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  • Abdul Manan, Marizwan, et al. (författare)
  • Development of a safety performance function for motorcycle accident fatalities on Malaysian primary roads
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Safety Science. - Elsevier. - 0925-7535. ; 60, s. 13-20
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study uses a generalized linear model approach, i.e. negative binomial regression, to develop a predictive model for motorcycle fatal accidents on Malaysian primary roads. For the modeling process, a huge data inventory has been carried out, integrating the road geometry features, fatal accident records and traffic censuses from 3 selected states for the past 3-year period. The results show that motorcycle fatalities per kilometer on primary roads are statistically significantly affected by the average daily number of motorcycles and the number of access points per kilometer. The model established for this study can also be regarded as the first motorcycle safety performance function in Malaysia and probably in Asia. Also noted in this study is the need to establish a proper and systematic road geometry and traffic census inventory in order to develop better accident prediction models for Malaysia in the future. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
  • Abdul Manan, Marizwan, et al. (författare)
  • Exploration of motorcyclists’ behavior at access points of a Malaysian primary road – A qualitative observation study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Safety Science. - Elsevier. - 0925-7535. ; 74:April, s. 172-183
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The majority of motorcycle accident fatalities in Malaysia occur on primary roads, especially at access points situated along straight road sections. To explore the behavioral factors that may contribute to motorcyclists being involved in hazardous situations at these locations and to develop working hypotheses for a consecutive quantitative study, a qualitative observational study was carried out. Six subject riders exiting from the access point of a primary road were observed. The observations were narrated in detail and coding was used as a means to analyze the observations and divide (and sub-divide) them into categories, which were then segregated into themes. The results of the study produced a number of hypotheses based on various combination themes, i.e. background condition, motorcyclists’ behavior before exit, motorcyclists’ behavior during exit, and involvement in serious traffic conflicts. The newly developed hypotheses from this study are presented and discussed; they are put forward to be tested in a consecutive quantitative observational study. This study also presents novelty in terms of applying a qualitative observational study on motorcyclists, which can be easily adopted not only for Malaysian researches but also all countries that face similar motorcycle problems at access points or junctions.
  • Abdul Manan, Muhammad Marizwan, et al. (författare)
  • Road characteristics and environment factors associated with motorcycle fatal crashes in Malaysia
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: IATSS Research. - Elsevier. - 0386-1112. ; 42:4, s. 207-220
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study aims to determine risk factors contributing to traffic crashes in 9,176 fatal cases involving motorcycle in Malaysia between 2010 and 2012. For this purpose, both multinomial and mixed models of motorcycle fatal crash outcome based on the number of vehicle involved are estimated. The corresponding model predicts the probability of three fatal crash outcomes: motorcycle single-vehicle fatal crash, motorcycle fatal crash involving another vehicle and motorcycle fatal crash involving two or more vehicles. Several road characteristic and environmental factors are considered including type of road in the hierarchy, location, road geometry, posted speed limit, road marking type, lighting, time of day and weather conditions during the fatal crash. The estimation results suggest that curve road sections, no road marking, smooth, rut and corrugation of road surface and wee hours, i.e. between 00.00. am to 6. am, increase the probability of motorcycle single-vehicle fatal crashes. As for the motorcycle fatal crashes involving multiple vehicles, factors such as expressway, primary and secondary roads, speed limit more than 70. km/h, roads with non-permissible marking, i.e. double lane line and daylight condition are found to cause an increase the probability of their occurrence. The estimation results also suggest that time of day (between 7. pm to 12. pm) has an increasing impact on the probability of motorcycle single-vehicle fatal crashes and motorcycle fatal crashes involving two or more vehicles. Whilst the multinomial logit model was found as more parsimonious, the mixed logit model is likely to capture the unobserved heterogeneity in fatal motorcycle crashes based on the number of vehicles involved due to the underreporting data with two random effect parameters including 70. km/h speed limit and double lane line road marking.
  • Abdul Manan, Marizwan, et al. (författare)
  • Motorcycle fatalities in Malaysia
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: IATSS Research. - Elsevier. - 0386-1112. ; 36:1, s. 30-39
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Malaysia has the highest road fatality risk (per 100,000 population) among the ASEAN countries and more than 50% of the road accident fatalities involve motorcyclists. This study has collected and analysed data from the police, government authorities, and national and international research institutes. Only fatality data are used due to the severe underreporting of severe injuries (up to 600%) and slight injuries (up to 1400%). The analysis reveals that the highest numbers of motorcycle fatalities occur in rural locations (61%), on primary roads (62%) and on straight road sections (66%). The majority are riders (89%), 16 to 20 years old (22.5%), and 90% of the motorcycles are privately owned. Of those involved in fatal accidents, 75% of the motorcyclists wear helmets, and 35% do not have proper licences. The highest number of fatalities by type of collision is ‘angular or side’ (27.5%). Although fatal motorcyclist crashes mostly involve ‘passenger cars’ (28%), motorcyclists are responsible for 50% of the collisions either by crashing singly (25%) or with other motorcyclists (25%). While male motorcyclists predominate (94% of fatalities), female motorcyclists aged 31 to 70, possessing ‘no licence’, not wearing helmets and travelling during the day, account for a higher percentage than male motorcyclists. Malaysia must acquire more motorcycle exposure data and establish an injury recording system and database based on hospital-records. To reduce motorcycle fatalities, it first has to understand why young male motorcyclists are prone to fatal crashes in the evenings and on weekends on rural primary roads, especially on straight road sections.
