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  • Norman, Mikael, et al. (författare)
  • The Swedish Neonatal Quality Register - contents, completeness and validity
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 108:8, s. 1411-1418
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: To describe the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register (SNQ) and to determine its completeness and agreement with other registers.Methods: SNQ collects data for infants admitted to neonatal units during the first four postnatal weeks. Completeness and registers' agreement were determined cross-linking SNQ data with Swedish population registers (the Inpatient, Medical Birth and Cause of Death Registers) for a study period of five years.Results: In total, 84 712 infants were hospitalised. A total of 52 806 infants occurred in both SNQ and the population registers; 28 692 were only found in the population registers, and 3214 infants were only found in SNQ. Between gestational weeks 24-34, completeness of SNQ was 98-99%. Below and above these gestational ages, completeness was lower. Infants missing in SNQ were term or near-term in 99% of the cases, and their diagnoses indicated conditions managed in maternity units, or re-admissions for acute infections, managed in paediatric units. For most diagnoses, the agreement between SNQ and population registers was high, but some (bronchopulmonary dysplasia and grade of hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy) were often missing in the population registers.Conclusion: SNQ completeness and agreement against other registers, especially for preterm infants, is excellent. SNQ is a valid tool for benchmarking, quality improvement and research.
  • Eriksson, Leif, et al. (författare)
  • Evidence-based practice in neonatal health : knowledge among primary health care staff in northern Viet Nam
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Human Resources for Health. - : Springer. - 1478-4491. ; 7, s. 36-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: An estimated four million deaths occur each year among children in the neonatal period. Current evidence-based interventions could prevent a large proportion of these deaths. However, health care workers involved in neonatal care need to have knowledge regarding such practices before being able to put them into action.The aim of this survey was to assess the knowledge of primary health care practitioners regarding basic, evidence-based procedures in neonatal care in a Vietnamese province. A further aim was to investigate whether differences in level of knowledge were linked to certain characteristics of community health centres, such as access to national guidelines in reproductive health care, number of assisted deliveries and geographical location.METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was completed within a baseline study preparing for an intervention study on knowledge translation (Implementing knowledge into practice for improved neonatal survival: a community-based trial in Quang Ninh province, Viet Nam, the NeoKIP project, ISRCTN44599712). Sixteen multiple-choice questions from five basic areas of evidence-based practice in neonatal care were distributed to 155 community health centres in 12 districts in a Vietnamese province, reaching 412 primary health care workers.RESULTS: All health care workers approached for the survey responded. Overall, they achieved 60% of the maximum score of the questionnaire. Staff level of knowledge on evidence-based practice was linked to the geographical location of the CHC, but not to access to the national guidelines or the number of deliveries at the community level. Two separated geographical areas were identified with differences in staff level of knowledge and concurrent differences in neonatal survival, antenatal care and postnatal home visits.CONCLUSION: We have identified a complex pattern of associations between knowledge, geography, demographic factors and neonatal outcomes. Primary health care staff knowledge regarding neonatal health is scarce. This is a factor that is possible to influence and should be considered in future efforts for improving the neonatal health situation in Viet Nam.
