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1.
  • Rasmussen, Eva Rye, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of angioedema induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin receptor blocker treatment
  • ????
  • Ingår i: Pharmacogenomics Journal. - 1470-269X.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Angioedema in the mouth or upper airways is a feared adverse reaction to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) treatment, which is used for hypertension, heart failure and diabetes complications. This candidate gene and genome-wide association study aimed to identify genetic variants predisposing to angioedema induced by these drugs. The discovery cohort consisted of 173 cases and 4890 controls recruited in Sweden. In the candidate gene analysis, ETV6, BDKRB2, MME, and PRKCQ were nominally associated with angioedema (p < 0.05), but did not pass Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (p < 2.89 × 10−5). In the genome-wide analysis, intronic variants in the calcium-activated potassium channel subunit alpha-1 (KCNMA1) gene on chromosome 10 were significantly associated with angioedema (p < 5 × 10−8). Whilst the top KCNMA1 hit was not significant in the replication cohort (413 cases and 599 ACEi-exposed controls from the US and Northern Europe), a meta-analysis of the replication and discovery cohorts (in total 586 cases and 1944 ACEi-exposed controls) revealed that each variant allele increased the odds of experiencing angioedema 1.62 times (95% confidence interval 1.05–2.50, p = 0.030). Associated KCNMA1 variants are not known to be functional, but are in linkage disequilibrium with variants in transcription factor binding sites active in relevant tissues. In summary, our data suggest that common variation in KCNMA1 is associated with risk of angioedema induced by ACEi or ARB treatment. Future whole exome or genome sequencing studies will show whether rare variants in KCNMA1 or other genes contribute to the risk of ACEi- and ARB-induced angioedema.
2.
  • Cavalli, Marco, et al. (författare)
  • Novel regulatory variant detected on the VKORC1 haplotype that is associated with warfarin dose
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Pharmacogenomics (London). - 1462-2416 .- 1744-8042. ; 17:12, s. 1305-1314
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Aim: Warfarin dose requirement is associated with VKORC1 rs9923231, and we studied whether it is a functional variant.</p><p>Materials &amp; methods: We selected variants in linkage disequilibrium with rs9923231 that bind transcription factors in an allele-specific way. Representative haplotypes were cloned or constructed, nuclear protein binding and transcriptional activity were evaluated.</p><p>Results: rs56314408C&gt;T and rs2032915C&gt;T were detected in a liver enhancer in linkage disequilibrium with rs9923231. The rs56314408-rs2032915 C-C haplotype preferentially bound nuclear proteins and had higher transcriptional activity than T-T and the African-specific T-C. A motif for TFAP2A/C was disrupted by rs56314408T. No difference in transcriptional activity was detected for rs9923231G&gt;A.</p><p>Conclusion: Our results supported an activating role for rs56314408C, while rs9923231G&gt;A had no evidence of being functional.</p>
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3.
  • Enroth, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • A strand specific high resolution normalization method for chip-sequencing data employing multiple experimental control measurements
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Algorithms for Molecular Biology. - 1748-7188 .- 1748-7188. ; 7, s. 2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background: High-throughput sequencing is becoming the standard tool for investigating protein-DNA interactions or epigenetic modifications. However, the data generated will always contain noise due to e. g. repetitive regions or non-specific antibody interactions. The noise will appear in the form of a background distribution of reads that must be taken into account in the downstream analysis, for example when detecting enriched regions (peak-calling). Several reported peak-callers can take experimental measurements of background tag distribution into account when analysing a data set. Unfortunately, the background is only used to adjust peak calling and not as a preprocessing step that aims at discerning the signal from the background noise. A normalization procedure that extracts the signal of interest would be of universal use when investigating genomic patterns.</p> <p>Results: We formulated such a normalization method based on linear regression and made a proof-of-concept implementation in R and C++. It was tested on simulated as well as on publicly available ChIP-seq data on binding sites for two transcription factors, MAX and FOXA1 and two control samples, Input and IgG. We applied three different peak-callers to (i) raw (un-normalized) data using statistical background models and (ii) raw data with control samples as background and (iii) normalized data without additional control samples as background. The fraction of called regions containing the expected transcription factor binding motif was largest for the normalized data and evaluation with qPCR data for FOXA1 suggested higher sensitivity and specificity using normalized data over raw data with experimental background.</p> <p>Conclusions: The proposed method can handle several control samples allowing for correction of multiple sources of bias simultaneously. Our evaluation on both synthetic and experimental data suggests that the method is successful in removing background noise.</p>
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6.
