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2.
  • Grip, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • From European to National guidelines on heart disease
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal. - 1401-7431 .- 1651-2006. ; 45:1, s. 3-13
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background/aims. Guidelines from the European Society of Cardiology are important tools for defining and establishing current standards of care for various heart diseases. The aim of the present paper is to describe the process of how these international guidelines may be transformed and implemented at a national level in Sweden. Methods/results. The structure and process behind the national guidelines for heart diseases in Sweden and their relationship to the underlying European guidelines are described and differences between the national and European levels highlighted. We also give examples of how the scientific values of health care measures are weighted against health economic perspectives and integrated in a prioritization process. Compared to the European guidelines, the Swedish national guidelines have a broader economic perspective and aim to ensure that health care is cost effective and provided to all Swedish citizens on equal terms. Discussion. When certain health care measures are implemented, the national process can result in other priorities than could be expected from the European guidelines alone. On the other hand, a forceful implementation may be facilitated by the societal context in which these national guidelines are produced.</p>
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3.
  • Wallentin, Lars, 1943-, et al. (författare)
  • Early invasive versus non-invasive treatment in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (FRISC-II) : 15 year follow-up of a prospective, randomised, multicentre study
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC. - 0140-6736 .- 1474-547X. ; 388:10054, s. 1903-1911
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Background The FRISC-II trial was the first randomised trial to show a reduction in death or myocardial infarction with an early invasive versus a non-invasive treatment strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. Here we provide a remaining lifetime perspective on the effects on all cardiovascular events during 15 years' follow-up. Methods The FRISC-II prospective, randomised, multicentre trial was done at 58 Scandinavian centres in Sweden, Denmark, and Norway. Between June 17, 1996, and Aug 28, 1998, we randomly assigned (1:1) 2457 patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome to an early invasive treatment strategy, aiming for revascularisation within 7 days, or a non-invasive strategy, with invasive procedures at recurrent symptoms or severe exercise-induced ischaemia. Plasma for biomarker analyses was obtained at randomisation. For long-term outcomes, we linked data with national health-care registers. The primary endpoint was a composite of death or myocardial infarction. Outcomes were compared as the average postponement of the next event, including recurrent events, calculated as the area between mean cumulative count-of-events curves. Analyses were done by intention to treat. Findings At a minimum of 15 years' follow-up on Dec 31, 2014, data for survival status and death were available for 2421 (99%) of the initially recruited 2457 patients, and for other events after 2 years for 2182 (89%) patients. During follow-up, the invasive strategy postponed death or next myocardial infarction by a mean of 549 days (95% CI 204-888; p= 0.0020) compared with the non-invasive strategy. This effect was larger in non-smokers (mean gain 809 days, 95% CI 402-1175; p(interaction) = 0.0182), patients with elevated troponin T (778 days, 357-1165; p (interaction) = 0.0241), and patients with high concentrations of growth differentiation factor-15 (1356 days, 507-1650; p (interaction) = 0.0210). The difference was mainly driven by postponement of new myocardial infarction, whereas the early difference in mortality alone was not sustained over time. The invasive strategy led to a mean of 1128 days (95% CI 830-1366) postponement of death or next readmission to hospital for ischaemic heart disease, which was consistent in all subgroups (p&lt; 0.0001). Interpretation During 15 years of follow-up, an early invasive treatment strategy postponed the occurrence of death or next myocardial infarction by an average of 18 months, and the next readmission to hospital for ischaemic heart disease by 37 months, compared with a non-invasive strategy in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome. This remaining lifetime perspective supports that an early invasive treatment strategy should be the preferred option in most patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome.</p>
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5.
