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  • Kemmer, D., et al. (författare)
  • Exploring the foundation of genomics : a Northern blot reference set for the comparative analysis of transcript profiling technologies
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Comparative and functional genomics. - 1531-6912 .- 1532-6268. ; 5:8, s. 584-595
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In this paper we aim to create a reference data collection of Northern blot results and demonstrate how such a collection can enable a quantitative comparison of modern expression profiling techniques, a central component of functional genomics studies. Historic ally, Northern blots were the de facto standard for determining RNA transcript levels. However, driven by the demand for analysis of large sets of genes in parallel, high-throughput methods, such as microarrays, dominate modern profiling efforts. To facilitate assessment of these methods, in comparison to Northern blots, we created a database of published Northern results obtained with a standardized commercial multiple tissue blot (dbMTN). In order to demonstrate the utility of the dbMTN collection for technology comparison, we also generated expression profiles for genes across a set of human tissues, using multiple profiling techniques. No method produced profiles that were strongly correlated with the Northern blot data. The highest correlations to the Northern blot data were determined with microarrays for the subset of genes observed to be specifically expressed in a single tissue in the Northern analyses. The database and expression profiling data are available via the project website (http://www.cisreg.ca). We believe that emphasis on multitechnique validation of expression profiles is justified, as the correlation results between platforms are not encouraging on the whole. Supplementary material for this article can be found at: http://www.interscience.wiley.com/jpages/1531-6912/suppmat
  • Timmons, James A., et al. (författare)
  • Using molecular classification to predict gains in maximal aerobic capacity following endurance exercise training in humans
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Journal of applied physiology. - 8750-7587 .- 1522-1601. ; 108:6, s. 1487-1496
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Timmons JA, Knudsen S, Rankinen T, Koch LG, Sarzynski M, Jensen T, Keller P, Scheele C, Vollaard NB, Nielsen S, Akerstrom T, MacDougald OA, Jansson E, Greenhaff PL, Tarnopolsky MA, van Loon LJ, Pedersen BK, Sundberg CJ, Wahlestedt C, Britton SL, Bouchard C. Using molecular classification to predict gains in maximal aerobic capacity following endurance exercise training in humans. J Appl Physiol 108: 1487-1496, 2010. First published February 4, 2010; doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.01295.2009.-A low maximal oxygen consumption ((V) over dotO(2max)) is a strong risk factor for premature mortality. Supervised endurance exercise training increases (V) over dotO(2max) with a very wide range of effectiveness in humans. Discovering the DNA variants that contribute to this heterogeneity typically requires substantial sample sizes. In the present study, we first use RNA expression profiling to produce a molecular classifier that predicts (V) over dotO(2max) training response. We then hypothesized that the classifier genes would harbor DNA variants that contributed to the heterogeneous (V) over dotO(2max) response. Two independent preintervention RNA expression data sets were generated (n = 41 gene chips) from subjects that underwent supervised endurance training: one identified and the second blindly validated an RNA expression signature that predicted change in (V) over dotO(2max) (""predictor"" genes). The HERITAGE Family Study (n = 473) was used for genotyping. We discovered a 29-RNA signature that predicted (V) over dotO(2max) training response on a continuous scale; these genes contained similar to 6 new single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with gains in (V) over dotO(2max) in the HERITAGE Family Study. Three of four novel candidate genes from the HERITAGE Family Study were confirmed as RNA predictor genes (i.e., ""reciprocal"" RNA validation of a quantitative trait locus genotype), enhancing the performance of the 29-RNA-based predictor. Notably, RNA abundance for the predictor genes was unchanged by exercise training, supporting the idea that expression was preset by genetic variation. Regression analysis yielded a model where 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms explained 23% of the variance in gains in (V) over dotO(2max), corresponding to similar to 50% of the estimated genetic variance for (V) over dotO(2max). In conclusion, combining RNA profiling with single-gene DNA marker association analysis yields a strongly validated molecular predictor with meaningful explanatory power. (V) over dotO(2max) responses to endurance training can be predicted by measuring a similar to 30-gene RNA expression signature in muscle prior to training. The general approach taken could accelerate the discovery of genetic biomarkers, sufficiently discrete for diagnostic purposes, for a range of physiological and pharmacological phenotypes in humans.
  • Frith, Martin C., et al. (författare)
  • Pseudo-messenger RNA : Phantoms of the transcriptome
  • 2006
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - 1553-7390 .- 1553-7404. ; 2:4, s. 504-514
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The mammalian transcriptome harbours shadowy entities that resist classification and analysis. In analogy with pseudogenes, we define pseudo-messenger RNA to be RNA molecules that resemble protein- coding mRNA, but cannot encode full-length proteins owing to disruptions of the reading frame. Using a rigorous computational pipeline, which rules out sequencing errors, we identify 10,679 pseudo - messenger RNAs ( approximately half of which are transposonassociated) among the 102,801 FANTOM3 mouse cDNAs: just over 10% of the FANTOM3 transcriptome. These comprise not only transcribed pseudogenes, but also disrupted splice variants of otherwise protein- coding genes. Some may encode truncated proteins, only a minority of which appear subject to nonsense- mediated decay. The presence of an excess of transcripts whose only disruptions are opal stop codons suggests that there are more selenoproteins than currently estimated. We also describe compensatory frameshifts, where a segment of the gene has changed frame but remains translatable. In summary, we survey a large class of non- standard but potentially functional transcripts that are likely to encode genetic information and effect biological processes in novel ways. Many of these transcripts do not correspond cleanly to any identifiable object in the genome, implying fundamental limits to the goal of annotating all functional elements at the genome sequence level.
  • Barbier, Estelle, et al. (författare)
  • Dependence-induced increase of alcohol self-administration and compulsive drinking mediated by the histone methyltransferase PRDM2
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Molecular Psychiatry. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1359-4184 .- 1476-5578. ; 22:12, s. 1746-1758
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Epigenetic processes have been implicated in the pathophysiology of alcohol dependence, but the specific molecular mechanisms mediating dependence-induced neuroadaptations remain largely unknown. Here, we found that a history of alcohol dependence persistently decreased the expression of Prdm2, a histone methyltransferase that monomethylates histone 3 at the lysine 9 residue (H3K9me1), in the rat dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). Downregulation of Prdm2 was associated with decreased H3K9me1, supporting that changes in Prdm2 mRNA levels affected its activity. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by massively parallel DNA sequencing showed that genes involved in synaptic communication are epigenetically regulated by H3K9me1 in dependent rats. In non-dependent rats, viral-vector-mediated knockdown of Prdm2 in the dmPFC resulted in expression changes similar to those observed following a history of alcohol dependence. Prdm2 knockdown resulted in increased alcohol self-administration, increased aversion-resistant alcohol intake and enhanced stress-induced relapse to alcohol seeking, a phenocopy of postdependent rats. Collectively, these results identify a novel epigenetic mechanism that contributes to the development of alcohol-seeking behavior following a history of dependence.
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