  • Keller, Lina, et al. (författare)
  • The PSEN1 I143T mutation in a Swedish family with Alzheimer's disease: clinical report and quantification of A beta in different brain regions
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Human Genetics. - London : Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5438 .- 1018-4813. ; 18:11, s. 1202-1208
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Early-onset dominantly inherited forms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are rare, but studies of such cases have revealed important information about the disease mechanisms. Importantly, mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and PSEN2, alter the APP processing and lead to an increased amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) 42/40 ratio. This, together with other studies on pathogenic mechanisms, show that A beta 42 is a major player in the etiology of AD. Here, we present a clinical and neuropathological description of a Swedish family with an I143T mutation in the PSEN1 gene, which gives rise to a severe form of AD. We also performed an extensive investigation on the concentration and distribution of A beta species of different lengths in six brain regions from two mutation carriers. Our study showed that A beta 42 and a longer peptide, A beta 43, were present both in plaque cores and in total amyloid preparations, and were each clearly more frequent than A beta 40 in all examined regions, as shown by both mass spectrometry and immunohistochemistry. European Journal of Human Genetics (2010) 18, 1202-1208; doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2010.107; published online 14 July 2010
  • Målqvist, Mats, 1971-, et al. (författare)
  • Ethnic inequity in neonatal survival : a case-referent study in northern Vietnam
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. - 0803-5253 .- 1651-2227. ; 100:3, s. 340-346
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Aim: In this study from Quang Ninh province in northern Vietnam (sub-study of the trial Neonatal Health - Knowledge into Practice, NeoKIP, ISRCTN 44599712), we investigated determinants of neonatal mortality through a case-referent design, with special emphasis on socio-economic factors and health system utilization. Methods: From July 2008 until December 2009, we included 183 neonatal mortality cases and 599 referents and their mothers were interviewed. Results: Ethnicity was the main socio-economic determinant for neonatal mortality (OR 2.08, 95% CI 1.39-3.10, adjusted for mothers' education and household economic status). Health system utilization before and at delivery could partly explain the risk elevation, with an increased risk of neonatal mortality for mothers who did not attend antenatal care and who delivered at home (OR 4.79, 95% CI 2.98-7.71). However, even if mothers of an ethnic minority attended antenatal care or delivered at a health facility, the increased risk for this group was sustained. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates inequity in neonatal survival that is related to ethnicity rather than family economy or education level of the mother and highlights the need to include the ethnic dimension in the efforts to reduce neonatal mortality.
  • Persson, Lars Åke, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of facilitation of local maternal-and-newborn stakeholder groups on neonatal mortality : cluster-randomized controlled trial
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS Medicine. - 1549-1277 .- 1549-1676. ; 10:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Facilitation of local women's groups may reportedly reduce neonatal mortality. It is not known whether facilitation of groups composed of local health care staff and politicians can improve perinatal outcomes. We hypothesised that facilitation of local stakeholder groups would reduce neonatal mortality (primary outcome) and improve maternal, delivery, and newborn care indicators (secondary outcomes) in Quang Ninh province, Vietnam.METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a cluster-randomized design 44 communes were allocated to intervention and 46 to control. Laywomen facilitated monthly meetings during 3 years in groups composed of health care staff and key persons in the communes. A problem-solving approach was employed. Births and neonatal deaths were monitored, and interviews were performed in households of neonatal deaths and of randomly selected surviving infants. A latent period before effect is expected in this type of intervention, but this timeframe was not pre-specified. Neonatal mortality rate (NMR) from July 2008 to June 2011 was 16.5/1,000 (195 deaths per 11,818 live births) in the intervention communes and 18.4/1,000 (194 per 10,559 live births) in control communes (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.96 [95% CI 0.73-1.25]). There was a significant downward time trend of NMR in intervention communes (p = 0.003) but not in control communes (p = 0.184). No significant difference in NMR was observed during the first two years (July 2008 to June 2010) while the third year (July 2010 to June 2011) had significantly lower NMR in intervention arm: adjusted OR 0.51 (95% CI 0.30-0.89). Women in intervention communes more frequently attended antenatal care (adjusted OR 2.27 [95% CI 1.07-4.8]).CONCLUSIONS: A randomized facilitation intervention with local stakeholder groups composed of primary care staff and local politicians working for three years with a perinatal problem-solving approach resulted in increased attendance to antenatal care and reduced neonatal mortality after a latent period.TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN44599712. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.
