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Sökning: WFRF:(Visvanathan K.)

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1.
  • Wang, Zhaoming, et al. (författare)
  • Imputation and subset-based association analysis across different cancer types identifies multiple independent risk loci in the TERT-CLPTM1L region on chromosome 5p15.33
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: ; 23:24, s. 6616-6633
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have mapped risk alleles for at least 10 distinct cancers to a small region of 63 000 bp on chromosome 5p15.33. This region harbors the TERT and CLPTM1L genes; the former encodes the catalytic subunit of telomerase reverse transcriptase and the latter may play a role in apoptosis. To investigate further the genetic architecture of common susceptibility alleles in this region, we conducted an agnostic subset-based meta-analysis (association analysis based on subsets) across six distinct cancers in 34 248 cases and 45 036 controls. Based on sequential conditional analysis, we identified as many as six independent risk loci marked by common single-nucleotide polymorphisms: five in the TERT gene (Region 1: rs7726159, P = 2.10 × 10(-39); Region 3: rs2853677, P = 3.30 × 10(-36) and PConditional = 2.36 × 10(-8); Region 4: rs2736098, P = 3.87 × 10(-12) and PConditional = 5.19 × 10(-6), Region 5: rs13172201, P = 0.041 and PConditional = 2.04 × 10(-6); and Region 6: rs10069690, P = 7.49 × 10(-15) and PConditional = 5.35 × 10(-7)) and one in the neighboring CLPTM1L gene (Region 2: rs451360; P = 1.90 × 10(-18) and PConditional = 7.06 × 10(-16)). Between three and five cancers mapped to each independent locus with both risk-enhancing and protective effects. Allele-specific effects on DNA methylation were seen for a subset of risk loci, indicating that methylation and subsequent effects on gene expression may contribute to the biology of risk variants on 5p15.33. Our results provide strong support for extensive pleiotropy across this region of 5p15.33, to an extent not previously observed in other cancer susceptibility loci.
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2.
  • Huyghe, Jeroen R., et al. (författare)
  • Discovery of common and rare genetic risk variants for colorectal cancer
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 51:1, s. 76-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To further dissect the genetic architecture of colorectal cancer (CRC), we performed whole-genome sequencing of 1,439 cases and 720 controls, imputed discovered sequence variants and Haplotype Reference Consortium panel variants into genome-wide association study data, and tested for association in 34,869 cases and 29,051 controls. Findings were followed up in an additional 23,262 cases and 38,296 controls. We discovered a strongly protective 0.3% frequency variant signal at CHD1. In a combined meta-analysis of 125,478 individuals, we identified 40 new independent signals at P < 5 x 10(-8), bringing the number of known independent signals for CRC to similar to 100. New signals implicate lower-frequency variants, Kruppel-like factors, Hedgehog signaling, Hippo-YAP signaling, long noncoding RNAs and somatic drivers, and support a role for immune function. Heritability analyses suggest that CRC risk is highly polygenic, and larger, more comprehensive studies enabling rare variant analysis will improve understanding of biology underlying this risk and influence personalized screening strategies and drug development.
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4.
