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Sökning: WFRF:(Viitanen Matti)

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  • Verkkoniemi, Auli, et al. (författare)
  • Neuropsychological functions in variant Alzheimer's disease with spastic paraparesis
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Journal of the Neurological Sciences. - 0022-510X .- 1878-5883. ; 218:1-2, s. 29-37
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Few data exist on the effects of specific Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related mutations on cognitive function. We present neuropsychological test results in eight members of a large kindred with variant Alzheimer's disease (VarAD) due to a deletion of the presenilin 1 (PS-1) gene, encompassing exon 9. The disease was neuropathologically characterized by the presence of large, unusual, "cotton wool" plaques (CWP). Four surviving patients were prospectively tested, and retrospective neuropsychological data were collected from additional four deceased patients. The neuropsychological evaluation was based on tests of verbal and visual memory, abstract thinking, and visuoconstructive and spatial functions. In addition, psychiatric symptoms were evaluated. In four patients, brain glucose metabolism was examined by positron emission tomography (PET). PET showed temporoparietal hypometabolism typical of AD. In addition, variable patterns of hypometabolism (hemispherical asymmetry and occipital accentuation) were related to individual deficits of cognitive performance. However, all these early-onset patients (age range 43-63 years) with a deletion mutation of PS-1 gene showed prominent memory impairment and deficits in visuoconstructive and intellectual functions.
  • Agüero-Torres, Hedda, et al. (författare)
  • Institutionalization in the elderly : The role of chronic diseases and dementia. Cross-sectional and longitudinal data from a population-based study
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology. - : Elsevier. - 0895-4356 .- 1878-5921. ; 54:8, s. 795-801
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A population-based study of 1810 persons, aged 75+, was investigated to evaluate the role of dementia and other chronic diseases as determinants of institutionalization in the elderly. The study population was examined at baseline and after a 3-year interval. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, functional dependence, dementia, cerebrovascular disease and hip fracture were associated with living in an institution at baseline. Additionally, functional dependence, hip fracture and dementia were also associated with moving to an institution during the 3-year follow-up. In a similar analysis, including only nondemented subjects, the Mini-Mental State Examination emerged as one of the strongest determinants. The population attributable risk percentage of institutionalization during the 3-year follow-up due to dementia was 61%. This study confirms that dementia and cognitive impairment are the main contributors to institutionalization in the elderly, independently of their sociodemographic status, social network, or functional status.
  • Almkvist, Ove, et al. (författare)
  • Longitudinal cognitive decline in autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease varies with mutations in APP and PSEN1 genes
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 82, s. 40-47
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The purpose was to compare longitudinal cognitive changes in APP and PSEN1 gene mutation carriers and noncarriers from four autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease (ADAD) families across preclinical and early clinical stages of disease. Carriers (n = 34) with four different mutations (PSEN1(M146V), PSEN1(H163Y), APP(SWE), and APP(ARC)) and noncarriers (n = 41) were followed up longitudinally with repeated cognitive assessments starting many years before the expected clinical onset. The relationship between cognition and years to expected clinical onset, education, age, and type of mutation was analyzed using mixed-effects models. Results showed an education-dependent and time-related cognitive decline with linear and quadratic predictors in mutation carriers. Cognitive decline began close to the expected clinical onset and was relatively rapid afterward in PSEN1 mutation carriers, whereas decline was slower and started earlier than 10 years before expected clinical onset in APP mutation carriers. In noncarriers, the decline was minimal across time in accordance with normal aging. These results suggest that phenotypes for onset and rate of cognitive decline vary with PSEN1 and APP genes, suggesting a behavioral heterogeneity in ADAD. (C) 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
  • Almkvist, Ove, et al. (författare)
  • Predicting Cognitive Decline across Four Decades in Mutation Carriers and Non-carriers in Autosomal-Dominant Alzheimer's Disease
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society. - : CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS. - 1355-6177 .- 1469-7661. ; 23:3, s. 195-203
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate cognitive performance including preclinical and clinical disease course in carriers and non-carriers of autosomal-dominant Alzheimer's disease (adAD) in relation to multiple predictors, that is, linear and non-linear estimates of years to expected clinical onset of disease, years of education and age. Methods: Participants from five families with early-onset autosomal-dominant mutations (Swedish and Arctic APP, PSEN1 M146V, H163Y, and I143T) included 35 carriers (28 without dementia and 7 with) and 44 non-carriers. All participants underwent a comprehensive clinical evaluation, including neuropsychological assessment at the Memory Clinic, Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden. The time span of disease course covered four decades of the preclinical and clinical stages of dementia. Neuropsychological tests were used to assess premorbid and current global cognition, verbal and visuospatial functions, short-term and episodic memory, attention, and executive function. Results: In carriers, the time-related curvilinear trajectory of cognitive function across disease stages was best fitted to a formulae with three predictors: years to expected clinical onset (linear and curvilinear components), and years of education. In non-carriers, the change was minimal and best predicted by two predictors: education and age. The trajectories for carriers and non-carriers began to diverge approximately 10 years before the expected clinical onset in episodic memory, executive function, and visuospatial function. Conclusions: The curvilinear trajectory of cognitive functions across disease stages was mimicked by three predictors in carriers. In episodic memory, executive and visuospatial functions, the point of diverging trajectories occurred approximately 10 years ahead of the clinical onset compared to non-carriers.