  • Visser, Pieter Jelle, et al. (författare)
  • Prevalence and prognostic value of CSF markers of Alzheimer's disease pathology in patients with subjective cognitive impairment or mild cognitive impairment in the DESCRIPA study: a prospective cohort study.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Lancet neurology. - : Lancet Ltd. - 1474-4422 .- 1474-4465. ; 8:7, s. 619-27
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology is common in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) without dementia, but the prevalence of AD pathology in patients with subjective cognitive impairment (SCI) and non-amnestic mild cognitive impairment (naMCI) is unknown. AD is characterised by decreased CSF concentrations of Abeta(42) and increased concentrations of tau. We investigated the prevalence of a CSF AD profile in patients with SCI, naMCI, or aMCI and the association of this profile with cognitive outcome in each group. METHODS: Patients with SCI, naMCI, aMCI, and neurologically healthy controls were recruited from 20 memory clinics across Europe, between January, 2003, and June, 2005, into this prospective cohort study. A CSF AD profile was defined as an abnormal ratio of Abeta(42):tau. Patients were assessed annually up to 3 years. Outcome measures were changes in memory, overall cognition, mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score, daily function, and progression to AD-type dementia. FINDINGS: The CSF AD profile was more common in patients with SCI (31 of 60 [52%]), naMCI (25 of 37 [68%]), and aMCI (56 of 71 [79%]) than in healthy controls (28 of 89 [31%]). The profile was associated with cognitive decline in patients with naMCI (memory, MMSE, and daily function) and in patients with aMCI (MMSE and daily function). In patients with aMCI, a CSF AD profile was predictive of AD-type dementia (OR 26.8, 95% CI 1.6-456.4). INTERPRETATION: AD is a common cause of SCI, naMCI, and aMCI and is associated with cognitive decline in patients with naMCI or aMCI. Patients with SCI might be in the early stages of AD, and cognitive decline might become apparent only after longer follow-up. FUNDING: European Commission; Ana Aslan International Foundation.
  • Vos, Theo, et al. (författare)
  • Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: The Lancet. - : Elsevier. - 1474-547X .- 0140-6736. ; 386:9995, s. 743-800
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. Methods Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of detailed injury codes, improvements to the Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR), and use of severity splits for various causes. An index of data representativeness, showing data availability, was calculated for each cause and impairment during three periods globally and at the country level for 2013. In total, 35 620 distinct sources of data were used and documented to calculated estimates for 301 diseases and injuries and 2337 sequelae. The comorbidity simulation provides estimates for the number of sequelae, concurrently, by individuals by country, year, age, and sex. Disability weights were updated with the addition of new population-based survey data from four countries. Findings Disease and injury were highly prevalent; only a small fraction of individuals had no sequelae. Comorbidity rose substantially with age and in absolute terms from 1990 to 2013. Incidence of acute sequelae were predominantly infectious diseases and short-term injuries, with over 2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease episodes in 2013, with the notable exception of tooth pain due to permanent caries with more than 200 million incident cases in 2013. Conversely, leading chronic sequelae were largely attributable to non-communicable diseases, with prevalence estimates for asymptomatic permanent caries and tension-type headache of 2.4 billion and 1.6 billion, respectively. The distribution of the number of sequelae in populations varied widely across regions, with an expected relation between age and disease prevalence. YLDs for both sexes increased from 537.6 million in 1990 to 764.8 million in 2013 due to population growth and ageing, whereas the age-standardised rate decreased little from 114.87 per 1000 people to 110.31 per 1000 people between 1990 and 2013. Leading causes of YLDs included low back pain and major depressive disorder among the top ten causes of YLDs in every country. YLD rates per person, by major cause groups, indicated the main drivers of increases were due to musculoskeletal, mental, and substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and chronic respiratory diseases; however HIV/AIDS was a notable driver of increasing YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Also, the proportion of disability-adjusted life years due to YLDs increased globally from 21.1% in 1990 to 31.2% in 2013. Interpretation Ageing of the world's population is leading to a substantial increase in the numbers of individuals with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Rates of YLDs are declining much more slowly than mortality rates. The non-fatal dimensions of disease and injury will require more and more attention from health systems. The transition to non-fatal outcomes as the dominant source of burden of disease is occurring rapidly outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results can guide future health initiatives through examination of epidemiological trends and a better understanding of variation across countries.
  • Wallin, Anders, 1950, et al. (författare)
  • Cognitive medicine - a new approach in health care science.
