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Sökning: WFRF:(Wardlaw JM)

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1.
  • Thompson, Paul M., et al. (författare)
  • The ENIGMA Consortium : large-scale collaborative analyses of neuroimaging and genetic data
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: BRAIN IMAGING BEHAV. - 1931-7557 .- 1931-7565. ; 8:2, s. 153-182
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium is a collaborative network of researchers working together on a range of large-scale studies that integrate data from 70 institutions worldwide. Organized into Working Groups that tackle questions in neuroscience, genetics, and medicine, ENIGMA studies have analyzed neuroimaging data from over 12,826 subjects. In addition, data from 12,171 individuals were provided by the CHARGE consortium for replication of findings, in a total of 24,997 subjects. By meta-analyzing results from many sites, ENIGMA has detected factors that affect the brain that no individual site could detect on its own, and that require larger numbers of subjects than any individual neuroimaging study has currently collected. ENIGMA's first project was a genome-wide association study identifying common variants in the genome associated with hippocampal volume or intracranial volume. Continuing work is exploring genetic associations with subcortical volumes (ENIGMA2) and white matter microstructure (ENIGMA-DTI). Working groups also focus on understanding how schizophrenia, bipolar illness, major depression and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affect the brain. We review the current progress of the ENIGMA Consortium, along with challenges and unexpected discoveries made on the way.
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2.
  • Franceschini, N., et al. (författare)
  • GWAS and colocalization analyses implicate carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaque loci in cardiovascular outcomes
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - : NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP. - 2041-1723. ; 9:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Carotid artery intima media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaque are measures of subclinical atherosclerosis associated with ischemic stroke and coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we undertake meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 71,128 individuals for cIMT, and 48,434 individuals for carotid plaque traits. We identify eight novel susceptibility loci for cIMT, one independent association at the previously-identified PINX1 locus, and one novel locus for carotid plaque. Colocalization analysis with nearby vascular expression quantitative loci (cis-eQTLs) derived from arterial wall and metabolic tissues obtained from patients with CHD identifies candidate genes at two potentially additional loci, ADAMTS9 and LOXL4. LD score regression reveals significant genetic correlations between cIMT and plaque traits, and both cIMT and plaque with CHD, any stroke subtype and ischemic stroke. Our study provides insights into genes and tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms linking atherosclerosis both to its functional genomic origins and its clinical consequences in humans. © 2018, The Author(s).
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3.
  • Mair, Grant, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of alteplase on the CT hyperdense artery sign and outcome after ischemic stroke
  • Ingår i: Neurology. - : American Academy of Neurology. - 1526-632X .- 0028-3878. ; 86:2, s. 25-118
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the location and extent of the CT hyperdense artery sign (HAS) at presentation affects response to IV alteplase in the randomized controlled Third International Stroke Trial (IST-3).METHODS: All prerandomization and follow-up (24-48 hours) CT brain scans in IST-3 were assessed for HAS presence, location, and extent by masked raters. We assessed whether HAS grew, persisted, shrank, or disappeared at follow-up, the association with 6-month functional outcome, and effect of alteplase. IST-3 is registered (ISRCTN25765518).RESULTS: HAS presence (vs absence) independently predicted poor 6-month outcome (increased Oxford Handicap Scale [OHS]) on adjusted ordinal regression analysis (odds ratio [OR] 0.66, p < 0.001). Outcome was worse in patients with more (vs less) extensive HAS (OR 0.61, p = 0.027) but not in proximal (vs distal) HAS (p = 0.420). Increasing age was associated with more HAS growth at follow-up (OR 1.01, p = 0.013). Treatment with alteplase increased HAS shrinkage/disappearance at follow-up (OR 0.77, p = 0.006). There was no significant difference in HAS shrinkage with alteplase in proximal (vs distal) or more (vs less) extensive HAS (p = 0.516 and p = 0.580, respectively). There was no interaction between presence vs absence of HAS and benefit of alteplase on 6-month OHS (p = 0.167).CONCLUSIONS: IV alteplase promotes measurable reduction in HAS regardless of HAS location or extent. Alteplase increased independence at 6 months in patients with and without HAS.CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class I evidence that for patients within 6 hours of ischemic stroke with a CT hyperdense artery sign, IV alteplase reduced intra-arterial hyperdense thrombus.
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4.