  • Craggs, Lucinda, et al. (författare)
  • Quantitative vascular pathology and phenotyping familial and sporadic cerebral small vessel diseases
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Brain Pathology. - 1015-6305. ; 23:5, s. 547-557
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We quantified vascular changes in the frontal lobe and basal ganglia of four inherited small vessel diseases (SVDs) including cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), pontine autosomal dominant microangiopathy and leukoencephalopathy (PADMAL), hereditary multi-infarct dementia of Swedish type (Swedish hMID), and hereditary endotheliopathy with retinopathy, nephropathy, and stroke (HERNS). Vascular pathology was most severe in CADASIL, and varied with marginally greater severity in the basal ganglia compared to the frontal lobe. The overall sclerotic index values in frontal lobe were in the order CADASIL ≥ HERNS > PADMAL > Swedish hMID > sporadic SVD, and in basal ganglia CADASIL > HERNS > Swedish hMID > PADMAL> sporadic SVD. The subcortical white matter was almost always more affected than any gray matter. We observed glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) protein immunoreactivities were most affected in the white matter indicating capillary degeneration whereas collagen IV (COL4) immunostaining was increased in PADMAL cases in all regions and tissue types. Overall, GLUT-1 : COL4 ratios were higher in the basal ganglia indicating modifications in capillary density compared to the frontal lobe. Our study shows that the extent of microvascular degeneration varies in these genetic disorders exhibiting common end-stage pathologies but is the most aggressive in CADASIL.
  • Ekblad, Laura L., et al. (författare)
  • Midlife insulin resistance, APOE genotype, and late-life brain amyloid accumulation
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0028-3878 .- 1526-632X. ; 90:13, s. e1150-e1157
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To examine whether midlife insulin resistance is an independent risk factor for brain amyloid accumulation in vivo after 15 years, and whether this risk is modulated by APOE epsilon 4 genotype. Methods This observational study examined 60 elderly volunteers without dementia (mean age at baseline 55.4 and at follow-up 70.9 years, 55.5% women) from the Finnish population-based, nationwide Health2000 study with [C-11]Pittsburgh compound B-PET imaging in 2014-2016. The participants were recruited according to their homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values in the year 2000, and their APOE epsilon 4 genotype. The exposure group (IR+, n = 30) consisted of individuals with HOMA-IR > 2.17 at baseline (highest tertile of the Health2000 study population), and the control group (IR-, n = 30) consisted of individuals with HOMA-IR < 1.25 at baseline (lowest tertile). The groups were enriched for APOE epsilon 4 carriers, resulting in 50% (n = 15) APOE epsilon 4 carriers in both groups. Analyses were performed with multivariate logistic and linear regression. Results An amyloid-positive PET scan was found in 33.3% of the IR-group and 60.0% of the IR+ group (odds ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.1-8.9, p = 0.04). The increased risk was seen in carriers and noncarriers of APOE epsilon 4 genotype. Higher midlife, but not late-life continuous HOMA-IR was associated with a greater brain amyloid burden at follow-up after multivariate adjustments for other cognitive and metabolic risk factors (ss = 0.11, 95% confidence interval 0.002-0.22, p = 0.04). Conclusions These results indicate that midlife insulin resistance is an independent risk factor for brain amyloid accumulation in elderly individuals without dementia.
  • Ihalainen, Saara, et al. (författare)
  • Proteome analysis of cultivated vascular smooth muscle cells from a CADASIL patient
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass. Print). - 1076-1551 .- 1528-3658. ; 13:5-6, s. 305-314
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a vascular dementing disease caused by mutations in NOTCH3 gene, a majority of which are missense mutations leading to an uneven number of cysteine residues in epidermal growth factor like repeats in the extracellular domain of Notch3 receptor (N3ECD). Disease is characterized by degeneration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and accumulation of N3ECD on the VSMCs of small and middle-sized arteries. Recent studies have demonstrated that impairment of Notch3 signaling is not the primary cause of the disease. In the present study we have characterized the protein expression pattern of a unique material of genetically genuine cultured human CADASIL VSMCs by proteomic analysis. We identified 11 differentially expressed proteins, which are involved in protein degradation and folding, contraction of VSMCs and cellular stress. Based on the results the misfolding of Notch3 seems to cause endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of unfolded protein response leading to increased reactive oxygen species and inhibition of cell proliferation. In addition, upregulation of contractile proteins suggests an alteration in the signalling system of VSMC contraction. The accumulation of the N3ECD on the cell surface possibly upregulates the angiotensin II regulatory feedback loop and thereby enhances the readiness of the cells to respond to angiotensin II stimulation.
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