  • Abdul Manan, Marizwan, et al. (författare)
  • Motorcyclists’ road safety related behavior along primary roads in Malaysia – a case study
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: 9th Malaysian Road Conference 2014 and PIARC International Seminar (10 – 12 Nov 2014),Petaling Jaya, Malaysia,2014-11-11.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Majority of Malaysian motorcycle fatalities have occurred along straight road sections, which are mostly two-lane undivided roads with several small junctions or access points. In order to gain more insight into the actual road traffic situation and the course of events on these sites because, an observational and traffic conflict study, focusing on motorcyclists, was conducted by the author between June and August 2012 on straight road sections that has access points along primary roads in Malaysia. Our speed analysis showed that the majority of the motorcyclists traveled below the speed limit and had a lower speed when approaching the access point, especially when road users were on it. However, when the primary road traffic volume was high, they maintained higher speeds compared to other vehicles. The percentage of motorcyclists that did not slow down while approaching the access point was higher on the nearside to the access point approach, especially when they were travelling near the shoulder, and when there is a vehicle waiting on the approach of the access point. Our conflict study has shown that motorcyclists entering from the access point are involved in serious traffic conflicts with mainly motorcycles and heavy vehicles, to about the same extent as other vehicles entering the primary road.
  • Abdul Manan, Marizwan, et al. (författare)
  • Motorcyclists’ road safety related behavior at access points on primary roads in Malaysia – A case study
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Safety Science. - Elsevier. - 0925-7535. ; 77:August, s. 80-94
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • An observational study, focusing on motorcyclists, was conducted between June and August 2012 at access points on straight road sections of primary roads in Malaysia. This was done in order to gain more insight into the actual road traffic situation at these sites. The majority of the motorcyclists kept to the speed limit and lowered speed when approaching an access point, especially when road users were on it. However, when the primary road traffic volume was high, they maintained higher speeds compared to other vehicles. The behavioral observations revealed a risky right turning movement, i.e. Opposite Indirect Right Turn (OIRT), from the access point into the primary road. Motorcyclists generally had a high compliance rate of helmet (except for female motorcyclists) and headlight usage. Motorcyclists attempting to enter the primary road were poor at utilizing the turning indicator. They were observed not to turn their heads to look for vehicles when entering a road with a low volume of traffic, compared to entering a road with a high volume of traffic. Most of the motorcyclists did not comply with the stop line rule, especially those who made the OIRT. Motorcyclists entering from the access point are involved in serious traffic conflicts to about the same extent as other vehicles. Moreover, motorcyclists who stopped at the stop line and made a right turn into the primary road by accepting a short gap, resulting in a time lag of less than 4 s, were involved in the majority of the serious conflicts.
  • Adedokun, Adeyemi, et al. (författare)
  • Interaction between Cyclists and Motor Vehicles : the role of infrastructure design and vehicle characteristics
  • 2019
  • Rapport (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of the project was to examine interactions between motor vehicle drivers and cyclists at intersections and the impact of infrastructure design and motor vehicle characteristics on interactive behaviour. The project activities included literature reviews on cycling infrastructure at intersections, vehicle driver behaviour and cyclist behaviour; questionnaires among motor vehicle drivers and cyclists across different cities in Sweden; field observations to investigate what cues cyclists use to interpret the intention of motor vehicles they interact with at signalised intersections; on-site interviews with cyclists to explore their strategy in an encounter with a motor vehicle; and a cycling simulator study to examine the behaviour of cyclists when approaching an intersection and the factors that may influence their decisions. The findings confirm that the way the cycling infrastructure is designed at intersections contributes to how cyclists and motor vehicles interact. Placing cyclists and motor vehicle drivers close (where they are visible to one another) at intersection areas increases the level of presence-awareness for both road users and consequently it increases safety. Though cyclists may feel more uncomfortable (exposed and unsafe) with this solution, they tend to be more careful and attentive. This finding from the literature was confirmed by the field observations showing that mixed traffic, i.e. “no cycle facility” at the intersection is the safest solution and the cycle lane solution is the least safe one. However, the on-site interviews with cyclists revealed that the large majority of the respondents preferred the infrastructure solution with a separated bicycle path. This is a typical case where objective safety and subjective safety stand in opposite relationship. The findings also revealed that one-directional cycle tracks enhance interaction at intersections, since motor vehicle drivers only expect cyclists from one direction. However, cyclists not following the rule and riding against the prescribed direction create problems and conflictive situations. Cyclists and the way they use the road infrastructure were found to be highly heterogeneous; the availability of cycling infrastructure at an intersection does not guarantee that cyclists use it as expected by designers and perhaps by motor vehicle drivers, as the infrastructure solution in some cases might not provide the shortest path for the cyclist. The uncertainty in cycling behaviour was found to be more at intersections with no cycling infrastructure. Confidence level among cyclists was found to affect their interaction with motor vehicles which tends to be hard for motor vehicle drivers to predict as different