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Sökning: WFRF:(Warner Emily)

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  • Pammi, Mohan, et al. (författare)
  • Intestinal dysbiosis in preterm infants preceding necrotizing enterocolitis : a systematic review and meta-analysis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Microbiome. - : BIOMED CENTRAL LTD. - 0026-2633 .- 2049-2618. ; 5
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a catastrophic disease of preterm infants, and microbial dysbiosis has been implicated in its pathogenesis. Studies evaluating the microbiome in NEC and preterm infants lack power and have reported inconsistent results. Methods and results: Our objectives were to perform a systematic review and meta-analyses of stool microbiome profiles in preterm infants to discern and describe microbial dysbiosis prior to the onset of NEC and to explore heterogeneity among studies. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and conference abstracts from the proceedings of Pediatric Academic Societies and reference lists of relevant identified articles in April 2016. Studies comparing the intestinal microbiome in preterm infants who developed NEC to those of controls, using cultureindependent molecular techniques and reported a and beta-diversity metrics, and microbial profiles were included. In addition, 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) sequence data with clinical meta-data were requested from the authors of included studies or searched in public data repositories. We reprocessed the 16S rRNA sequence data through a uniform analysis pipeline, which were then synthesized by meta-analysis. We included 14 studies in this review, and data from eight studies were available for quantitative synthesis (106 NEC cases, 278 controls, 2944 samples). The age of NEC onset was at a mean +/- SD of 30.1 +/- 2.4 weeks post-conception (n = 61). Fecal microbiome from preterm infants with NEC had increased relative abundances of Proteobacteria and decreased relative abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes prior to NEC onset. Alpha-or beta-diversity indices in preterm infants with NEC were not consistently different from controls, but we found differences in taxonomic profiles related to antibiotic exposure, formula feeding, and mode of delivery. Exploring heterogeneity revealed differences in microbial profiles by study and the target region of the 16S rRNA gene (V1-V3 or V3-V5). Conclusions: Microbial dysbiosis preceding NEC in preterm infants is characterized by increased relative abundances of Proteobacteria and decreased relative abundances of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes. Microbiome optimization may provide a novel strategy for preventing NEC.
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  • Yu, Danxia, et al. (författare)
  • Prediagnostic calcium intake and lung cancer survival : A pooled analysis of 12 cohort studies
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention. - : American Association for Cancer Research. - 1055-9965. ; 26:7, s. 1060-1070
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death. Little is known about whether prediagnostic nutritional factors may affect survival. We examined the associations of prediagnostic calcium intake from foods and/or supplements with lung cancer survival. Methods: The present analysis included 23,882 incident, primary lung cancer patients from 12 prospective cohort studies. Dietary calcium intake was assessed using food-frequency questionnaires at baseline in each cohort and standardized to caloric intake of 2,000 kcal/d for women and 2,500 kcal/d for men. Stratified, multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was applied to compute hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: The 5-year survival rates were 56%, 21%, and 5.7% for localized, regional, and distant stage lung cancer, respectively. Low prediagnostic dietary calcium intake (<500-600 mg/d, less than half of the recommendation) was associated with a small increase in risk of death compared with recommended calcium intakes (800-1,200 mg/d); HR (95% CI) was 1.07 (1.01-1.13) after adjusting for age, stage, histology, grade, smoking status, pack-years, and other potential prognostic factors. The association between low calcium intake and higher lung cancer mortality was evident primarily among localized/regional stage patients, with HR (95% CI) of 1.15 (1.04-1.27). No association was found for supplemental calcium with survival in the multivariable-adjusted model. Conclusions: This large pooled analysis is the first, to our knowledge, to indicate that low prediagnostic dietary calcium intake may be associated with poorer survival among early-stage lung cancer patients. Impact: This multinational prospective study linked low calcium intake to lung cancer prognosis.