  • Murray, V., et al. (författare)
  • The molecular basis of thrombolysis and its clinical application in stroke
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Stockholm Stroke Symposium - From Genes to Acute Care,Stockholm, Sweden,2009-01-28 - 2009-01-29. - : Wiley-Blackwell. ; 267:2, s. 191-208
  • Konferensbidrag (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The rationale for thrombolysis, the most promising pharmacological approach in acute ischaemic stroke, is centred on the principal cause of most ischaemic strokes: the thrombus that occludes the cerebral artery, and renders part of the brain ischaemic. The occluding thrombus is bound together within fibrin. Fibrinolysis acts by activation of plasminogen to plasmin; plasmin splits fibrinogen and fibrin and lyses the clot, which then allows reperfusion of the ischaemic brain. Thrombolytic agents include streptokinase (SK) and recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) amongst others under test or development. SK is nonfibrin-specific, has a longer half-life than tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), prevents re-occlusion and is degraded enzymatically in the circulation. rt-PA is more fibrin-specific and clot-dissolving, and is metabolized during the first passage in the liver. In animal models of ischaemic stroke, the effects of rt-PA are remarkably consistent with the effects seen in human clinical trials. For clinical application, some outcome data from the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews which includes all randomized evidence available on thrombolysis in man were used. Trials included tested urokinase, SK, rt-PA, pro-urokinase, or desmoteplase. The chief immediate hazard of thrombolytic therapy is fatal intracranial bleeding. However, despite the risk, the human trial data suggest the immediate hazards and the apparent substantial scope for net benefit of thrombolytic therapy given up to 6 h of acute ischaemic stroke. So far the fibrin-specific rt-PA is the only agent to be approved for use in stroke. This may be due to its short half-life and its absence of any specific amount of circulating fibrinogen degradation products, thereby leaving platelet function intact. The short half-life does not leave rt-PA without danger for haemorrhage after the infusion. Due to its fibrin-specificity, it can persist within a fibrin-rich clot for one or more days. The molecular mechanisms with regards to fibrin-specificity in thrombolytic agents should, if further studied, be addressed in within-trial comparisons. rt-PA has antigenic properties and although their long-term clinical relevance is unclear there should be surveillance for allergic reactions in relation to treatment. Although rt-PA is approved for use in selected patients, there is scope for benefit in a much wider variety of patients. A number of trials are underway to assess which additional patients - beyond the age and time limits of the current approval - might benefit, and how best to identify them.
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5.
  • Satizabal, Claudia L., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic architecture of subcortical brain structures in 38,851 individuals
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 51:11, s. 1624-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Subcortical brain structures are integral to motion, consciousness, emotions and learning. We identified common genetic variation related to the volumes of the nucleus accumbens, amygdala, brainstem, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, putamen and thalamus, using genome-wide association analyses in almost 40,000 individuals from CHARGE, ENIGMA and UK Biobank. We show that variability in subcortical volumes is heritable, and identify 48 significantly associated loci (40 novel at the time of analysis). Annotation of these loci by utilizing gene expression, methylation and neuropathological data identified 199 genes putatively implicated in neurodevelopment, synaptic signaling, axonal transport, apoptosis, inflammation/infection and susceptibility to neurological disorders. This set of genes is significantly enriched for Drosophila orthologs associated with neurodevelopmental phenotypes, suggesting evolutionarily conserved mechanisms. Our findings uncover novel biology and potential drug targets underlying brain development and disease.
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6.
  • Adams, Hieab H. H., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci underlying human intracranial volume identified through genome-wide association
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 19:12, s. 1569-1582
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Intracranial volume reflects the maximally attained brain size during development, and remains stable with loss of tissue in late life. It is highly heritable, but the underlying genes remain largely undetermined. In a genome-wide association study of 32,438 adults, we discovered five previously unknown loci for intracranial volume and confirmed two known signals. Four of the loci were also associated with adult human stature, but these remained associated with intracranial volume after adjusting for height. We found a high genetic correlation with child head circumference (rho(genetic) = 0.748), which indicates a similar genetic background and allowed us to identify four additional loci through meta-analysis (N-combined = 37,345). Variants for intracranial volume were also related to childhood and adult cognitive function, and Parkinson's disease, and were enriched near genes involved in growth pathways, including PI3K-AKT signaling. These findings identify the biological underpinnings of intracranial volume and their link to physiological and pathological traits.
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7.
