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Sökning: WFRF:(Vaz Sharmila)

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  • McAuliffe, Tomomi, et al. (författare)
  • A comparison of families of children with autism spectrum disorders in family daily routines, service usage, and stress levels by regionality
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Developmental Neurorehabilitation. - TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC. - 1751-8423. ; 20:8, s. 483-490
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: To explore whether family routines, service usage, and stress levels in families of children with autism spectrum disorder differ as a function of regionality. Methods: Secondary analysis of data was undertaken from 535 surveys. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to investigate differences between families living in densely populated (DP) areas and less densely populated (LDP) areas. Results: Families living in LDP areas were found to: (1) have reduced employment hours (a two-parent household: Exp (B) = 3.48, p amp;lt; .001, a single-parent household: Exp (B) = 3.32, p = .011); (2) travel greater distance to access medical facilities (Exp (B) = 1.27, p = .006); and (3) report less severe stress levels (Exp (B) = 0.22, p = .014). Conclusions: There were no differences in family routines; however, flexible employment opportunities and travel distance to medical services need to be considered in families living in LDP areas.
  • Ahlstrand, Inger, et al. (författare)
  • Self-efficacy and pain acceptance as mediators of the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities in women and men with rheumatoid arthritis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Clinical Rehabilitation. - Sage Publications. - 0269-2155. ; 31:6, s. 824-834
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To study whether personal factors (self-efficacy and pain acceptance) mediate the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities in persons with rheumatoid arthritis.METHODS: Persons with rheumatoid arthritis for at least four years (n = 737; 73% women) answered a questionnaire measuring self-efficacy, pain acceptance, performance of valued life activities, and self-rated pain. Relationships among these constructs were explored using univariate and multivariate analyses. Structural equation modelling was then used to examine the mediational role of personal factors on the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities.RESULTS: A direct negative association between pain and performance of valued life activities was identified (Beta = .34, P < .001). This suggests that people with rheumatoid arthritis who had higher levels of pain has increased difficulties in performing valued life activities. Self-efficacy and activity engagement component of pain acceptance mediated the relationship between pain and performance of valued life activities, however the pain willingness component of pain acceptance did not influence participation in valued life activities.CONCLUSION: These findings highlight the importance of considering personal factors, such as pain acceptance and self-efficacy, in facilitating participation in valued life activities.
  • Almberg, Maria, et al. (författare)
  • Experiences of facilitators or barriers in driving education from learner and novice drivers with ADHD or ASD and their driving instructors
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Developmental Neurorehabilitation. - Taylor & Francis. - 1751-8423. ; 20:2, s. 59-67
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Little is known about whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) experience any specific facilitators or barriers to driving education.Objective: To explore the facilitators or barriers to driving education experienced by individuals with ASD or ADHD who obtained a learner’s permit, from the perspective of the learner drivers and their driving instructors.Methods: Data were collected from 33 participants with ASD or ADHD, and nine of their driving instructors.Results: Participants with ASD required twice as many driving lessons and more on-road tests than those with ADHD. Participants with ADHD repeated the written tests more than those with ASD. Driving license theory was more challenging for individuals with ADHD, whilst individuals with ASD found translating theory into practice and adjusting to “unfamiliar” driving situations to be the greatest challenges.Conclusion: Obtaining a driving license was associated with stressful training experience.
  • Black, Melissa H., et al. (författare)
  • Disembedding performance and eye gaze behavior of adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. - Elsevier. - 1750-9467. ; 66
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Atypical visual perception in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) may contribute to superiority in disembedding tasks. Gaze behavior has provided some insights in to mechanisms underlying this purported superiority in children, however evidence is limited and requires additional investigation.Method: The performance and gaze behavior of 27 adolescents with ASD and 27 matched typically developing (TD) peers were examined during the Figure Ground Subtest of the Test of Visual Perception Skills-third edition (TVPS-3).Results: Compared to their TD counterparts, adolescents with ASD were no different in accuracy, however, had a longer response time. Differences in gaze behavior were also observed, characterized by adolescents with ASD spending less time viewing the incorrect and target figures, and spending a greater proportion of time viewing irrelevant areas of the stimuli compared to TD adolescents.Conclusions: Results suggest that while altered visual perception was observed, this did not contribute to superiority in disembedding tasks in adolescents with ASD. Future research is required to elucidate conditions under which altered visual perception may contribute to behavioral superiority. 
  • Ciccarelli, Marina, et al. (författare)
  • Managing childrens postural risk when using mobile technology at home: Challenges and strategies
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Applied Ergonomics. - Elsevier. - 0003-6870. ; 51, s. 189-198
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Maintaining the musculoskeletal health of children using mobile information and communication technologies (ICT) at home presents a challenge. The physical environment influences postures during ICT use and can-contribute to musculoskeletal complaints. Few studies have assessed postures of children using ICT in home environments. The present study investigated the Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) scores determined by 16 novice and 16 experienced raters. Each rater viewed 11 videotaped scenarios of a child using two types of mobile ICT at home. The Grand Scores and Action Levels determined by study participants were compared to those of an ergonomist experienced in postural assessment. All postures assessed were rated with an Action Level of 2 or above; representing a postural risk that required further investigation and/or intervention. The sensitivity of RULA to assess some of the unconventional postures adopted by children in the home is questioned. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.