  • Mölsä, Melissa, et al. (författare)
  • Functional role of P-glycoprotein in the human blood-placental barrier
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. - 0009-9236 .- 1532-6535. ; 78:2, s. 123-31
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>OBJECTIVE: In vitro and animal experiments suggest that P-glycoprotein forms a functional barrier between maternal and fetal blood circulation in the placenta, thus protecting the fetus from exposure to xenobiotics during pregnancy. In this study we aimed to characterize the role of P-glycoprotein in the blood-placental barrier by use of dually perfused human placenta. METHODS: Twenty-eight human placentas were obtained after delivery, and both the maternal side and the fetal side were perfused for 2 hours. Saquinavir was used as a probe drug for P-glycoprotein-dependent active transfer, and PSC833 (valspodar) or GG918 was used as an inhibitor of P-glycoprotein function in a maternal-to-fetal and fetal-to-maternal perfusion setting. Genotyping for ABCB1 (C3435T and G2677A/T) polymorphism and quantification of P-glycoprotein expression were done for each placenta. RESULTS: The fetal-to-maternal transfer of saquinavir was 108-fold higher (P = .003) compared with transfer from the maternal to the fetal direction. Preperfusion with PSC833 increased the placental transfer of saquinavir by 7.9-fold (P &lt; .001), and preperfusion with GG918 increased it by 6.2-fold (P &lt; .001). The end-perfusion transfer (percentage) of saquinavir at 120 minutes was 11-fold (P &lt; .001) and 6-fold (P &lt; .001) higher in placentas preperfused with PSC833 and GG918, respectively, compared with control. However, PSC833 had no effect on the transfer of saquinavir from the fetal to the maternal direction (P = .79). P-glycoprotein expression was correlated with the PSC833-induced change in the saquinavir transfer (r = 0.75, P = .086). ABCB1 polymorphism did not affect the PSC833- or GG918-induced change in the saquinavir transfer. CONCLUSIONS: P-glycoprotein has a major functional role in the human blood-placental barrier but a negligible role in the removal of substances from the fetal circulation to maternal blood. Pharmacologic blockade of P-glycoprotein function can lead to disruption of the blood-placental barrier and increase the transfer of P-glycoprotein substrates to the fetal side by several-fold, which may be a noteworthy mechanism for teratogenicity.</p>
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7.
  • Paré, Guillaume, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic Determinants of Dabigatran Plasma Levels and Their Relation to Bleeding
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Circulation. - 0009-7322 .- 1524-4539. ; 127:13, s. 1404
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background</strong></p><p>Fixed-dose unmonitored treatment with dabigatran etexilate is effective and has a favorable safety profile in prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation patients compared to warfarin. We hypothesized that genetic variants could contribute to inter-individual variability in blood concentrations of the active metabolite of dabigatran etexilate, and influence the safety and efficacy of dabigatran.</p><p><strong>Methods and Results</strong></p><p>We successfully conducted a genome-wide association study in 2,944 RE-LY participants. The <em>CES1</em> SNP rs2244613 was associated with trough concentrations, and the <em>ABCB1</em> SNP rs4148738 and <em>CES1</em> SNP rs8192935 were associated with peak concentrations at genome-wide significance (P&lt;9 x 10<sup>-8</sup>) with a gene-dose effect. Each minor allele of the <em>CES1</em> SNP rs2244613 was associated with lower trough concentrations (15% decrease per allele, 95%CI 10-19%; P=1.2 x 10<sup>-8</sup>) and a lower risk of any bleeding (OR=0.67, 95%CI 0.55-0.82; P=7 x 10<sup>-5</sup>) in dabigatran-treated participants, with a consistent but non-significant lower risk of major bleeding (OR=0.66, 95%CI 0.43-1.01). The interaction between treatment (warfarin versus all dabigatran) and carrier status was statistically significant (P=0.002) with carriers having less bleeding with dabigatran than warfarin (HR=0.59, 95%CI 0.46-0.76; P=5.2 x 10-5) in contrast to no difference in noncarriers (HR=0.96, 95%CI 0.81-1.14; P=0.65). There was no association with ischemic events, and neither rs4148738 nor rs8192935 was associated with bleeding or ischemic events.</p><p><strong>Conclusions</strong></p><p>Genome-wide association analysis identified that carriage of CES1 rs2244613 minor allele occurred in 32.8% of patients in RELY and was associated with lower exposure to active dabigatran metabolite. The presence of the polymorphism was associated with a lower risk of bleeding.</p><p></p>
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8.