  • Genkinger, J. M., et al. (författare)
  • Central adiposity, obesity during early adulthood, and pancreatic cancer mortality in a pooled analysis of cohort studies
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: ; 26:11, s. 2257-2266
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • positively associated with pancreatic cancer. However, little evidence exists regarding the influence of central adiposity, a high BMI during early adulthood, and weight gain after early adulthood on pancreatic cancer risk. Design: We conducted a pooled analysis of individual-level data from 20 prospective cohort studies in the National Cancer Institute BMI and Mortality Cohort Consortium to examine the association of pancreatic cancer mortality with measures of central adiposity ( e. g. waist circumference; n = 647 478; 1947 pancreatic cancer deaths), BMI during early adulthood ( ages 18- 21 years) and BMI change between early adulthood and cohort enrollment, mostly in middle age or later ( n = 1 096 492; 3223 pancreatic cancer deaths). Multivariable hazard ratios ( HRs) and 95% confidence intervals ( CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: Higher waist-to-hip ratio ( HR = 1.09, 95% CI 1.02- 1.17 per 0.1 increment) and waist circumference ( HR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.00- 1.14 per 10 cm) were associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer mortality, even when adjusted for BMI at baseline. BMI during early adulthood was associated with increased pancreatic cancer mortality ( HR = 1.18, 95% CI 1.11- 1.25 per 5 kg/ m2), with increased risk observed in both overweight and obese individuals ( compared with BMI of 21.0 to < 23 kg/ m(2), HR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.20- 1.55 for BMI 25.0 < 27.5 kg/ m2, HR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.20- 1.84 for BMI 27.5 to < 30 kg/ m2, HR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.11- 1.85 for BMI = 30 kg/ m2). BMI gain after early adulthood, adjusted for early adult BMI, was less strongly associated with pancreatic cancer mortality ( HR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.01- 1.10 per 5 kg/ m2). Conclusions: Our results support an association between pancreatic cancer mortality and central obesity, independent of BMI, and also suggest that being overweight or obese during early adulthood may be important in influencing pancreatic cancer mortality risk later in life.
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5.
  • Genkinger, J. M., et al. (författare)
  • Measures of body fatness and height in early and mid-to-late adulthood and prostate cancer : risk and mortality in The Pooling Project of Prospective Studies of Diet and Cancer
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Annals of Oncology. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0923-7534 .- 1569-8041. ; 31:1, s. 103-114
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Advanced prostate cancer etiology is poorly understood. Few studies have examined associations of anthropometric factors (e.g. early adulthood obesity) with advanced prostate cancer risk.Patients and methods: We carried out pooled analyses to examine associations between body fatness, height, and prostate cancer risk. Among 830 772 men, 51 734 incident prostate cancer cases were identified, including 4762 advanced (T4/N1/M1 or prostate cancer deaths) cases, 2915 advanced restricted (same as advanced, but excluding localized cancers that resulted in death) cases, 9489 high-grade cases, and 3027 prostate cancer deaths. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate study-specific hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI); results were pooled using random effects models.Results: No statistically significant associations were observed for body mass index (BMI) in early adulthood for advanced, advanced restricted, and high-grade prostate cancer, and prostate cancer mortality. Positive associations were shown for BMI at baseline with advanced prostate cancer (HR = 1.30, 95% CI = 0.95-1.78) and prostate cancer mortality (HR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.12-2.07) comparing BMI >= 35.0 kg/m(2) with 21-22.9 kg/m(2). When considering early adulthood and baseline BMI together, a 27% higher prostate cancer mortality risk (95% CI = 9% to 49%) was observed for men with BMI <25.0 kg/m(2) in early adulthood and BMI >= 30.0 kg/m(2) at baseline compared with BMI <25.0 kg/m(2) in early adulthood and BMI <30.0 kg/m(2) at baseline. Baseline waist circumference, comparing >= 110 cm with <90 cm, and waist-to-hip ratio, comparing >= 1.00 with <0.90, were associated with significant 14%-16% increases in high-grade prostate cancer risk and suggestive or significant 20%-39% increases in prostate cancer mortality risk. Height was associated with suggestive or significant 33%-56% risks of advanced or advanced restricted prostate cancer and prostate cancer mortality, comparing >= 1.90 m with <1.65 m.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that height and total and central adiposity in mid-to-later adulthood, but not early adulthood adiposity, are associated with risk of advanced forms of prostate cancer. Thus, maintenance of healthy weight may help prevent advanced prostate cancer.
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6.