  • Cordier, Reinie, et al. (författare)
  • Formal intergenerational mentoring at Australian Men's Sheds : a targeted survey about mentees, mentors, programmes and quality
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Health & Social Care in the Community. - 0966-0410. ; 24:6, s. e131-e143
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intergenerational mentoring enables a purposeful exchange of skills and knowledge to enhance individual and social outcomes for sub-groups at risk of health and social disparities. Male intergenerational mentoring may be an approach to help address these disparities in young men. Over 1000 Men's Sheds operate in Australia with 39% providing some form of mentoring mainly to youth. Yet, little is known about the variables intrinsic to creating and running quality programmes. This study aimed to identify the characteristics of formal intergenerational mentoring programmes, review their quality against the Australian Youth Mentoring Network (AYMN) quality benchmarks, and identify the factors that predict quality in these programmes. All known Australian Men's Sheds were invited to participate in an online cross-sectional survey. Forty sheds with formal mentor programmes completed the survey for a total of 387 mentees (mean = 9.7 mentees/programme), the majority being male. The majority of mentor programme facilitators were unpaid male volunteers aged 61 years and older, and programmes were unfunded. Promoting social and emotional well-being of the mentees was the primary focus in more than half of the programmes, and working on a shared construction project was the most common activity. Respondents rated the three most important factors that influenced programme effectiveness as being: (i) meaningful activities; (ii) mentors’ approach; and (iii) a safe environment. Univariate analyses revealed that mentoring programmes that had a system in place for screening mentors, trained mentors and evaluated the programme were most likely to rate highly against the AYMN quality benchmarks. 
  • Cuomo, Belinda M., et al. (författare)
  • Effectiveness of Sleep-Based Interventions for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder : A Meta-Synthesis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Pharmacotherapy. - John Wiley & Sons. - 0277-0008. ; 37:5, s. 555-578
  • Forskningsöversikt (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Sleep problems are common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This meta-synthesis collated eight previously published systematic reviews examining the efficacy of sleep interventions in children with ASD in an attempt to present a clear analysis of trialed interventions. The collated reviews consider five major groups of sleep interventions for children with ASD: melatonin therapy, pharmacologic treatments other than melatonin, behavioral interventions, parent education/education programs, and alternative therapies (massage therapy, aromatherapy, and multivitamin and iron supplementation). These eight reviews were based on 38 original studies and address the efficacy of interventions across 17 sleep problem domains. The results of this meta-synthesis suggest that no single intervention is effective across all sleep problems in children with ASD. However, melatonin, behavioral interventions, and parent education/education program interventions appear the most effective at ameliorating multiple domains of sleep problems compared with other interventions. Due to the heterogeneous causative factors and presentations of disordered sleep, further research into the effectiveness of sleep interventions may target specific phenotypic subgroups rather than a broad analysis across the general ASD population. Similarly, future research needs to consider the efficacy of different polytherapeutic approaches in order to provide clinicians with evidence to inform best practice. In the meantime, this review supports clinicians' decision making for a majority of the identified sleep problems in the ASD population.
  • McAuliffe, Tomomi, et al. (författare)
  • Quality of Life, Coping Styles, Stress Levels, and Time Use in Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders : Comparing Single Versus Coupled Households
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of autism and developmental disorders. - Springer. - 0162-3257. ; 47:10, s. 3189-3203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • This study aimed to examine the influence of differences in household status on the parental stress, coping, time use and quality of life (QoL) among mothers of children with autism spectrum disorders. Forty-three single and 164 coupled mothers completed the survey. Data were analysed using multivariate logistic regression. We found that single mothers were 1.05 times more likely to report lower levels of environmental QoL. Whilst they were 1.73 times more likely to use acceptance coping style, this association did not persist after adjusting for total number of children, household income and employment status. There was no difference in time use and stress between these mothers. Possible environmental issues for single mothers and implications for future research are discussed.
  • McAuliffe, Tomomi, et al. (författare)
  • The experiences of mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder Managing family routines and mothers health and wellbeing
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Australian Occupational Therapy Journal. - Wiley-Blackwell. - 0045-0766. ; 66:1, s. 68-76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/aimFamilies of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) use family routines to provide predictability and structure to support occupational engagement of their family members. Mothers assume the major role to orchestrate occupations in constructing family routines, which may impact their health and wellbeing. However, the experiences of mothers in managing family routines and their health and wellbeing have not been the main focus in previous research. Thus, this study explored the experiences of mothers of children with ASD in managing family routines and their perceptions of the impact of family routines on their health and wellbeing.MethodsAn interpretive phenomenological approach was used. Twenty mothers of children with ASD, aged between 28 and 56 years, participated in semi‐structured interviews. Data were transcribed verbatim and each transcript was analysed.ResultsFive themes that summarise mothers’ perceptions towards health and wellbeing when managing family routines emerged: (i) Keeping on track keeping healthy; (ii) My life is busy, because I do everything for everyone else; (iii) Keeping on track all the time is tiring or frustrating; (iv) Looking after my family by looking after myself; and (v) I am not perfect and it is OK.ConclusionThis study highlighted the substantial efforts required in constructing family routines that may be at the cost of mothers’ health and wellbeing. However, mothers may be able to cope with everyday demands in managing family routines by changing their perspectives. By integrating ‘me‐time’ activities in family routines, mothers may be able to support their own health and wellbeing. Mothers’ values and needs are reflected in family routines; hence, thorough understanding of family routines may be a key to support mothers’ occupational engagement.
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