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  • Mofors, J., et al. (författare)
  • Concomitant Ro/SSA and La/SSB antibodies are biomarkers for the risk of venous thromboembolism and cerebral infarction in primary Sjögren's syndrome
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 286:4, s. 458-468
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: To assess the risk of incident cardiovascular disease in patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome, overall and stratified by Ro/SSA and La/SSB autoantibody status.Methods: A cohort of patients with primary Sjögren's syndrome in Sweden (n = 960) and matched controls from the general population (n = 9035) were included, and data extracted from the National Patient Register to identify events of myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction and venous thromboembolism. Hazard ratios were estimated using cox proportional hazard regressions.Results: During a median follow‐up of 9.5 years, the overall hazard ratio (HR) was 1.6 (95% CI 1.2–2.1) for myocardial infarction, 1.2 (95% CI 0.9–1.7) for cerebral infarction and 2.1 (95% CI 1.6–2.9) for venous thromboembolism. Patients positive for both Ro/SSA and La/SSB autoantibodies had a substantially higher risk of cerebral infarction (HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.0–2.9) and venous thromboembolism (HR 3.1, 95% CI 1.9–4.8) than the general population. These risks were not significantly increased in Ro/SSA‐ and La/SSB‐negative patients. Among autoantibody‐positive patients, the highest HR of cerebral infarction was seen after ≥10 years disease duration (HR 2.8, 95% CI 1.4–5.4), while the HR for venous thromboembolism was highest 0–5 years after disease diagnosis (HR 4.7, 95% CI 2.3–9.3) and remained high throughout disease duration.Conclusions: Primary Sjögren's syndrome is associated with a markedly increased risk of cardiovascular disease and the presence of Ro/SSA and La/SSB autoantibodies identify the subgroup of patients carrying the highest risk. These findings suggest that monitoring and prevention of cardiovascular disease in this patient group should be considered.
  • Pålsson, Sandra Axberg, et al. (författare)
  • Single-Stranded Oligonucleotide-Mediated Inhibition of Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - : Frontiers Media SA. - 1664-3224 .- 1664-3224. ; 11
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute lower respiratory tract infections in young children. Currently, there is no RSV vaccine or universally accessible antiviral treatment available. Addressing the urgent need for new antiviral agents, we have investigated the capacity of a non-coding single-stranded oligonucleotide (ssON) to inhibit RSV infection. By utilizing a GFP-expressing RSV, we demonstrate that the ssON significantly reduced the proportion of RSV infected A549 cells (lung epithelial cells). Furthermore, we show that ssON's antiviral activity was length dependent and that both RNA and DNA of this class of oligonucleotides have antiviral activity. We reveal that ssON inhibited RSV infection by competing with the virus for binding to the cellular receptor nucleolin in vitro. Additionally, using a recombinant RSV that expresses luciferase we show that ssON effectively blocked RSV infection in mice. Treatment with ssON in vivo resulted in the upregulation of RSV-induced interferon stimulated genes (ISGs) such as Stat1, Stat2, Cxcl10, and Ccl2. This study highlights the possibility of using oligonucleotides as therapeutic agents against RSV infection. We demonstrate that the mechanism of action of ssON is the inhibition of viral entry in vitro, likely through the binding of the receptor, nucleolin and that ssON treatment against RSV infection in vivo additionally results in the upregulation of ISGs.