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  • Anthony, Lowell B., et al. (författare)
  • Long-Term Safety Experience with Telotristat Ethyl Across Five Clinical Studies in Patients with Carcinoid Syndrome
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: The Oncologist. - : WILEY. - 1083-7159 .- 1549-490X. ; 24:8, s. E662-E670
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background Patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) and carcinoid syndrome experience considerable morbidity and mortality; carcinoid syndrome may be associated with shorter survival. Carcinoid syndrome is linked to tumoral secretion of serotonin and other bioactive substances. The subsequent debilitating diarrhea and urgency to defecate pose significant health risks. In previous studies, telotristat ethyl, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, was effective and well tolerated in treating carcinoid syndrome diarrhea. We present pooled safety data from five clinical trials with telotristat ethyl in patients with carcinoid syndrome. Subjects, Materials, and Methods Adverse events reported during telotristat ethyl treatment were pooled from two phase II and three phase III clinical trials in 239 patients with carcinoid syndrome. Long-term safety of telotristat ethyl and causes of hospitalization and death were reviewed; overall survival was estimated. Results Mean (median; range) duration of exposure and follow-up was 1.3 years (1.1 years; 1 week to 5.7 years), with 309 total patient-years of exposure. Leading causes of hospitalization were gastrointestinal disorders or were related to the underlying tumor and related treatment. Survival estimates at 1, 2, and 3 years were 93%, 88%, and 77%. Nearly all deaths were due to progression or complication of the underlying disease; none were attributable to telotristat ethyl. There was one death in year 4. Conclusion Based on long-term safety data, telotristat ethyl is well tolerated and has a favorable long-term safety profile in patients with carcinoid syndrome. Implications for Practice Carcinoid syndrome can cause persistent diarrhea, even in patients treated with somatostatin analogs. Across five clinical trials in patients with carcinoid syndrome, telotristat ethyl has been well tolerated and efficacious, providing clinicians with a new approach to help control carcinoid syndrome diarrhea, in addition to somatostatin analog therapy. By reducing the stool frequency in patients with carcinoid syndrome whose diarrhea is refractory to anticholinergics, such as loperamide and atropine/diphenoxylate, and somatostatin analog dose escalation, improvement in quality of life becomes an achievable goal.
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  • Dillon, Joseph S., et al. (författare)
  • Time to Sustained Improvement in Bowel Movement Frequency with Telotristat Ethyl : Analyses of Phase III Studies in Carcinoid Syndrome
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer. - 1941-6628 .- 1941-6636. ; 52:1, s. 212-221
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BackgroundTelotristat ethyl is approved to treat carcinoid syndrome diarrhea in combination with somatostatin analogs. In TELESTAR and TELECAST phase III studies, patients with carcinoid syndrome received telotristat ethyl 250 or 500 mg 3 times per day (tid) or placebo tid in addition to somatostatin analogs. The aim of this prespecified analysis was to examine the time to reductions in bowel movements (BMs) in the TELESTAR and TELECAST studies using survival analysis methods.MethodsFirst occurrence of sustained response was defined as the time to the first day of 2 consecutive weeks with a mean BM frequency improvement of ≥ 30% from baseline during the 12-week double-blind treatment periods. Time to first ≥ 30% worsening in BM frequency was also measured. Treatments were compared with the log-rank test; Cox regression models provided point and confidence interval estimates of the hazard ratios for each trial.ResultsIn TELESTAR and TELECAST, majority of patients (69%) on telotristat ethyl experienced a sustained ≥ 30% improvement in BM frequency. The median time to sustained reduction of at least 30% in BM frequency was significantly faster (fewer days to onset) for telotristat ethyl compared with placebo in both TELESTAR (250 mg, HR = 2.3 [95% CI, 1.3–4.1, P = 0.004]; 500 mg, HR = 2.2 [95% CI, 1.2–3.9, P = 0.009]) and TELECAST (250 mg, HR = 3.9 [95% CI, 1.6–11.1, P = 0.003]; 500 mg, HR = 4.2 [95% CI, 1.7–11.7, P = 0.002]). In TELECAST, 42% of patients on placebo experienced sustained worsening in BM frequency compared with 20% on telotristat ethyl; no significant difference was observed in TELESTAR.ConclusionThe time of onset of sustained BM frequency improvement mean and range are important when considering use of telotristat ethyl in patients with carcinoid syndrome diarrhea. Telotristat ethyl may also reduce sustained worsening in BM frequency.
