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1.
  • Szummer, Karolina, et al. (författare)
  • Relations between implementation of new treatments and improved outcomes in patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction during the last 20 years : experiences from SWEDEHEART registry 1995 to 2014
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - : OXFORD UNIV PRESS. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 39:42, s. 3766-3776
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aims We assessed the changes in short- and long-term outcomes and their relation to implementation of new evidence- based treatments in all patients with non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) in Sweden over 20 years. Methods and results Cases with NSTEMI (n = 205 693) between 1995 and 2014 were included from the nationwide Swedish Web-System for Enhancement and Development of Evidence-Based Care in Heart Disease Evaluated According to Recommended Therapies (SWEDEHEART) registry. During 20 years in-hospital invasive procedures increased from 1.9% to 73.2%, percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting 6.5% to 58.1%, dual antiplatelet medication 0% to 72.7%, statins 13.3% to 85.6%, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blocker 36.8% to 75.5%. The standardized 1-year mortality ratio compared with a control population decreased from 5.53 [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.30-5.75] to 3.03 (95% CI 2.89-3.19). If patients admitted the first 2 years were modelled to receive the same invasive treatments as the last 2 years the expected mortality/ myocardial infarction (MI) rate would be reduced from 33.0% to 25.0%. After adjusting for differences in baseline characteristics, the change of 1-year cardiovascular death/MI corresponded to a linearly decreasing odds ratio trend of 0.930 (95% CI 0.926-0.935) per 2-year period. This trend was substantially attenuated [0.970 (95% CI 0.964-0.975)] after adjusting for changes in coronary interventions, and almost eliminated [0.988 (95% CI 0.982-0.994)] after also adjusting for changes in discharge medications. Conclusion In NSTEMI patients during the last 20 years, there has been a substantial improvement in long-term survival and re- duction in the risk of new cardiovascular events. These improvements seem mainly explained by the gradual uptake and widespread use of in-hospital coronary interventions and evidence-based long-term medications.
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2.
  • Levin, Lars-Åke, et al. (författare)
  • Health-Related Quality of Life of Ticagrelor versus Clopidogrel in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes-Results from the PLATO Trial
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Value in Health. - : Wiley-Blackwell: No OnlineOpen / Elsevier. - 1098-3015 .- 1524-4733. ; 16:4, s. 574-580
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of ticagrelor versus clopidogrel on health-related quality of life in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial. Background: The PLATO trial showed that ticagrelor was superior to clopidogrel for the prevention of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke in a broad population of patients with acute coronary syndromes. Methods: HRQOL in the PLATO study was measured at hospital discharge, 6-month visit, and end of treatment (anticipated at 12 months) by using the EuroQol five-dimensional (EQ-5D) questionnaire. All patients who had an EQ-5D questionnaire assessment at discharge from the index hospitalization (n = 15,212) were included in the study. Patients who died prior to the end-of-treatment visit were assigned an EQ-5D questionnaire value of 0. Results: The EQ-5D questionnaire value at discharge among 7631 patients assigned to ticagrelor was 0.847 and among 7581 patients assigned to clopidogrel was 0.846 (P = 0.71). At 12 months, the mean EQ-5D questionnaire value was 0.840 for ticagrelor and 0.832 for clopidogrel (P = 0.046). Excluding patients who died resulted in mean EQ-5D questionnaire values of 0.864 among ticagrelor patients and 0.863 among clopidogrel patients (P = 0.69). Conclusions: In patients hospitalized with acute coronary syndromes with or without ST-segment elevation, treatment with ticagrelor was associated with a lower mortality but otherwise no difference in quality of life relative to treatment with clopidogrel. The improved survival and reduction in cardiovascular events with ticagrelor are therefore obtained with no loss in quality of life.
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3.