  • Mofors, J., et al. (författare)
  • Infections increase the risk of developing Sjögren's syndrome
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Journal of Internal Medicine. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0954-6820 .- 1365-2796. ; 285:6, s. 670-680
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Environmental factors have been suggested in the pathogenesis of rheumatic diseases. We here investigated whether infections increase the risk of developing primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS).Methods: Patients with pSS in Sweden (n = 945) and matched controls from the general population (n = 9048) were included, and data extracted from the National Patient Register to identify infections occurring before pSS diagnosis during a mean observational time of 16.0 years. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression models. Sensitivity analyses were performed by varying exposure definition and adjusting for previous health care consumption.Results: A history of infection associated with an increased risk of pSS (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6–2.3). Infections were more prominently associated with the development of SSA/SSB autoantibody‐positive pSS (OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.0–3.5). When stratifying the analysis by organ system infected, respiratory infections increased the risk of developing pSS, both in patients with (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.8–4.7) and without autoantibodies (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1–3.8), whilst skin and urogenital infections only significantly associated with the development of autoantibody‐positive pSS (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.8–5.5 and OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.7–4.2). Furthermore, a dose–response relationship was observed for infections and a risk to develop pSS with Ro/SSA and La/SSB antibodies. Gastrointestinal infections were not significantly associated with a risk of pSS.Conclusions: Infections increase the risk of developing pSS, most prominently SSA/SSB autoantibody‐positive disease, suggesting that microbial triggers of immunity may partake in the pathogenetic process of pSS.
  • Salomonsson, Stina, et al. (författare)
  • A population-based investigation of the autoantibody profile in mothers of children with atrioventricular block.
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology. - Oxford : Wiley-Blackwell. - 1365-3083 .- 0300-9475. ; 74, s. 511-517
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The objective of the study was to investigate the antigen specificity and occurrence of individual autoantibodies in mothers of children diagnosed with atrioventricular (AV) block in a nation-wide setting. Patients with AV block detected before 15 years of age were identified using national quality registries as well as a network of pediatric and adult cardiologists and rheumatologists at the six university hospitals in Sweden. Patients with gross heart malformations, surgically or infectiously induced blocks were excluded. Blood samples were obtained from the mothers and maternal autoantibody profile, including the occurrence of antibodies against Ro52, Ro60, La, SmB, SmD, RNP-70k, RNP-A, RNP-C, CENP-C, Scl-70, Jo-1, ribosomal RNP and histones was investigated in 193 mothers of children with AV block by immunoblotting and ELISA. Autoantibody reactivity was detected in 48% (93/193) of the mothers of children with AV block. In autoantibody-positive mothers, the vast majority, 95% (88/93), had antibodies against Ro52, while 63% (59/93) had autoantibodies to Ro60 and 58% (54/93) had autoantibodies to La. In addition, 13% (12/93) of the autoantibody-positive mothers had antibodies to other investigated antigens besides Ro52, Ro60 and La, and of these anti-histone antibodies were most commonly represented, detected in 8% (7/93) of the mothers. In conclusion, this Swedish population-based study confirm that maternal autoantibodies may associate with heart block in the child. Further, our data demonstrate a dominant role of Ro52 antibodies in association with AV block.
  • Adam, Lucille, et al. (författare)
  • Early Resistance of Non-virulent Mycobacterial Infection in C57BL/6 Mice Is Associated With Rapid Up-Regulation of Antimicrobial Cathelicidin Camp
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Frontiers in Immunology. - 1664-3224 .- 1664-3224. ; 9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early clearance of tuberculosis is the successful eradication of inhaled bacteria before the development of an adaptive immune response. We previously showed, by utilizing a non-virulent mycobacteria infection model, that C57BL/6 mice are more efficient than BALB/c in their control of bacterial growth in the lungs during the first weeks of the infection. Here, we assessed early (within 1-3 days) innate immune events locally in the lungs to identify factors that may contribute to the control of non-virulent mycobacterial burden. We confirmed that C57BL/6 mice are more resistant to infection compared with BALB/c after intranasal inoculation with mycobacterium. Transcriptomic analyses revealed a remarkably silent signature in C57BL/6 mice despite effective control of bacterial growth. In contrast, BALB/c mice up-regulated genes associated with neutrophil and myeloid cell chemotaxis and migration. Flow cytometry analyses corroborated the transcriptomic analyses and demonstrated influx of both neutrophil and myeloid cell populations in BALB/c mice, while these did not increase in C57BL/6 mice. We further detected increased release of TNF-alpha from BALB/c lung cells but limited release from C57BL/6-derived cells. However, C57BL/6 mice showed a marked early up-regulation of the Camp gene, encoding the cathelicidin CRAMP peptide, post-mycobacterial exposure. CRAMP (LL-37 in human) expression in the lungs was confirmed using immunofluorescence staining. Altogether, these findings show that C57BL/6 mice can clear the mycobacterial infection early and that this early control is associated with high CRAMP expression in the lungs without concomitant influx of immune cells. The role of CRAMP/LL-37 during mycobacterial infection may be relevant for novel protective strategies, and warrants further studies of human cohorts.
