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Sökning: WFRF:(Wallinder H)

  • Resultat 1-10 av 28
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  • Gusev, Alexander, et al. (författare)
  • Atlas of prostate cancer heritability in European and African-American men pinpoints tissue-specific regulation
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature communications. - 2041-1723. ; 7, s. 10979
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Although genome-wide association studies have identified over 100 risk loci that explain ∼33% of familial risk for prostate cancer (PrCa), their functional effects on risk remain largely unknown. Here we use genotype data from 59,089 men of European and African American ancestries combined with cell-type-specific epigenetic data to build a genomic atlas of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) heritability in PrCa. We find significant differences in heritability between variants in prostate-relevant epigenetic marks defined in normal versus tumour tissue as well as between tissue and cell lines. The majority of SNP heritability lies in regions marked by H3k27 acetylation in prostate adenoc7arcinoma cell line (LNCaP) or by DNaseI hypersensitive sites in cancer cell lines. We find a high degree of similarity between European and African American ancestries suggesting a similar genetic architecture from common variation underlying PrCa risk. Our findings showcase the power of integrating functional annotation with genetic data to understand the genetic basis of PrCa.
  • Hedberg, Y. S., et al. (författare)
  • Electrochemical surface oxide characteristics of metal nanoparticles (Mn, Cu and Al) and the relation to toxicity
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Electrochimica Acta. - 0013-4686. ; 212, s. 360-371
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Most metal nanoparticles (NPs), except noble metal NPs, rapidly form a thin surface oxide in ambient conditions. The protective properties of these oxides improve or worsen depending on the environment, e.g., the human lung. Several properties, including the chemical/electrochemical stability and defect density, determine the capacity of these surface oxides to hinder the bulk metal from further oxidation (corrosion). The aim of this study was to investigate whether electrochemical surface oxide characterization of non-functionalized base metal NPs of different characteristics (Al, Mn and Cu) can assist in understanding their bioaccessibility (metal release) in cell media (DMEM+) and their cytotoxic properties following exposure in lung epithelial (A549) cells. The composition and valence states of surface oxides of metal NPs and their electrochemical activity were investigated using an electrochemical technique based on a graphite paste electrode to perform cyclic voltammetry in buffer solutions and open circuit potential measurements in DMEM+. The electrochemical surface oxide characterization was complemented and verified by Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The open circuit potential trends in DMEM+ correlated well with metal release results in the same solution, and provided information on the kinetics of oxide dissolution in the case of Cu NPs. Extensive particle agglomeration in cell medium (DMEM+) was observed by means of photon-cross correlation spectroscopy for all metal NPs, with sedimentation taking place very quickly. As a consequence, measurements of the real dose of added non-functionalized metal NPs to cell cultures for cytotoxicity testing from a sonicated stock solution were shown necessary. The cytotoxic response was found to be strongly correlated to changes in physico-chemical and electrochemical properties of the surface oxides of the metal NPs, the most potent being Cu NPs, followed by Mn NPs. No cytotoxicity was observed for Al NPs. The electrochemical surface oxide characterization corresponded well with other tools commonly used for nanotoxicological characterization and provided additional information.
  • Hedberg, Yolanda, et al. (författare)
  • Surface passivity largely governs the bioaccessibility of nickel-based powder particles at human exposure conditions
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology. - 0273-2300. ; 81, s. 162-170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The European chemical framework REACH requires that hazards and risks posed by chemicals, including alloys and metals, are identified and proven safe for humans and the environment. Therefore, differences in bioaccessibility in terms of released metals in synthetic biological fluids (different pH (1.5-7.4) and composition) that are relevant for different human exposure routes (inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact) have been assessed for powder particles of an alloy containing high levels of nickel (Inconel 718, 57 wt% nickel). This powder is compared with the bioaccessibility of two nickel-containing stainless steel powders (AISI 316L, 10-12% nickel) and with powders representing their main pure alloy constituents: two nickel metal powders (100% nickel), two iron metal powders and two chromium metal powders. Xray photoelectron spectroscopy, microscopy, light scattering, and nitrogen absorption were employed for the particle and surface oxide characterization. Atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to quantify released amounts of metals in solution. Cytotoxicity (Alamar blue assay) and DNA damage (comet assay) of the Inconel powder were assessed following exposure of the human lung cell line A549, as well as its ability to generate reactive oxygen species (DCFH-DA assay). Despite its high nickel content, the Inconel alloy powder did not release any significant amounts of metals and did not induce any toxic response. It is concluded, that this is related to the high surface passivity of the Inconel powder governed by its chromium-rich surface oxide. Read-across from the pure metal constituents is hence not recommended either for this or any other passive alloy.