  • Rahi, M., et al. (författare)
  • Influence of adenosine triphosphate and ABCB1 (MDR1) genotype on the P-glycoprotein-dependent transfer of saquinavir in the dually perfused human placenta
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Human and Experimental Toxicology. - 0960-3271 .- 1477-0903. ; 27:1, s. 65-71
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>BACKGROUND: The ATP-dependent drug-efflux pump, P-glycoprotein (P-gp) encoded by ABCB1 (MDR1), plays a crucial role in several tissues forming blood-tissue barriers. Absence of a normally functioning P-gp can lead to a highly increased tissue penetration of a number of clinically important drugs. METHODS: We have studied the dose-response effect of exogenous ATP on the placental transfer of the well-established P-gp substrate saquinavir in 17 dually perfused human term placentas. We have also studied the influence of the ABCB1 polymorphisms 2677G&gt;T/A and 3435C&gt;T on placental P-gp expression (n = 44) and the transfer (n = 16) of saquinavir. RESULTS: The present results indicate that the addition of exogenous ATP to the perfusion medium does not affect the function of P-gp as measured by saquinavir transfer across the human placenta. The variant allele 3435T was associated with significantly higher placental P-gp expression than the wild-type alleles. However, neither polymorphism affected placental transfer of saquinavir nor there was any correlation between P-gp expression and saquinavir transfer. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that addition of exogenous ATP is not required for ATP-dependent transporter function in a dually perfused human placenta. Although the ABCB1 polymorphism 3435C&gt;T altered the expression levels of P-gp in the human placenta, this did not have any consequences on P-gp-mediated placental transfer of saquinavir.</p>
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9.
  • Rahi, Melissa, et al. (författare)
  • Placental transfer of quetiapine in relation to P-glycoprotein activity
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Journal of Psychopharmacology. - 0269-8811 .- 1461-7285. ; 21:7, s. 751-756
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Atypical antipsychotic drugs are well tolerated and thus often preferred in women of fertile age; yet the information on their placental transfer and use during the prenatal period is limited. The aim of this study was to study the placental transfer of quetiapine, a widely used atypical antipsychotic, with special reference to the role of the placental transporter protein, P-glycoprotein (P-gp). This was performed in 18 dually perfused placentas, using the well established P-gp inhibitors PSC833 (valspodar) and GG918 to inhibit the function of P-gp. We also aimed to clarify the significance of two potentially functional ABCB1 single nuclear polymorphisms (SNPs), 2677G&gt;T/A and 3435C&gt;T, on the transplacental transfer (TPT) of quetiapine. The placental transfer of quetiapine in the control group as measured by TPTAUC % (absolute fraction of the dose crossing placenta) was 3.7%, which is 29% less than the transfer of the freely diffusible antipyrine, which was 5.2%. The P-gp inhibitors had no significant effect on the transfer of quetiapine as measured by TPTAUC % (P = 0.77). No correlation was found between the transplacental transfer of quetiapine (TPTAUC %) and placental P-gp expression (P = 0.61). The 3435T allele in exon 26 was associated with significantly higher placental transfer of quetiapine (P = 0.04). We conclude that quetiapine passes the human placenta but that the blood-placental barrier partially limits the transplacental transfer of quetiapine. Administration of P-gp inhibiting drugs with quetiapine is not likely to increase fetal exposure to quetiapine, although the ABCB1 C3435T polymorphism may contribute to inter-individual variation in fetal exposure to quetiapine.</p>
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10.
  • Wadelius, Mia, et al. (författare)
  • Association of warfarin dose with genes involved in its action and metabolism
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - 0340-6717 .- 1432-1203. ; 121:1, s. 23-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We report an extensive study of variability in genes encoding proteins that are believed to be involved in the action and biotransformation of warfarin. Warfarin is a commonly prescribed anticoagulant that is difficult to use because of the wide interindividual variation in dose requirements, the narrow therapeutic range and the risk of serious bleeding. We genotyped 201 patients for polymorphisms in 29 genes in the warfarin interactive pathways and tested them for association with dose requirement. In our study, polymorphisms in or flanking the genes VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C18, CYP2C19, PROC, APOE, EPHX1, CALU, GGCX and ORM1-ORM2 and haplotypes of VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, PROC, F7, GGCX, PROZ, F9, NR1I2 and ORM1-ORM2 were associated with dose (P &lt; 0.05). VKORC1, CYP2C9, CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 were significant after experiment-wise correction for multiple testing (P &lt; 0.000175), however, the association of CYP2C18 and CYP2C19 was fully explained by linkage disequilibrium with CYP2C9*2 and/or *3. PROC and APOE were both significantly associated with dose after correction within each gene. A multiple regression model with VKORC1, CYP2C9, PROC and the non-genetic predictors age, bodyweight, drug interactions and indication for treatment jointly accounted for 62% of variance in warfarin dose. Weaker associations observed for other genes could explain up to approximately 10% additional dose variance, but require testing and validation in an independent and larger data set. Translation of this knowledge into clinical guidelines for warfarin prescription will be likely to have a major impact on the safety and efficacy of warfarin.</p>
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