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Sökning: WFRF:(Vucetich John A.)

  • Resultat 1-9 av 9
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  • Bach, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Diminishing return of investment in genetic diversity
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Evolutionary Ecology Research. - : Evolutionary Ecology Ltd. - 1522-0613. ; 14:7, s. 793-801
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Motive: Priorities in conservation management are often difficult to determine because we lack comparable biodiversity metrics. So that actions can be cost-effective, conservation decision-making and management needs such metrics. Question: What suitable metrics can compare efforts and investments in biodiversity conservation? How can established measures of genetic diversity be combined with the economic return-of-investment paradigm? Method: Use the return-of-investment approach, which has previously been restricted to issues of species diversity. Extend it to include genetic diversity. Use Taylor's power law to relate mean abundance, rates of genetic deterioration, and principles of return-of-investment. Key assumptions: We can specify the relationship between cost of conservation and population size. Time-series data are available for each population. We can approximate the effective population size (N-e) of a fluctuating population as the harmonic mean population size. Conclusion: As the financial investment in conservation increases, the estimated marginal increase in genetic diversity diminishes. One can rank actions that increase mean population size according to their associated marginal increases in genetic diversity, thus evaluating which improvements offer the most value for money.
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  • Hedrick, Philip W., et al. (författare)
  • Genomic Variation of Inbreeding and Ancestry in the Remaining Two Isle Royale Wolves
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Heredity. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS INC. - 0022-1503 .- 1465-7333. ; 108:2, s. 120-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry have traditionally been estimated with pedigree information, however, molecular genomic data can provide more detailed examination of these properties. For example, pedigree information provides estimation of the expected value of these measures but molecular genomic data can estimate the realized values of these measures in individuals. Here, we generate the theoretical distribution of inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry for the individuals in the pedigree of the Isle Royale wolves, the first examination of such variation in a wild population with a known pedigree. We use the 38 autosomes of the dog genome and their estimated map lengths in our genomic analysis. Although it is known that the remaining wolves are highly inbred, closely related, and descend from only 3 ancestors, our analyses suggest that there is significant variation in the realized inbreeding and relatedness around pedigree expectations. For example, the expected inbreeding in a hypothetical offspring from the 2 remaining wolves is 0.438 but the realized 95% genomic confidence interval is from 0.311 to 0.565. For individual chromosomes, a substantial proportion of the whole chromosomes are completely identical by descent. This examination provides a background to use when analyzing molecular genomic data for individual levels of inbreeding, relatedness, and ancestry. The level of variation in these measures is a function of the time to the common ancestor(s), the number of chromosomes, and the rate of recombination. In the Isle Royale wolf population, the few generations to a common ancestor results in the high variance in genomic inbreeding.
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  • Uboni, Alessia, et al. (författare)
  • Interannual variability : a crucial component of space use at the territory level
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Ecology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0012-9658 .- 1939-9170. ; 96:1, s. 62-70
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interannual variability in space use and how that variation is influenced by density-dependent and density-independent factors are important processes in population ecology. Nevertheless, interannual variability has been neglected by the majority of space use studies. We assessed that variation for wolves living in 15 different packs within Yellowstone National Park during a 13-year period (1996–2008). We estimated utilization distributions to quantify the intensity of space use within each pack's territory each year in summer and winter. Then, we used the volume of intersection index (VI) to quantify the extent to which space use varied from year to year. This index accounts for both the area of overlap and differences in the intensity of use throughout a territory and ranges between 0 and 1. The mean VI index was 0.49, and varied considerably, with ~20% of observations (n = 230) being <0.3 or >0.7. In summer, 42% of the variation was attributable to differences between packs. These differences can be attributable to learned behaviors and had never been thought to have such an influence on space use. In winter, 34% of the variation in overlap between years was attributable to interannual differences in precipitation and pack size. This result reveals the strong influence of climate on predator space use and underlies the importance of understanding how climatic factors are going to affect predator populations in the occurrence of climate change. We did not find any significant association between overlap and variables representing density-dependent processes (elk and wolf densities) or intraspecific competition (ratio of wolves to elk). This last result poses a challenge to the classic view of predator–prey systems. On a small spatial scale, predator space use may be driven by factors other than prey distribution.
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  • Uboni, Alessia, et al. (författare)
  • Long- and short-term temporal variability in habitat selection of a top predator
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Ecosphere. - : Ecological Society of America. - 2150-8925 .- 2150-8925. ; 6:4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Considerable theory explains the importance of understanding temporal variation in ecological processes. Nevertheless, long-term variability in habitat selection is rarely assessed or even acknowledged. We explored temporal variability in the habitat selection of a top-predator, the wolf (Canis lupus), at two time scales: interannual and seasonal variability. To do this, we developed resource utilization functions to relate wolf habitat selection to environmental variables in different years and seasons. We used radiotelemetry data collected from a wolf population in Yellowstone National Park during a 10-year period (1998-2007) and added a Year variable in the models to account for interannual variation in the studied processes. We also used a three-year data set (nested within the 10-year data set) to incorporate additional variables in the models and test for differences in short- and long-term patterns of habitat selection. Wolves exhibited seasonal variation in habitat selection with respect to distance from roads, elevation, openness, and habitat type. Habitat selection was considerably more complicated during the winter compared to summer, when wolves only selected habitat based on distance from roads. We detected clear patterns of habitat selection in the three-year data set that could not be detected in the 10-year data set, despite the longer data set had more statistical power for pattern detection. This observation is likely the result of the longer data set being comprised of several shorter-term and countervailing patterns. This explanation is also consistent with having detected significant year effects in the 10-year data set. Insomuch as habitat selection is important to conservation and management, this research is significant for demonstrating the different impressions that can be given by short-term and long-term studies. It may be common for short-term data sets to suggest patterns of habitat selection that do not prevail over longer periods of time.
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9.
  • Vucetich, John A., et al. (författare)
  • The logic of persistence
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Biological Conservation. - 0006-3207 .- 1873-2917. ; 143:3, s. 533-534
  • Tidskriftsartikel (övrigt vetenskapligt)
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  • Resultat 1-9 av 9

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