  • Wallentin, Lars, 1943-, et al. (författare)
  • Early invasive versus non-invasive treatment in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (FRISC-II) : 15 year follow-up of a prospective, randomised, multicentre study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 388:10054, s. 1903-1911
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background The FRISC-II trial was the first randomised trial to show a reduction in death or myocardial infarction with an early invasive versus a non-invasive treatment strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Here we provide a remaining lifetime perspective on the effects on all cardiovascular events during 15 years' follow-up. Methods The FRISC-II prospective, randomised, multicentre trial was done at 58 Scandinavian centres in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. Between June 17, 1996, and Aug 28, 1998, we randomly assigned (1:1) 2457 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome to an early invasive treatment strategy, aiming for revascularisation within 7 days, or a non-invasive strategy, with invasive procedures at recurrent symptoms or severe exercise-induced ischaemia. Plasma for biomarker analyses was obtained at randomisation. For long-term outcomes, we linked data with national health-care registers. The primary endpoint was a composite of death or myocardial infarction. Outcomes were compared as the average postponement of the next event, including recurrent events, calculated as the area between mean cumulative count-of-events curves. Analyses were done by intention to treat. Findings At a minimum of 15 years' follow-up on Dec 31, 2014, data for survival status and death were available for 2421 (99%) of the initially recruited 2457 patients, and for other events after 2 years for 2182 (89%) patients. During follow-up, the invasive strategy postponed death or next myocardial infarction by a mean of 549 days (95% CI 204-888; p= 0.0020) compared with the non-invasive strategy. This effect was larger in non-smokers (mean gain 809 days, 95% CI 402-1175; p(interaction) = 0.0182), patients with elevated troponin T (778 days, 357-1165; p (interaction) = 0.0241), and patients with high concentrations of growth differentiation factor-15 (1356 days, 507-1650; p (interaction) = 0.0210). The difference was mainly driven by postponement of new myocardial infarction, whereas the early difference in mortality alone was not sustained over time. The invasive strategy led to a mean of 1128 days (95% CI 830-1366) postponement of death or next readmission to hospital for ischaemic heart disease, which was consistent in all subgroups (p< 0.0001). Interpretation During 15 years of follow-up, an early invasive treatment strategy postponed the occurrence of death or next myocardial infarction by an average of 18 months, and the next readmission to hospital for ischaemic heart disease by 37 months, compared with a non-invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. This remaining lifetime perspective supports that an early invasive treatment strategy should be the preferred option in most patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome.
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5.
  • Bjorklund, E., et al. (författare)
  • Outcome of ST-elevation myocardial infarction treated with thrombolysis in the unselected population is vastly different from samples of eligible patients in a large-scale clinical trial
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Am Heart J. - 1097-6744 .- 0002-8703. ; 148:4, s. 566-73
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Patients in clinical trials of fibrinolytic agents have been shown to be younger, less often female, and to have lower risk characteristics and a better outcome compared with unselected patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction. However, a direct comparison of patients treated with fibrinolytic agents and not enrolled versus those enrolled in a trial, including a large number of patients, has not been performed. METHODS: Prospective data from the Swedish Register of Cardiac Intensive Care on patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction treated with thrombolytic agents in 60 Swedish hospitals were linked to data on trial participants in the ASsessment of Safety and Efficacy of a New Thrombolytic (ASSENT)-2 trial of fibrinolytic agents. Baseline characteristics, treatments, and long-term outcome were evaluated in 729 trial participants (A2), 2048 nonparticipants at trial hospitals (non-A2), and 964 nonparticipants at other hospitals (non-A2-Hosp). RESULTS: Nontrial patients compared with A2 patients were older and had higher risk characteristics and more early complications, although the treatments were similar. Patients at highest risk of death were the least likely to be enrolled in the trial. The 1-year mortality rate was 8.8% versus 20.3% and 19.0% (P <.001 for both) among A2 compared with non-A2 and non-A2-Hosp patients, respectively. After adjustment for a number of risk factors, the 1-year mortality rate was still twice as high in nontrial compared with A2 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The adjusted 1-year mortality rate was twice as high in patients treated with fibrinolytic agents and not enrolled in a clinical trial compared with those enrolled. One major reason for the difference in outcome appeared to be the selection of less critically ill patients to the trial.
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6.