  • Jacobs, Kevin B, et al. (författare)
  • Detectable clonal mosaicism and its relationship to aging and cancer.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - New York : Nature Publishing Group. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 44:6, s. 651-658
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In an analysis of 31,717 cancer cases and 26,136 cancer-free controls from 13 genome-wide association studies, we observed large chromosomal abnormalities in a subset of clones in DNA obtained from blood or buccal samples. We observed mosaic abnormalities, either aneuploidy or copy-neutral loss of heterozygosity, of >2 Mb in size in autosomes of 517 individuals (0.89%), with abnormal cell proportions of between 7% and 95%. In cancer-free individuals, frequency increased with age, from 0.23% under 50 years to 1.91% between 75 and 79 years (P = 4.8 × 10(-8)). Mosaic abnormalities were more frequent in individuals with solid tumors (0.97% versus 0.74% in cancer-free individuals; odds ratio (OR) = 1.25; P = 0.016), with stronger association with cases who had DNA collected before diagnosis or treatment (OR = 1.45; P = 0.0005). Detectable mosaicism was also more common in individuals for whom DNA was collected at least 1 year before diagnosis with leukemia compared to cancer-free individuals (OR = 35.4; P = 3.8 × 10(-11)). These findings underscore the time-dependent nature of somatic events in the etiology of cancer and potentially other late-onset diseases.
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7.
  • Archambault, Alexi N., et al. (författare)
  • Cumulative Burden of Colorectal Cancer Associated Genetic Variants Is More Strongly Associated With Early-Onset vs Late-Onset Cancer
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: ; 158:5, s. 1274-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC, in persons younger than 50 years old) is increasing in incidence; yet, in the absence of a family history of CRC, this population lacks harmonized recommendations for prevention. We aimed to determine whether a polygenic risk score (PRS) developed from 95 CRC-associated common genetic risk variants was associated with risk for early-onset CRC. METHODS: We studied risk for CRC associated with a weighted PRS in 12,197 participants younger than 50 years old vs 95,865 participants 50 years or older. PRS was calculated based on single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with CRC in a large-scale genome-wide association study as of January 2019. Participants were pooled from 3 large consortia that provided clinical and genotyping data: the Colon Cancer Family Registry, the Colorectal Transdisciplinary Study, and the Genetics and Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer Consortium and were all of genetically defined European descent. Findings were replicated in an independent cohort of 72,573 participants. RESULTS: Overall associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS were significant for early-onset cancer, and were stronger compared with late-onset cancer (P for interaction = .01); when we compared the highest PRS quartile with the lowest, risk increased 3.7-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.28-4.24) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.80-3.04). This association was strongest for participants without a first-degree family history of CRC (P for interaction = 5.61 x 10(-5)). When we compared the highest with the lowest quartiles in this group, risk increased 4.3-fold for early-onset CRC (95% CI 3.61-5.01) vs 2.9-fold for late-onset CRC (95% CI 2.70-3.00). Sensitivity analyses were consistent with these findings. CONCLUSIONS: In an analysis of associations with CRC per standard deviation of PRS, we found the cumulative burden of CRC-associated common genetic variants to associate with early-onset cancer, and to be more strongly associated with early-onset than late-onset cancer, particularly in the absence of CRC family history. Analyses of PRS, along with environmental and lifestyle risk factors, might identify younger individuals who would benefit from preventive measures.
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8.
  • Elena, J. W., et al. (författare)
  • Diabetes and risk of pancreatic cancer : a pooled analysis from the pancreatic cancer cohort consortium
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Cancer Causes and Control. - 0957-5243 .- 1573-7225. ; 24:1, s. 13-25
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose: Diabetes is a suspected risk factor for pancreatic cancer, but questions remain about whether it is a risk factor or a result of the disease. This study prospectively examined the association between diabetes and the risk of pancreatic adenocarcinoma in pooled data from the NCI pancreatic cancer cohort consortium (PanScan). Methods: The pooled data included 1,621 pancreatic adenocarcinoma cases and 1,719 matched controls from twelve cohorts using a nested case-control study design. Subjects who were diagnosed with diabetes near the time (<2 years) of pancreatic cancer diagnosis were excluded from all analyses. All analyses were adjusted for age, race, gender, study, alcohol use, smoking, BMI, and family history of pancreatic cancer. Results: Self-reported diabetes was associated with a forty percent increased risk of pancreatic cancer (OR = 1.40, 95 % CI: 1.07, 1.84). The association differed by duration of diabetes; risk was highest for those with a duration of 2-8 years (OR = 1.79, 95 % CI: 1.25, 2.55); there was no association for those with 9+ years of diabetes (OR = 1.02, 95 % CI: 0.68, 1.52). Conclusions: These findings provide support for a relationship between diabetes and pancreatic cancer risk. The absence of association in those with the longest duration of diabetes may reflect hypoinsulinemia and warrants further investigation.