  • Latvala, S., et al. (författare)
  • Optimization of an air–liquid interface exposure system for assessing toxicity of airborne nanoparticles
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Journal of Applied Toxicology. - 0260-437X. ; 36:10, s. 1294-1301
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The use of refined toxicological methods is currently needed for characterizing the risks of airborne nanoparticles (NPs) to human health. To mimic pulmonary exposure, we have developed an air–liquid interface (ALI) exposure system for direct deposition of airborne NPs on to lung cell cultures. Compared to traditional submerged systems, this allows more realistic exposure conditions for characterizing toxicological effects induced by airborne NPs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the deposition of silver NPs (AgNPs) is affected by different conditions of the ALI system. Additionally, the viability and metabolic activity of A549 cells was studied following AgNP exposure. Particle deposition increased markedly with increasing aerosol flow rate and electrostatic field strength. The highest amount of deposited particles (2.2 μg cm–2) at cell-free conditions following 2 h exposure was observed for the highest flow rate (390 ml min–1) and the strongest electrostatic field (±2 kV). This was estimated corresponding to deposition efficiency of 94%. Cell viability was not affected after 2 h exposure to clean air in the ALI system. Cells exposed to AgNPs (0.45 and 0.74 μg cm–2) showed significantly (P < 0.05) reduced metabolic activities (64 and 46%, respectively). Our study shows that the ALI exposure system can be used for generating conditions that were more realistic for in vitro exposures, which enables improved mechanistic and toxicological studies of NPs in contact with human lung cells.
  • Shi, J., et al. (författare)
  • Hemolytic properties of synthetic nano- and porous silica particles : The effect of surface properties and the protection by the plasma corona
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Acta Biomaterialia. - 1742-7061. ; 8:9, s. 3478-3490
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Novel silica materials incorporating nanotechnology are promising materials for biomedical applications, but their novel properties may also bring unforeseen behavior in biological systems. Micro-size silica is well documented to induce hemolysis, but little is known about the hemolytic activities of nanostructured silica materials. In this study, the hemolytic properties of synthetic amorphous silica nanoparticles with primary sizes of 7-14 nm (hydrophilic vs. hydrophobic), 5-15 nm, 20 nm and 50 nm, and model meso/macroporous silica particles with pore diameters of 40 nm and 170 nm are investigated. A crystalline silica sample (0.5-10 ÎŒm) is included for benchmarking purposes. Special emphasis is given to investigations of how the temperature and solution complexity (solvent, plasma), as well as the physicochemical properties (such as size, surface charge, hydrophobicity and other surface properties), link to the hemolytic activities of these particles. Results suggests the potential importance of small size and large external surface area, as well as surface charge/structure, in the hemolysis of silica particles. Furthermore, a significant correlation is observed between the hemolytic profile of red blood cells and the cytotoxicity profile of human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) induced by nano- and porous silica particles, suggesting a potential universal mechanism of action. Importantly, the results generated suggest that the protective effect of plasma towards silica nanoparticle-induced hemolysis as well as cytotoxicity is primarily due to the protein/lipid layer shielding the silica particle surface. These results will assist the rational design of hemocompatible silica particles for biomedical applications.
  • Edner, H, et al. (författare)
  • Atmospheric Mercury Mapping In A Cinnabar Mining Area
  • 1993
  • Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment. - Elsevier. - 1879-1026. ; 133:1-2, s. 1-15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • A mobile differential absorption lidar system was used in conjunction with point monitors to study the spatial and temporal distribution of atomic mercury in the atmosphere around an abandoned mercury mine at Abbadia S. Salvatore, Italy. The use of the remote sensing technique allows a fast coverage of large areas both horizontally and vertically with a good temporal resolution. Concentrations exceeding 1000 ng/m3 were measured close to the distillation plant and considerably elevated values also were evident above deposits of roasted cinnabar. Vertical gradients of the mercury concentration in air were established. These showed a very pronounced decrease a few centimeters above the ground.
  • Edner, H, et al. (författare)
  • Differential Absorption Lidar Mapping of Atmospheric Atomic Mercury In Italian Geothermal Fields
  • 1992
  • Ingår i: Journal of Geophysical Research. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 2156-2202. ; 97:D4, s. 3779-3786
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Results from extensive lidar measurements on atmospheric atomic mercury in Italian geothermal fields are reported. A mobile differential absorption lidar system operating on the 254-nm mercury resonance line with a measuring range of about 1 km was used in mineralized as well as nonmineralized areas. Measurements were performed at geothermal power stations and in an unexploited field with natural surface geothermic manifestations. Atomic mercury concentrations ranging from 2 to 1000 ng/m3 were mapped. The high Italian geothermal mercury concentrations are in strong contrast to the recent lidar finding of the absence of atomic mercury in Icelandic geothermal fields.
  • Edner, H, et al. (författare)
  • Fluorescence Lidar Multicolor Imaging of Vegetation
  • 1994
  • Ingår i: Optical Society of America. Journal B: Optical Physics. - Optical Society of America. - 0740-3224. ; 33:13, s. 2471-2479
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Multicolor imaging of vegetation fluorescence following laser excitation is reported for distances of 50 m. A mobile laser-radar system equipped with a Nd:YAG laser transmitter and a 40-cm-diameter telescope was utilized. The laser light was Raman shifted to 397 nm with pulse energies of approximately 30 mJ. An image-intensified CCD camera with a specially designed split-mirror Cassegrainian telescope was utilized for the simultaneous recording of fluorescence images of leaves and branches in four different spectral bands. Additionally, fluorescence spectra at selected points within the detection area were measured with an image-intensified diode array system. Image processing permits extraction of information related to the physiological status of the vegetation and might prove useful in forest decline research.
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