  • Björck, Lena, 1959, et al. (författare)
  • Smoking in relation to ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction: findings from the Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Heart (British Cardiac Society). - 1468-201X .- 1355-6037. ; 95:12, s. 1006-1011
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES: In the past few decades, clinical presentation in AMI has been reported to be changing, with milder cases and less ST-elevation myocardial infarction, the most serious form of AMI. The better outcome may be due to improved medical and interventional management, as well as more sensitive methods for detecting AMI. However, changes in risk factors have also been documented, especially lower tobacco-smoking rates. Therefore, the relation between smoking and ST-elevation AMI in a large observational cohort was analysed. METHODS: Data were derived from 93 416 consecutive patients aged 25 to 84 years and admitted to hospital between 1996 and 2004 with a first AMI. RESULTS: Tobacco smoking was more prevalent in younger patients (ie, <65 years). More than 50% of younger patients presenting with STEMI were smokers at the time of hospitalisation. After multiple adjustments, smoking was found to be an independent determinant for presenting with STEMI compared with non-STEMI. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) associated with smoking was 2.01 (99% CI 1.75 to 2.30) in younger women and 1.33 (99% CI 1.22 to 1.43) in younger men, with a significant interaction between smoking and gender. In older women and men (> or =65 years), the corresponding ORs were 1.33 (99% CI 1.20 to 1.48) and 1.14 (99% CI 1.04 to 1.25), respectively. CONCLUSION: Tobacco smoking is a major determinant for presenting with STEMI compared with non-STEMI, particularly among younger patients and among women. These results indicate that smoking is one of the major risk factors for presenting with more severe AMIs.
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7.
  • Chung, S. C., et al. (författare)
  • Acute myocardial infarction: a comparison of short-term survival in national outcome registries in Sweden and the UK
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 383:9925
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: International research for acute myocardial infarction lacks comparisons of whole health systems. We assessed time trends for care and outcomes in Sweden and the UK. Methods: We used data from national registries on consecutive patients registered between 2004 and 2010 in all hospitals providing care for acute coronary syndrome in Sweden and the UK. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality 30 days after admission. We compared effectiveness of treatment by indirect casemix standardisation. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01359033. Findings: We assessed data for 119 786 patients in Sweden and 391 077 in the UK. 30-day mortality was 7·6% (95% CI 7·4-7·7) in Sweden and 10·5% (10·4-10·6) in the UK. Mortality was higher in the UK in clinically relevant subgroups defined by troponin concentration, ST-segment elevation, age, sex, heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diabetes mellitus status, and smoking status. In Sweden, compared with the UK, there was earlier and more extensive uptake of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (59% vs 22%) and more frequent use of β blockers at discharge (89% vs 78%). After casemix standardisation the 30-day mortality ratio for UK versus Sweden was 1·37 (95% CI 1·30-1·45), which corresponds to 11 263 (95% CI 9620-12 827) excess deaths, but did decline over time (from 1·47, 95% CI 1·38-1·58 in 2004 to 1·20, 1·12-1·29 in 2010; p=0·01). Interpretation: We found clinically important differences between countries in acute myocardial infarction care and outcomes. International comparisons research might help to improve health systems and prevent deaths. Funding: Seventh Framework Programme for Research, National Institute for Health Research, Wellcome Trust (UK), Swedish Association of Local Authorities and Regions, Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation. © 2014 Chung et al. Open Access article distributed under the terms of CC BY-NC-ND.
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8.
  • Deloukas, Panos, et al. (författare)
  • Large-scale association analysis identifies new risk loci for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 45:1, s. 25-33
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the commonest cause of death. Here, we report an association analysis in 63,746 CAD cases and 130,681 controls identifying 15 loci reaching genome-wide significance, taking the number of susceptibility loci for CAD to 46, and a further 104 independent variants (r(2) < 0.2) strongly associated with CAD at a 5% false discovery rate (FDR). Together, these variants explain approximately 10.6% of CAD heritability. Of the 46 genome-wide significant lead SNPs, 12 show a significant association with a lipid trait, and 5 show a significant association with blood pressure, but none is significantly associated with diabetes. Network analysis with 233 candidate genes (loci at 10% FDR) generated 5 interaction networks comprising 85% of these putative genes involved in CAD. The four most significant pathways mapping to these networks are linked to lipid metabolism and inflammation, underscoring the causal role of these activities in the genetic etiology of CAD. Our study provides insights into the genetic basis of CAD and identifies key biological pathways.
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9.
  • Do, Ron, et al. (författare)
  • Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - : Nature Publishing Group. - 1546-1718 .- 1061-4036. ; 45:11, s. 1345-1345
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 x 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphism's effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.
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