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: BMC psychiatry. - : BioMed Central (BMC). - 1471-244X. ; 18:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The challenges of today's society call for more knowledge about how to maintain all aspects of cognitive health, such as speed/attention, memory/learning, visuospatial ability, language, executive capacity and social cognition during the life course.Medical advances have improved treatments of numerous diseases, but the cognitive implications have not been sufficiently addressed. Disability induced by cognitive dysfunction is also a major issue in groups of patients not suffering from Alzheimer's disease or related disorders. Recent studies indicate that several negative lifestyle factors can contribute to the development of cognitive impairment, but intervention and prevention strategies have not been implemented. Disability due to cognitive failure among the workforce has become a major challenge. Globally, the changing aging pyramid results in increased prevalence of cognitive disorders, and the diversity of cultures influences the expression, manifestation and consequences of cognitive dysfunction.Major tasks in the field of cognitive medicine are basic neuroscience research to uncover diverse disease mechanisms, determinations of the prevalence of cognitive dysfunction, health-economical evaluations, and intervention studies. Raising awareness for cognitive medicine as a clinical topic would also highlight the importance of specialized health care units for an integrative approach to the treatment of cognitive dysfunctions.
  • Bergström, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Health system context and implementation of evidence-based practices-development and validation of the Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool for low- and middle-income settings
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: The gap between what is known and what is practiced results in health service users not benefitting from advances in healthcare, and in unnecessary costs. A supportive context is considered a key element for successful implementation of evidence-based practices (EBP). There were no tools available for the systematic mapping of aspects of organizational context influencing the implementation of EBPs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Thus, this project aimed to develop and psychometrically validate a tool for this purpose. Methods: The development of the Context Assessment for Community Health (COACH) tool was premised on the context dimension in the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services framework, and is a derivative product of the Alberta Context Tool. Its development was undertaken in Bangladesh, Vietnam, Uganda, South Africa and Nicaragua in six phases: (1) defining dimensions and draft tool development, (2) content validity amongst in-country expert panels, (3) content validity amongst international experts, (4) response process validity, (5) translation and (6) evaluation of psychometric properties amongst 690 health workers in the five countries. Results: The tool was validated for use amongst physicians, nurse/midwives and community health workers. The six phases of development resulted in a good fit between the theoretical dimensions of the COACH tool and its psychometric properties. The tool has 49 items measuring eight aspects of context: Resources, Community engagement, Commitment to work, Informal payment, Leadership, Work culture, Monitoring services for action and Sources of knowledge. Conclusions: Aspects of organizational context that were identified as influencing the implementation of EBPs in high-income settings were also found to be relevant in LMICs. However, there were additional aspects of context of relevance in LMICs specifically Resources, Community engagement, Commitment to work and Informal payment. Use of the COACH tool will allow for systematic description of the local healthcare context prior implementing healthcare interventions to allow for tailoring implementation strategies or as part of the evaluation of implementing healthcare interventions and thus allow for deeper insights into the process of implementing EBPs in LMICs.
  • Blennow, Kaj, 1958, et al. (författare)
  • No association between the alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M) deletion and Alzheimer's disease, and no change in A2M mRNA, protein, or protein expression.
  • 2000
  • Ingår i: Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996). - : Springer. - 0300-9564. ; 107:8-9, s. 1065-79
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A polymorphism consisting of a deletion near the 5' splice site of exon 18 on the alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M) gene (A2M-2) has been suggested to be associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in family-based studies. We studied the A2M-2 allele together with the ApoE alleles in a large series on patients with AD (n = 449) and age-matched controls (n = 349). Neuropathologically confirmed diagnoses were available in 199 cases (94 AD and 107 control cases). We found no increase in A2M-2 genotype or allele frequencies in AD (27.5% and 14.6%) versus controls (26.4% and 14.9%). In contrast, a marked increase (p < 0.0001) in ApoE epsilon4 genotype or allele frequencies was found in AD (66.6% and 41.2%) as compared with controls (29.8% and 16.5%), suggesting sufficient statistical power in our sample. No relation was found between the A2M-2 and the ApoE epsilon4 allele. No change in A2M exon 17-18 mRNA size or sequence or A2M protein size was found in cases carrying the A2M-2 deletion, suggesting that there is no biological consequences of the A2M intronic deletion. No change in A2M protein level in cerebrospinal fluid was found in AD, suggesting that the A2M-2 allele does not effect the A2M protein expression in the brain. The lack of an association between the A2M-2 allele and AD in the present study, and the lack of abnormalities in the A2M mRNA or protein suggest that the A2M-2 allele is not associated with AD.
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