic activity and to describe the treatment selection processes associated with PSA level.MATERIAL AND METHODSAll men in the Swedish National Prostate Cancer Register diagnosed during 1996-1997 were included. In 1996 the register included 19 counties, covering 61% of the Swedish male population, and in 1997 21 counties with 79% of the Swedish male population.RESULTSA total of 8328 men were registered. PSA levels were missing in 341 cases. With increasing PSA there was a shift towards more advanced and poorly differentiated tumours. PSA at diagnosis increased with age, with the exception of patients younger than 50 years who had higher PSA values. The mean logarithm of PSA correlated negatively with the percentage of localized tumours (p < 0.005) and the age-adjusted incidence (p < 0.05) in each respective county in 1997. PSA was higher in men receiving radiotherapy compared with those treated with radical prostatectomy as well as in the group treated with bilateral orchiectomy compared with those receiving GnRH-analogues.CONCLUSIONSIf PSA is used as a surrogate measure of extent of tumour volume in a population of prostate cancer patients, our findings indicate that age distribution and differences in incidence (possibly due to variation in diagnostic activity) should be taken into account. In our cohort there was a selection process, probably in part guided by PSA level, when choosing type of curative or palliative treatment.
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  • Escaned, Javier, et al. (författare)
  • Safety of the Deferral of Coronary Revascularization on the Basis of Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio and Fractional Flow Reserve Measurements in Stable Coronary Artery Disease and Acute Coronary Syndromes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: JACC : Cardiovascular Interventions. - ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 1936-8798. ; 11:15, s. 1437-1449
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical outcomes of patients deferred from coronary revascularization on the basis of instantaneous wave-free ratio (iFR) or fractional flow reserve (FFR) measurements in stable angina pectoris (SAP) and acute coronary syndromes (ACS). BACKGROUND Assessment of coronary stenosis severity with pressure guidewires is recommended to determine the need for myocardial revascularization. METHODS The safety of deferral of coronary revascularization in the pooled per-protocol population (n = 4,486) of the DEFINE-FLAIR (Functional Lesion Assessment of Intermediate Stenosis to Guide Revascularisation) and iFR-SWEDEHEART (Instantaneous Wave-Free Ratio Versus Fractional Flow Reserve in Patients With Stable Angina Pectoris or Acute Coronary Syndrome) randomized clinical trials was investigated. Patients were stratified according to revascularization decision making on the basis of iFR or FFR and to clinical presentation (SAP or ACS). The primary endpoint was major adverse cardiac events (MACE), defined as the composite of all-cause death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, or unplanned revascularization at 1 year. RESULTS Coronary revascularization was deferred in 2,130 patients. Deferral was performed in 1,117 patients (50%) in the iFR group and 1,013 patients (45%) in the FFR group (p amp;lt; 0.01). At 1 year, the MACE rate in the deferred population was similar between the iFR and FFR groups (4.12% vs. 4.05%; fully adjusted hazard ratio: 1.13; 95% confidence interval: 0.72 to 1.79; p = 0.60). A clinical presentation with ACS was associated with a higher MACE rate compared with SAP in deferred patients (5.91% vs. 3.64% in ACS and SAP, respectively; fully adjusted hazard ratio: 0.61 in favor of SAP; 95% confidence interval: 0.38 to 0.99; p = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS Overall, deferral of revascularization is equally safe with both iFR and FFR, with a low MACE rate of about 4%. Lesions were more frequently deferred when iFR was used to assess physiological significance. In deferred patients presenting with ACS, the event rate was significantly increased compared with SAP at 1 year. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier on behalf of the American College of Cardiology Foundation.
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