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  • Kulke, Matthew H., et al. (författare)
  • Telotristat Ethyl, a Tryptophan Hydroxylase Inhibitor for the Treatment of Carcinoid Syndrome
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology. - 0732-183X .- 1527-7755. ; 35:1, s. 14-23
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Purpose Preliminary studies suggested that telotristat ethyl, a tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor, reduces bowel movement (BM) frequency in patients with carcinoid syndrome. This placebo-controlled phase III study evaluated telotristat ethyl in this setting. Patients and Methods Patients (N = 135) experiencing four or more BMs per day despite stable-dose somatostatin analog therapy received (1: 1: 1) placebo, telotristat ethyl 250 mg, or telotristat ethyl 500 mg three times per day orally during a 12-week double-blind treatment period. The primary end point was change from baseline in BM frequency. In an open-label extension, 115 patients subsequently received telotristat ethyl 500 mg. Results Estimated differences in BM frequency per day versus placebo averaged over 12 weeks were -0.81 for telotristat ethyl 250 mg (P < .001) and -0.69 for telotristat ethyl 500 mg (P,.001). At week 12, mean BM frequency reductions per day for placebo, telotristat ethyl 250 mg, and telotristat ethyl 500 mg were -0.9, -1.7, and -2.1, respectively. Responses, predefined as a BM frequency reduction >= 30% from baseline for >= 50% of the double-blind treatment period, were observed in 20%, 44%, and 42% of patients given placebo, telotristat ethyl 250 mg, and telotristat ethyl 500 mg, respectively. Both telotristat ethyl dosages significantly reduced mean urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid versus placebo at week 12 (P < .001). Mild nausea and asymptomatic increases in gamma-glutamyl transferase were observed in some patients receiving telotristat ethyl. Follow-up of patients during the open-label extension revealed no new safety signals and suggested sustained BM responses to treatment. Conclusion Among patients with carcinoid syndrome not adequately controlled by somatostatin analogs, treatment with telotristat ethyl was generally safe and well tolerated and resulted in significant reductions in BM frequency and urinary 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid.
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  • Midttun, Øivind, et al. (författare)
  • Circulating concentrations of biomarkers and metabolites related to Vitamin status, one-carbon and the kynurenine pathways in US, Nordic, Asian, and Australian populations
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. - : Oxford University Press. - 0002-9165 .- 1938-3207. ; 105:6, s. 1314-1326
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Circulating concentrations of biomarkers that are related to Vitamin status vary by factors such as diet, fortification, and supplement use. Published biomarker concentrations have also been influenced by the variation across laboratories, which complicates a comparison of results from different studies. Objective: We robustly and comprehensively assessed differences in biomarkers that are related to Vitamin status across geographic regions. Design: The trial was a cross-sectional study in which we investigated 38 biomarkers that are related to Vitamin status and one-carbon and tryptophan metabolism in serum and plasma from 5314 healthy control subjects representing 20 cohorts recruited from the United States, Nordic countries, Asia, and Australia, participating in the Lung Cancer Cohort Consortium. All samples were analyzed in a centralized laboratory. Results: Circulating concentrations of riboflavin, pyridoxal 5≤-phosphate, folate, Vitamin B-12, all-trans retinol, 25-hydroxyVitamin D, and a-tocopherol as well as combined Vitamin scores that were based on these nutrients showed that the general B-Vitamin concentration was highest in the United States and that the B Vitamins and lipid soluble Vitamins were low in Asians. Conversely, circulating concentrations of metabolites that are inversely related to B Vitamins involved in the one-carbon and kynurenine pathways were high in Asians. The high B-Vitamin concentration in the United States appears to be driven mainly by multiVitamin-supplement users. Conclusions: The observed differences likely reflect the variation in intake of Vitamins and, in particular, the widespread multiVitamin-supplement use in the United States. The results provide valuable information about the differences in biomarkerconcentrations in populations across continents. Am J Clin Nutr 2017;105:1314-26.
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