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Sökning: WFRF:(Waterhouse L.)

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1.
  • Sadd, Ben M., et al. (författare)
  • The genomes of two key bumblebee species with primitive eusocial organization
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Genome Biology. - 1465-6906. ; 16:76
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • BACKGROUND: The shift from solitary to social behavior is one of the major evolutionary transitions. Primitively eusocial bumblebees are uniquely placed to illuminate the evolution of highly eusocial insect societies. Bumblebees are also invaluable natural and agricultural pollinators, and there is widespread concern over recent population declines in some species. High-quality genomic data will inform key aspects of bumblebee biology, including susceptibility to implicated population viability threats.RESULTS: We report the high quality draft genome sequences of Bombus terrestris and Bombus impatiens, two ecologically dominant bumblebees and widely utilized study species. Comparing these new genomes to those of the highly eusocial honeybee Apis mellifera and other Hymenoptera, we identify deeply conserved similarities, as well as novelties key to the biology of these organisms. Some honeybee genome features thought to underpin advanced eusociality are also present in bumblebees, indicating an earlier evolution in the bee lineage. Xenobiotic detoxification and immune genes are similarly depauperate in bumblebees and honeybees, and multiple categories of genes linked to social organization, including development and behavior, show high conservation. Key differences identified include a bias in bumblebee chemoreception towards gustation from olfaction, and striking differences in microRNAs, potentially responsible for gene regulation underlying social and other traits.CONCLUSIONS: These two bumblebee genomes provide a foundation for post-genomic research on these key pollinators and insect societies. Overall, gene repertoires suggest that the route to advanced eusociality in bees was mediated by many small changes in many genes and processes, and not by notable expansion or depauperation.
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2.
  • Ahola, V, et al. (författare)
  • The Glanville fritillary genome retains an ancient karyotype and reveals selective chromosomal fusions in Lepidoptera
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - Nature Publishing Group. - 2041-1723. ; 5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Previous studies have reported that chromosome synteny in Lepidoptera has been well conserved, yet the number of haploid chromosomes varies widely from 5 to 223. Here we report the genome (393 Mb) of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia; Nymphalidae), a widely recognized model species in metapopulation biology and eco-evolutionary research, which has the putative ancestral karyotype of n=31. Using a phylogenetic analyses of Nymphalidae and of other Lepidoptera, combined with orthologue-level comparisons of chromosomes, we conclude that the ancestral lepidopteran karyotype has been n=31 for at least 140 My. We show that fusion chromosomes have retained the ancestral chromosome segments and very few rearrangements have occurred across the fusion sites. The same, shortest ancestral chromosomes have independently participated in fusion events in species with smaller karyotypes. The short chromosomes have higher rearrangement rate than long ones. These characteristics highlight distinctive features of the evolutionary dynamics of butterflies and moths.
3.
  • Arensburger, Peter, et al. (författare)
  • Sequencing of Culex quinquefasciatus Establishes a Platform for Mosquito Comparative Genomics
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Science. - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 330:6000, s. 86-88
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Culex quinquefasciatus (the southern house mosquito) is an important mosquito vector of viruses such as West Nile virus and St. Louis encephalitis virus, as well as of nematodes that cause lymphatic filariasis. C. quinquefasciatus is one species within the Culex pipiens species complex and can be found throughout tropical and temperate climates of the world. The ability of C. quinquefasciatus to take blood meals from birds, livestock, and humans contributes to its ability to vector pathogens between species. Here, we describe the genomic sequence of C. quinquefasciatus: Its repertoire of 18,883 protein-coding genes is 22% larger than that of Aedes aegypti and 52% larger than that of Anopheles gambiae with multiple gene-family expansions, including olfactory and gustatory receptors, salivary gland genes, and genes associated with xenobiotic detoxification.
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4.
  • Werren, John H, et al. (författare)
  • Functional and evolutionary insights from the genomes of three parasitoid nasonia species
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Science. - The American Association for the Advancement of Science. - 0036-8075. ; 327:5963, s. 343-348
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We report here genome sequences and comparative analyses of three closely related parasitoid wasps: Nasonia vitripennis, N. giraulti, and N. tongicomis. Parasitoids are important regulators of arthropod populations, including major agricultural pests and disease vectors, and Nasonia is an emerging genetic model, particularly for evolutionary and developmental genetics. Key findings include the identification of a functional DNA methylation tool kit; hymenopteran-spedfic genes including diverse venoms; lateral gene transfers among Pox viruses, Wolbachia, and Nasonia; and the rapid evolution of genes involved in nuclearmitochondrial interactions that are implicated in spedation. Newly developed genome resources advance Nasonia for genetic research, accelerate mapping and cloning of quantitative trait loci, and will ultimately provide tools and knowledge for further increasing the utility of parasitoids as pest insect-control agents.
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5.