  • Becker, Richard C, et al. (författare)
  • Bleeding complications with the P2Y12 receptor antagonists clopidogrel and ticagrelor in the PLATelet inhibition and patient Outcomes (PLATO) trial
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 32:23, s. 2933-2944
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Aims</strong></p><p>More intense platelet-directed therapy for acute coronary syndrome (ACS) may increase bleeding risk. The aim of the current analysis was to determine the rate, clinical impact, and predictors of major and fatal bleeding complications in the PLATO study.</p><p><strong>Methods and results</strong></p><p>PLATO was a randomized, double-blind, active control international, phase 3 clinical trial in patients with acute ST elevation and non-ST-segment elevation ACS. A total of 18 624 patients were randomized to either ticagrelor, a non-thienopyridine, reversibly binding platelet P2Y(12) receptor antagonist, or clopidogrel in addition to aspirin. Patients randomized to ticagrelor and clopidogrel had similar rates of PLATO major bleeding (11.6 vs. 11.2%; P = 0.43), TIMI major bleeding (7.9 vs. 7.7%, P = 0.56) and GUSTO severe bleeding (2.9 vs. 3.1%, P = 0.22). Procedure-related bleeding rates were also similar. Non-CABG major bleeding (4.5 vs. 3.8%, P = 0.02) and non-procedure-related major bleeding (3.1 vs. 2.3%, P = 0.05) were more common in ticagrelor-treated patients, primarily after 30 days on treatment. Fatal bleeding and transfusion rates did not differ between groups. There were no significant interactions for major bleeding or combined minor plus major bleeding between treatment groups and age ≥75 years, weight &lt;60 kg, region, chronic kidney disease, creatinine clearance &lt;60 mL/min, aspirin dose &gt;325 mg on the day of randomization, pre-randomization clopidogrel administration, or clopidogrel loading dose.</p><p><strong>Conclusion </strong></p><p>Ticagrelor compared with clopidogrel was associated with similar total major bleeding but increased non-CABG and non-procedure-related major bleeding, primarily after 30 days on study drug treatment. Fatal bleeding was low and did not differ between groups.</p>
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6.
  • De Caterina, Raffaele, et al. (författare)
  • New Oral Anticoagulants in Atrial Fibrillation and Acute Coronary Syndromes : ESC Working Group on Thrombosis - Task Force on Anticoagulants in Heart Disease Position Paper
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Journal of the American College of Cardiology. - 0735-1097 .- 1558-3597. ; 59:16, s. 1413-1425
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Until recently, vitamin K antagonists were the only available oral anticoagulants, but with numerous limitations that prompted the introduction of new oral anticoagulants targeting the single coagulation enzymes thrombin (dabigatran) or factor Xa (apixaban, rivaroxaban, and edoxaban) and given in fixed doses without coagulation monitoring. Here we review the pharmacology and the results of clinical trials with these new agents in stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation and secondary prevention after acute coronary syndromes, providing perspectives on their future incorporation into clinical practice. In phase III trials in atrial fibrillation, compared with warfarin, dabigatran etexilate 150 mg B.I.D. reduced the rates of stroke/systemic embolism without any difference in major bleeding; dabigatran etexilate 110 mg B.I.D. had similar efficacy with decreased bleeding; apixaban 5 mg B.I.D. reduced stroke, systemic embolism, and mortality as well as major bleeding; and rivaroxaban 20 mg Q.D. was noninferior to warfarin for stroke and systemic embolism without a difference in major bleeding. All these agents reduced intracranial hemorrhage. Edoxaban is currently being evaluated in a further large phase III trial. Apixaban and rivaroxaban were evaluated in phase III trials for prevention of recurrent ischemia in patients with acute coronary syndromes who were mostly receiving dual antiplatelet therapy, with conflicting results on efficacy but consistent results for increased major bleeding. Overall, the new oral anticoagulants are poised to replace vitamin K antagonists for many patients with atrial fibrillation and may have a role after acute coronary syndromes. Although convenient to administer and manage, they present challenges that need to be addressed.</p>
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8.