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9.
  • Fortner, Renée T, et al. (författare)
  • Ovarian cancer risk factors by tumor aggressiveness : An analysis from the Ovarian Cancer Cohort Consortium.
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 145:1, s. 58-69
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Ovarian cancer risk factors differ by histotype; however, within subtype, there is substantial variability in outcomes. We hypothesized that risk factor profiles may influence tumor aggressiveness, defined by time between diagnosis and death, independent of histology. Among 1.3 million women from 21 prospective cohorts, 4,584 invasive epithelial ovarian cancers were identified and classified as highly aggressive (death in <1 year, n = 864), very aggressive (death in 1 to < 3 years, n = 1,390), moderately aggressive (death in 3 to < 5 years, n = 639), and less aggressive (lived 5+ years, n = 1,691). Using competing risks Cox proportional hazards regression, we assessed heterogeneity of associations by tumor aggressiveness for all cases and among serous and endometrioid/clear cell tumors. Associations between parity (phet = 0.01), family history of ovarian cancer (phet = 0.02), body mass index (BMI; phet ≤ 0.04) and smoking (phet < 0.01) and ovarian cancer risk differed by aggressiveness. A first/single pregnancy, relative to nulliparity, was inversely associated with highly aggressive disease (HR: 0.72; 95% CI [0.58-0.88]), no association was observed for subsequent pregnancies (per pregnancy, 0.97 [0.92-1.02]). In contrast, first and subsequent pregnancies were similarly associated with less aggressive disease (0.87 for both). Family history of ovarian cancer was only associated with risk of less aggressive disease (1.94 [1.47-2.55]). High BMI (≥35 vs. 20 to < 25 kg/m2 , 1.93 [1.46-2.56] and current smoking (vs. never, 1.30 [1.07-1.57]) were associated with increased risk of highly aggressive disease. Results were similar within histotypes. Ovarian cancer risk factors may be directly associated with subtypes defined by tumor aggressiveness, rather than through differential effects on histology. Studies to assess biological pathways are warranted.
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10.
  • Sampson, Joshua N., et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of Heritability and Shared Heritability Based on Genome-Wide Association Studies for 13 Cancer Types
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. - 0027-8874 .- 1460-2105. ; 107:12
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Studies of related individuals have consistently demonstrated notable familial aggregation of cancer. We aim to estimate the heritability and genetic correlation attributable to the additive effects of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for cancer at 13 anatomical sites.Methods: Between 2007 and 2014, the US National Cancer Institute has generated data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for 49 492 cancer case patients and 34 131 control patients. We apply novel mixed model methodology (GCTA) to this GWAS data to estimate the heritability of individual cancers, as well as the proportion of heritability attributable to cigarette smoking in smoking-related cancers, and the genetic correlation between pairs of cancers.Results: GWAS heritability was statistically significant at nearly all sites, with the estimates of array-based heritability, h(l)(2), on the liability threshold (LT) scale ranging from 0.05 to 0.38. Estimating the combined heritability of multiple smoking characteristics, we calculate that at least 24% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 14% to 37%) and 7% (95% CI = 4% to 11%) of the heritability for lung and bladder cancer, respectively, can be attributed to genetic determinants of smoking. Most pairs of cancers studied did not show evidence of strong genetic correlation. We found only four pairs of cancers with marginally statistically significant correlations, specifically kidney and testes (rho = 0.73, SE = 0.28), diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and pediatric osteosarcoma (rho = 0.53, SE = 0.21), DLBCL and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) (rho = 0.51, SE = 0.18), and bladder and lung (rho = 0.35, SE = 0.14). Correlation analysis also indicates that the genetic architecture of lung cancer differs between a smoking population of European ancestry and a nonsmoking Asian population, allowing for the possibility that the genetic etiology for the same disease can vary by population and environmental exposures.Conclusion: Our results provide important insights into the genetic architecture of cancers and suggest new avenues for investigation.
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