  • Albrecht, Inka, et al. (författare)
  • Development of autoantibodies against muscle-specific FHL1 in severe inflammatory myopathies
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Investigation. - : AMER SOC CLINICAL INVESTIGATION INC. - 0021-9738 .- 1558-8238. ; 125:12, s. 4612-4624
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mutations of the gene encoding four-and-a-half LIM domain 1 (FHL1) are the causative factor of several X-linked hereditary myopathies that are collectively termed FHL1-related myopathies. These disorders are characterized by severe muscle dysfunction and damage. Here, we have shown that patients with idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) develop autoimmunity to FHL1, which is a muscle-specific protein. Anti-FHL1 autoantibodies were detected in 25% of IIM patients, while patients with other autoimmune diseases or muscular dystrophies were largely anti-FHL1 negative. Anti-FHL1 reactivity was predictive for muscle atrophy, dysphagia, pronounced muscle fiber damage, and vasculitis. FHL1 showed an altered expression pattern, with focal accumulation in the muscle fibers of autoantibody-positive patients compared with a homogeneous expression in anti-FHL1-negative patients and healthy controls. We determined that FHL1 is a target of the cytotoxic protease granzyme B, indicating that the generation of FHL1 fragments may initiate FHL1 autoimmunity. Moreover, immunization of myositis-prone mice with FHL1 aggravated muscle weakness and increased mortality, suggesting a direct link between anti-FHL1 responses and muscle damage. Together, our findings provide evidence that FHL1 may be involved in the pathogenesis not only of genetic FHL1-related myopathies but also of autoimmune IIM. Importantly, these results indicate that anti-FHL1 autoantibodies in peripheral blood have promising potential as a biomarker to identify a subset of severe IIM.
  • Ambrosi, Aurelie, et al. (författare)
  • Development of heart block in children of SSA/SSB-autoantibody-positive women is associated with maternal age and displays a season-of-birth pattern
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases. - London : BMJ Publishing Group. - 0003-4967 .- 1468-2060. ; 71:3, s. 334-340
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective Congenital heart block may develop in the fetuses of Ro/SSA-positive and La/SSB-positive mothers. Recurrence rates of only 10-20% despite persisting maternal antibodies indicate that additional factors are critical for the establishment of heart block. The authors investigated the influence of other maternal and fetal factors on heart block development in a Swedish population-based cohort. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods The influence of fetal gender, maternal age, parity and time of birth on heart block development was analysed in 145 families, including Ro/La-positive (n=190) and Ro/La-negative (n=165) pregnancies. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults There was a recurrence rate of 12.1% in Ro/La-positive women, and no recurrence in Ro/La-negative women. Fetal gender and parity did not influence the development of heart block in either group. Maternal age in Ro/La-positive pregnancies with a child affected by heart block was, however, significantly higher than in pregnancies resulting in babies without heart block (pandlt;0.05). Seasonal timing of pregnancy influenced the outcome. Gestational susceptibility weeks 18-24 occurring during January-March correlated with a higher proportion of children with heart block and lower vitamin D levels during the same period in a representative sample of Swedish women and a corresponding higher proportion of children with heart block born in the summer (pandlt;0.02). Maternal age or seasonal timing of pregnancy did not affect the outcome in Ro/La-negative pregnancies. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion This study identifies maternal age and seasonal timing of pregnancy as novel risk factors for heart block development in children of Ro/La-positive women. These observations may be useful for counselling when pregnancy is considered.
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