  • Berge, Eivind, et al. (författare)
  • Effects of alteplase on survival after ischaemic stroke (IST-3) : 3 year follow-up of a randomised, controlled, open-label trial
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: ; 15:10, s. 1028-34
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The effect of alteplase on patient survival after ischaemic stroke is the subject of debate. We report the effect of intravenous alteplase on long-term survival after ischaemic stroke of participants in the Third International Stroke Trial (IST-3).METHODS: In IST-3, done at 156 hospitals in 12 countries (Australia, Europe, and the UK), participants (aged >18 years) were randomly assigned with a telephone voice-activated or web-based system in a 1:1 ratio to treatment with intravenous 0·9 mg/kg alteplase plus standard care or standard care alone within 6 h of ischaemic stroke. We followed up participants in the UK and Scandinavia (Sweden and Norway) for survival up to 3 years after randomisation using data from national registries and compared survival in the two groups with proportional hazards survival analysis, adjusting for key prognostic variables. IST-3 is registered with the ISRCTN registry, number ISRCTN25765518.FINDINGS: Between May 5, 2000, and July 27, 2011, 3035 participants were enrolled in IST-3. Of these, 1948 (64%) of 3035 participants were scheduled for analysis of 3 year survival, and 1946 (>99%) of these were included in the analysis (967 [50%] in the alteplase plus standard care group and 979 [50%] in the standard care alone group). By 3 years after randomisation, 453 (47%) of 967 participants in the alteplase plus standard care group and 494 (50%) of 979 in the standard care alone group had died (risk difference 3·6% [95% CI -0·8 to 8·1]). Participants allocated to alteplase had a significantly higher hazard of death during the first 7 days (99 [10%] of 967 died in the alteplase plus standard care group vs 65 [7%] of 979 in the standard care alone group; hazard ratio 1·52 [95% CI 1·11-2·08]; p=0·004) and a significantly lower hazard of death between 8 days and 3 years (354 [41%] of 868 vs 429 [47%] of 914; 0·78 [0·68-0·90]; p=0·007).INTERPRETATION: Alteplase treatment within 6 h after ischaemic stroke was associated with a small, non-significant reduction in risk of death at 3 years, but among individuals who survived the acute phase, treatment was associated with a significant increase in long-term survival. These results are reassuring for clinicians who have expressed concerns about the effect of alteplase on survival.FUNDING: Heart and Stroke Scotland, UK Medical Research Council, Health Foundation UK, Stroke Association UK, Research Council of Norway, AFA Insurance, Swedish Heart Lung Fund, Foundation of Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg, Polish Ministry of Science and Education, Australian Heart Foundation, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council, Swiss National Research Foundation, Swiss Heart Foundation, Assessorato alla Sanita (Regione dell'Umbria), and Danube University.
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9.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Common genetic variants influence human subcortical brain structures
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: ; 520:7546, s. 224-U216
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The highly complex structure of the human brain is strongly shaped by genetic influences(1). Subcortical brain regions form circuits with cortical areas to coordinate movement(2), learning, memory(3) and motivation(4), and altered circuits can lead to abnormal behaviour and disease(5). To investigate how common genetic variants affect the structure of these brain regions, here we conduct genome-wide association studies of the volumes of seven subcortical regions and the intracranial volume derived from magnetic resonance images of 30,717 individuals from 50 cohorts. We identify five novel genetic variants influencing the volumes of the putamen and caudate nucleus. We also find stronger evidence for three loci with previously established influences on hippocampal volume(5) and intracranial volume(6). These variants show specific volumetric effects on brain structures rather than global effects across structures. The strongest effects were found for the putamen, where a novel intergenic locus with replicable influence on volume (rs945270; P = 1.08 X 10(-33); 0.52% variance explained) showed evidence of altering the expression of the KTN1 gene in both brain and blood tissue. Variants influencing putamen volume clustered near developmental genes that regulate apoptosis, axon guidance and vesicle transport. Identification of these genetic variants provides insight into the causes of variability in human brain development, and may help to determine mechanisms of neuropsychiatric dysfunction.
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10.
  • Hibar, Derrek P., et al. (författare)
  • Novel genetic loci associated with hippocampal volume
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723 .- 2041-1723. ; 8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The hippocampal formation is a brain structure integrally involved in episodic memory, spatial navigation, cognition and stress responsiveness. Structural abnormalities in hippocampal volume and shape are found in several common neuropsychiatric disorders. To identify the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal structure here we perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 33,536 individuals and discover six independent loci significantly associated with hippocampal volume, four of them novel. Of the novel loci, three lie within genes (ASTN2, DPP4 and MAST4) and one is found 200 kb upstream of SHH. A hippocampal subfield analysis shows that a locus within the MSRB3 gene shows evidence of a localized effect along the dentate gyrus, subiculum, CA1 and fissure. Further, we show that genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume are also associated with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (r(g) = -0.155). Our findings suggest novel biological pathways through which human genetic variation influences hippocampal volume and risk for neuropsychiatric illness.
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