cyclists behave differently depending on their confidence in traffic.The majority of the interviewed cyclists said that when arriving at an intersection just after a motor vehicle they usually pass it on its right side. This was seen in observations on sites with cycle lane or cycle path but not on sites with mixed traffic. Also, if the motor vehicle was a heavy vehicle (bus or truck), somewhat fewer cyclists passed it on its right side. Also the cycling simulator study revealed that the most significant difference of longitudinal stop position was between the condition of a narrow lane without cycle lane marking and a truck standing at the stop line and the condition of wide lane with cycle lane marking and a car standing at the stop line, where the average stop position of the cyclist was behind the truck in the first condition and next to the car in the second condition. This finding corresponds to the test cyclists’ verbal expressions of the importance of “being visible and avoiding the blind spot”. The increased caution associated with the presence of a truck is motivated and in line with previous studies. At sites with mixed traffic (no cycle facility), compared to with cycle lane or cycle path, the cyclists’ scanning behaviour was more complete. At sites with cycle path, the cyclists looked for eye contact with the driver of the motor vehicle to a much larger extent than cyclists at the other two types of sites. Cyclists at sites with mixed traffic (no cycle facility) were more active in their visual search behaviour than cyclists at the other two types of sites. Also, those cyclists who passed the motor vehicle on its right side were more active in their visual search behaviour than those who did not pass the motor vehicle. The share of critical situations indicates that sites with mixed traffic (no cycle facility) is the safest solution and cycle lane solution is the least safe one.
  • Adell, Emeli, et al. (författare)
  • Actors’ expectations and requests regarding ISA implementation.
  • 2003
  • Ingår i: the ICTCT 16th workshop,Netherlands,2003-10-29.
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The stake holders seem to be pending on each others reaction towards ISA-systems (Intelligent Speed Adaptation). A situation can occur in which the car owners do not invest in the system because the car industry do not believe in it, the car industry waits upon the politicians’ standpoint, and the politicians leer at the public opinion… Decision makers need a good picture of what decisions are needed in order to make the car industry produce the system; to make companies with fleet of vehicles invest in the system; to make purchaser of transport services demand the system; to make the insurance companies reward drivers with the system etc. The manufacturers need straight answers of the standpoint of the decision makers and how big the demand among companies with fleets of vehicles is. Private car drivers and companies with fleets of vehicles need to know what support they can expect from the government or from the insurance companies. The study is based on explorative studies were the different stake holders’ attitudes, interests, needs, expectations are explored and the differences between the stake holders are analysed. The stake holders are categorized into four different groups: – Stake holders keen to improve traffic safety (politicians and insurance companies) – Manufacturer (car industry) – Catalysts (opinion makers) – Users (privet car drivers, companies with fleet of vehicles, car rental companies etc.) The aim of this paper is to describe the hypotheses and methods of the study.
  • Adell, Emeli, et al. (författare)
  • Auditory and haptic systems for in-car speed management – A comparative real life study
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Transportation Research. Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. - Elsevier. - 1369-8478. ; 11:6, s. 445-458
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Field experiments with ISA (intelligent speed adaptation) were carried out in Hungary and Spain in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Twenty private vehicles in each country were equipped with two kinds of systems: (1) support via an active accelerator pedal (AAP) and (2) warning via beep signals and a flashing red light when the speed limit was exceeded (BEEP). The test drivers drove for a month with both systems installed in each car. Speed was continually logged in all the vehicles and the test drivers were interviewed about their acceptance and experiences of the systems. The results show that both systems reduced the mean and 85 percentile speeds, but that the AAP was more effective. There was no long-lasting effect on speeds when the systems were removed. After the trial half of the drivers were willing to keep an ISA system, but more drivers wanted to keep the BEEP-system even though it showed lower satisfaction ratings than the AAP. The results indicate no major differences between the countries despite the workload being perceived to be higher in Hungary than in Spain.
  • Adell, Emeli, et al. (författare)
  • Developing HMI components for a driver assistance system for safe speed and safe distance
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: IET Intelligent Transport Systems. - Institution of Engineering and Technology. - 1751-9578. ; 2:1, s. 1-14
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This paper describes a pre-screening procedure that was carried out with a number of candidate Human-Machine-Interaction solutions in three different modes (visual, auditory and haptic) for the concepts of “safe speed and safe distance” (referred to as SASPENCE) of an Advanced Driver Assistance System (termed as ADAS). This procedure was performed simultaneously in two European countries, Sweden and Spain, in 2004. In each country two groups of about 30 drivers each participated in the two-phase procedure. Eleven visual display alternatives for speed information and ten alternatives for distance warning as well as twelve auditory warning sounds were screened by a standard procedure. In addition, two alternatives of haptic feedback via the accelerator pedal were tested in a mock-up driving seat. The overall results provide recommendations for visual, auditory and haptic feedback alternatives to build a driver support system for safe speed and safe distance.
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