  • Zhao, Chaoyang, et al. (författare)
  • A massive expansion of effector genes underlies gall-formation in the wheat pest Mayetiola destructor
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Current Biology. - Elsevier. - 1879-0445. ; 25:5, s. 613-620
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Gall-forming arthropods are highly specialized herbivores that, in combination with their hosts, produce extended phenotypes with unique morphologies [1]. Many are economically important, and others have improved our understanding of ecology and adaptive radiation [2]. However, the mechanisms that these arthropods use to induce plant galls are poorly understood. We sequenced the genome of the Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor; Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a plant parasitic gall midge and a pest of wheat (Triticum spp.), with the aim of identifying genic modifications that contribute to its plant-parasitic lifestyle. Among several adaptive modifications, we discovered an expansive reservoir of potential effector proteins. Nearly 5% of the 20,163 predicted gene models matched putative effector gene transcripts present in the M. destructor larval salivary gland. Another 466 putative effectors were discovered among the genes that have no sequence similarities in other organisms. The largest known arthropod gene family (family SSGP-71) was also discovered within the effector reservoir. SSGP-71 proteins lack sequence homologies to other proteins, but their structures resemble both ubiquitin E3 ligases in plants and E3-ligase-mimicking effectors in plant pathogenic bacteria. SSGP-71 proteins and wheat Skp proteins interact in vivo. Mutations in different SSGP-71 genes avoid the effector-triggered immunity that is directed by the wheat resistance genes H6 and H9. Results point to effectors as the agents responsible for arthropod-induced plant gall formation.
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7.
  • Suzuki, H, et al. (författare)
  • The transcriptional network that controls growth arrest and differentiation in a human myeloid leukemia cell line
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Nature genetics. - 1546-1718. ; 41:5, s. 553-562
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Using deep sequencing (deepCAGE), the FANTOM4 study measured the genome-wide dynamics of transcription-start-site usage in the human monocytic cell line THP-1 throughout a time course of growth arrest and differentiation. Modeling the expression dynamics in terms of predicted cis-regulatory sites, we identified the key transcription regulators, their time-dependent activities and target genes. Systematic siRNA knockdown of 52 transcription factors confirmed the roles of individual factors in the regulatory network. Our results indicate that cellular states are constrained by complex networks involving both positive and negative regulatory interactions among substantial numbers of transcription factors and that no single transcription factor is both necessary and sufficient to drive the differentiation process.
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8.
  • Fishwick, D., et al. (författare)
  • Determinants of health-related quality of life among residents with and without COPD in a historically industrialised area
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. - 0340-0131. ; 88:6, s. 799-805
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with substantial morbidity, including impaired health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Despite the prominent role of occupational factors in the aetiology of COPD, the relationship between these exposures and HRQoL has not been well elucidated. A subpopulation from an epidemiological study, designed to assess the workplace contribution to COPD, was administered the EQ5D HRQoL tool. Demographics, an index of economic deprivation, health endpoints including the presence of COPD and lung function were also recorded. Workplace exposures were categorised using both self-reported exposures and also by the use of an established job exposure matrix (JEM). A total of 623 individuals participated (mean age 67.1 years). One hundred and forty-eight (24 %) reported having received a physician diagnosis of COPD, 355 (57 %) were male, and 386 (62 %) were ever smokers. As anticipated, the presence of COPD was associated with a poorer HRQoL. Additionally, however, HRQoL was significantly lower in the presence of both self-reported vapours, gases, dusts and fumes exposure and JEM-based exposure irrespective of the presence of COPD. Regression analysis, adjusting for a variety of covariates including the presence of COPD, confirmed a persisting higher likelihood of occupational exposure categorised by JEM being associated with poorer HRQoL scores (beta estimate: -0.069; p < 0.05). Our findings suggest that work may have an important link to HRQoL and that this effect can persist even among those who have retired. In those with COPD, HRQoL is worse than among those without this condition, but the work-associated decrement appears to be similar across both groups.
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9.
  • Saurer, Matthias, et al. (författare)
  • Spatial variability and temporal trends in water-use efficiency of European forests
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Global Change Biology. - 1354-1013 .- 1365-2486. ; 20:12, s. 3700-3712
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The increasing carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration in the atmosphere in combination with climatic changes throughout the last century are likely to have had a profound effect on the physiology of trees: altering the carbon and water fluxes passing through the stomatal pores. However, the magnitude and spatial patterns of such changes in natural forests remain highly uncertain. Here, stable carbon isotope ratios from a network of 35 tree-ring sites located across Europe are investigated to determine the intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE), the ratio of photosynthesis to stomatal conductance from 1901 to 2000. The results were compared with simulations of a dynamic vegetation model (LPX-Bern 1.0) that integrates numerous ecosystem and land-atmosphere exchange processes in a theoretical framework. The spatial pattern of tree-ring derived iWUE of the investigated coniferous and deciduous species and the model results agreed significantly with a clear south-to-north gradient, as well as a general increase in iWUE over the 20th century. The magnitude of the iWUE increase was not spatially uniform, with the strongest increase observed and modelled for temperate forests in Central Europe, a region where summer soil-water availability decreased over the last century. We were able to demonstrate that the combined effects of increasing CO2 and climate change leading to soil drying have resulted in an accelerated increase in iWUE. These findings will help to reduce uncertainties in the land surface schemes of global climate models, where vegetation-climate feedbacks are currently still poorly constrained by observational data.
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10.
  • Waterhouse, L., et al. (författare)
  • ASD Validity
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Review Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. - 2195-7177. ; 3:4, s. 302-329
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • ASD research is at an important crossroads. The ASD diagnosis is important for assigning a child to early behavioral intervention and explaining a child’s condition. But ASD research has not provided a diagnosis-specific medical treatment, or a consistent early predictor, or a unified life course. If the ASD diagnosis also lacks biological and construct validity, a shift away from studying ASD-defined samples would be warranted. Consequently, this paper reviews recent findings for the neurobiological validity of ASD, the construct validity of ASD diagnostic criteria, and the construct validity of ASD spectrum features. The findings reviewed indicate that the ASD diagnosis lacks biological and construct validity. The paper concludes with proposals for research going forward. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
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