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  • Johansson, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • After the NPM Wave : Evidence-based practice and the vanishing client
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Offentlig Förvaltning. Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration. - : Göteborgs universitet. - 2000-8058 .- 2001-3310. ; 19:2, s. 69-88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Over the last two decades, a movement for Evidence-Based Management (EBM) has surfaced across the Atlantic world with pretensions of being a successor of New Public Management (NPM). In this paper, we focus on Swedish social welfare as an arena where persistent government attempts have been made to implement locally new evidence-based ideas, specifically evidence-based practice (EBP). In Swedish discourse, the meaning of “evidence-based” is contested. One interpretation maintains that best (and only acceptable) evidence comes from the use of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Another interpretation maintains that evidence from research constitutes only one leg of a multi-factorial definition; that is, this view contends that RCT evidence should be considered along with experience of practitioners and clients (users). Although client participation was an important tenet in the incipient attempts to implement EBP, by using translation theory this article will show that later attempts have tended to ignore the client’s perspective. From this foundation, we address why client views and outlooks have been ignored in EBP implementation.
  • Alexanderson, Karin, 1952- (författare)
  • Vilja, kunna, förstå : om implementering av systematisk dokumentation för verksamhetsutveckling i socialtjänsten
  • 2006
  • Doktorsavhandling (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • The aim of this study is to analyse conditions that either promote or hamper the implementation of methods for systematic documentation, follow-up and evaluation in social-work services with individuals and families. The theoretical framework consists of organization theories. Human Service Organizations (HSO) theory is complemented with concepts from the new institutionalism, domain theory, implementation theory, and theory about interventions. A concrete case, a project has been studied. The purpose of project was to implement methods for systematic documentation in public social services. With the notation “integrated” is meant that the methods should be built in and adjusted to the social-work practice. The methods were ASI (Addiction Severity Index) and IUS (a locally based model for integrated evaluation by inspiration from Göran Sandell). Data has been captured in a pretest/ posttest design (Marlow 2000). This means that “state of things” has been described before the intervention and after. The methods used were surveys and interviews (individual and group). The process has been documented through research notes proceeding records, protocols and some diaries written by social workers. Four municipalities from the middle of Sweden took part with five working groups. Two groups contained social workers acting with children and families and three groups were working with drug abusers. The population consisted of the social workers, the managers responsible for the individual and family entities, the politicians and the clients who were affected during the time of the project. The implementation of ASI and IUS has not occurred in the extent that was stated in the intervention theory. This means that ASI and IUS were not used in all new cases that occurred during the time of the project. The interviews supposed to be done in the beginning of the clients contact with the agency tended to be done more often than the follow-up interviews. After the project ended, three of five working groups decided to continue to use ASI (one group) and IUS (two groups). The overall impression is that the respondents comprehend, they have the willingness but they do not have the capability of using ASI and IUS. The organization does not seem to have the capacity of imposing requirements and giving resources. The outcomes do not seem to be the most important issue for the social services. These conditions are discussed in the study by means of the theoretical concepts. In the end, there is an effort to adjust the implementation theory to human service organizations.
  • Beckman, Björn, et al. (författare)
  • Lokalsamhällets förvaltning
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Demokrati i förändring : svenska kommuner och landsting i det lokala välfärdssamhället. - : Publica. - 9138922878
  • Bokkapitel (övrigt vetenskapligt)abstract
    • Abstract is not available
  • Belin, Mats-Åke, et al. (författare)
  • Setting quantified road safety targets : Theory and practice in Sweden
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of Health & Medical Informatics. - 2157-7420. ; 1:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: The Swedish Government has a long tradition of setting quantified time-bounded road safety targets. Thisarticle identifies and analyses these targets, and evaluates the national road safety targets adopted in 1989, 1996 and1998 in order to assess whether the different targets fulfil the SMART criteria of being specific, measurable, achievable,realistic and time bounded.Methods: This study is a retrospective case study and in order to trace all relevant policy documents that containinformation on quantified targets, a snowball technique was applied. The searching process result in a total of 23 keydocuments and these were analyzed in two steps. The first step examined how the targets have been formulated andthe second step assessed whether the targets had been constructed according to the SMART criteria.Results: This study shows that, although all the specified targets were theoretically achievable, those targetsadopted in 1996 and 1998 were, according to this evaluation, unrealistic.Conclusion: This study raises the question as to the rationality of political leaders when adopting targets whichcould be difficult to achieve in reality. One explanation for their adoption is that unrealistic targets could serve as amanagement tool in that they could be rational from a road safety point of view because they could inspire stakeholdersto do more than they would otherwise have done. In this article, other motives behind the setting of unrealistic targetsare also discussed.
  • Belin, Matts-Åke, et al. (författare)
  • Speed Cameras in Sweden and Victoria, Australia : A case study
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention. - 0001-4575 .- 1879-2057. ; 42:6, s. 2165-2170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this article, the ideas behind two different speed camera systems in Australia, Victoria, and Sweden are explored and compared. The study shows that even if the both systems technically have the same aim – to reduce speeding – the ideas of how that should be achieved differ substantially. The approach adopted in Victoria is based on the concept that speeding is a deliberate offence in which a rational individual wants to drive as fast as possible and is prepared to calculate the costs and benefits of his behaviour. Therefore, the underlying aim of the intervention is to increase the perceived cost of committing an offence whilst at the same time decrease the perceived benefits, so that the former outweigh the latter. The Swedish approach, on the other hand, appears to be based on a belief that road safety is an important priority for the road users and one of the reasons to why road users drive too fast is lack of information and social support. In order to evaluate road safety interventions and how their effects are created together with the ambition to transfer technology, there is a need for a comprehensive understanding of the systems and their modi operandi in their specific contexts. This study has shown that there are major differences between the ideas behind the two speed camera programs in Victoria, Australia and Sweden and that these ideas have an impact on the actual design of the different systems and how these are intended to create road safety effects.
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