  • Eggers, Kai M, et al. (författare)
  • Relations of growth-differentiation factor-15 to biomarkers reflecting vascular pathologies in a population-based sample of elderly subjects
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation. - 0036-5513 .- 1502-7686. ; 72:1, s. 45-51
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Background. </strong></p><p>Growth-differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) has recently emerged as a risk predictor in patients with cardiac diseases. GDF-15 is commonly related to cardiovascular risk factors, inflammatory activity and cardiac abnormalities. However, it is not clear whether it might be an indicator of vascular pathologies as well.</p><p><strong>Methods.</strong></p><p>Circulating levels of GDF-15 were measured in 1004 elderly community dwellers participating in the PIVUS study. The relations of GDF-15 to biomarkers of endothelial activation (E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1), extracellular matrix degradation (MMP-9, TIMP-1), coagulatory activity (D-dimer, von Willebrand factor, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, factor VIIa), and fibrinolytic activity (PAI-1 activity, tPA-antigen) were assessed by multiple linear regressions.</p><p><strong>Results. </strong></p><p>The median GDF-15 level was 1135 ng/L. By linear correlation analysis, GDF-15 exhibited a moderate relation to von Willebrand factor (r = 0.30), and weak, albeit significant relations (r = 0.13-0.29) to E-selectin, P-selectin, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MMP-9, TIMP-1, D-dimer, PAI-1 activity and tPA-antigen. The relations to the assessed biomarkers of endothelial activation, TIMP-1, D-dimer and von Willebrand factor remained significant applying multiple linear regression models adjusted for clinical covariates and echocardiographic data. There were no significant relations between GDF-15 and biomarkers solely reflecting coagulatory activity.</p><p><strong>Conclusions.</strong></p><p>In the elderly, GDF-15 reflects endothelial activation and vascular inflammation and thus, multiple pathways involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.</p>
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9.
  • Lind, Lars, et al. (författare)
  • Growth-differentiation factor-15 is an independent marker of cardiovascular dysfunction and disease in the elderly : results from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) Study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: European Heart Journal. - 0195-668X .- 1522-9645. ; 30:19, s. 2346-2353
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>AIMS: Growth-differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is emerging as an independent prognostic biomarker in patients with cardiovascular (CV) disease. Little is known about the pathophysiological basis for the close association of GDF-15 to future CV events. We hypothesized that GDF-15 is related to underlying CV pathologies. METHODS AND RESULTS: To relate the levels of GDF-15 to indices of CV dysfunction and disease in elderly individuals, serum levels of GDF-15 were measured in 1004 subjects aged 70 years from the Prospective Investigation of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study. Carotid intima-media thickness and plaque burden, and left ventricular (LV) geometry and function were assessed by ultrasound. Endothelial function was evaluated in forearm resistance vessels and in the brachial artery by venous occlusion plethysmography and ultrasound imaging, respectively. Elevated levels of GDF-15 were related to several CV risk factors (male gender, current smoking, body mass index, waist circumference, diabetes, fasting glucose, triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol). After adjustment for CV risk factors, increased levels of GDF-15 were associated with reduced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in resistance vessels, plaque burden, LV mass and concentric LV hypertrophy, reduced LV ejection fraction, and clinical manifestations of coronary artery disease and heart failure. CONCLUSION: GDF-15 carries information on CV dysfunction and disease that is not captured by traditional CV risk factors in elderly individuals.</p>
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10.
  • Norhammar, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Improved but still high short- and long-term mortality rates after myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus : A time-trend report from the Swedish Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admission
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Heart. - 1355-6037 .- 1468-201X. ; 93:12, s. 1577-1583
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of the study was to compare time-trends in mortality rates and treatment patterns between patients with and without diabetes based on the Swedish register of coronary care (Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admission [RIKS-HIA]).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Post myocardial infarction mortality rate is high in diabetic patients, who seem to receive less evidence-based treatment. Mortality rates and treatment in 1995–1998 and 1999–2002 were studied in 70 882 patients (age &lt;80 years), 14 873 of whom had diabetes (the first registry recorded acute myocardial infarction), following adjustments for differences in clinical and other parameters.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> One-year mortality rates decreased from 1995 to 2002 from 16.6% to 12.1% in patients without diabetes and from 29.7% to 19.7%, respectively, in those with diabetes. Patients with diabetes had an adjusted relative 1-year mortality risk of 1.44 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.52) in 1995–1998 and 1.31 (95% CI 1.24 to 1.38) in 1999–2002. Despite improved pre-admission and in-hospital treatment, diabetic patients were less often offered acute reperfusion therapy (adjusted OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.90), acute revascularisation (adjusted OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.69 to 0.87) or revascularisation within 14 days (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.85), aspirin (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.84 to 0.98) and lipid-lowering treatment at discharge (OR 0.81, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.86).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Despite a clear improvement in the treatment and myocardial infarction survival rate in patients with diabetes, mortality rate remains higher than in patients without diabetes. Part of the excess mortality may be explained by co-morbidities and diabetes itself, but a lack of application of evidence-based treatment also contributes, underlining the importance of the improved management of diabetic patients.</p>
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