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  • Munn-Chernoff, M. A., et al. (författare)
  • Shared genetic risk between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes: Evidence from genome-wide association studies
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Addiction Biology. - 1355-6215.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Eating disorders and substance use disorders frequently co-occur. Twin studies reveal shared genetic variance between liabilities to eating disorders and substance use, with the strongest associations between symptoms of bulimia nervosa and problem alcohol use (genetic correlation [r(g)], twin-based = 0.23-0.53). We estimated the genetic correlation between eating disorder and substance use and disorder phenotypes using data from genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Four eating disorder phenotypes (anorexia nervosa [AN], AN with binge eating, AN without binge eating, and a bulimia nervosa factor score), and eight substance-use-related phenotypes (drinks per week, alcohol use disorder [AUD], smoking initiation, current smoking, cigarettes per day, nicotine dependence, cannabis initiation, and cannabis use disorder) from eight studies were included. Significant genetic correlations were adjusted for variants associated with major depressive disorder and schizophrenia. Total study sample sizes per phenotype ranged from similar to 2400 to similar to 537 000 individuals. We used linkage disequilibrium score regression to calculate single nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic correlations between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes. Significant positive genetic associations emerged between AUD and AN (r(g) = 0.18; false discovery rate q = 0.0006), cannabis initiation and AN (r(g) = 0.23; q < 0.0001), and cannabis initiation and AN with binge eating (r(g) = 0.27; q = 0.0016). Conversely, significant negative genetic correlations were observed between three nondiagnostic smoking phenotypes (smoking initiation, current smoking, and cigarettes per day) and AN without binge eating (r(gs) = -0.19 to -0.23; qs < 0.04). The genetic correlation between AUD and AN was no longer significant after co-varying for major depressive disorder loci. The patterns of association between eating disorder- and substance-use-related phenotypes highlights the potentially complex and substance-specific relationships among these behaviors.
  • Burstein, R., et al. (författare)
  • Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature. - Nature Publishing Group. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 574:7778, s. 353-358
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2—to end preventable child deaths by 2030—we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000–2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations. © 2019, The Author(s).</p>
  • Watson, H. J., et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study identifies eight risk loci and implicates metabo-psychiatric origins for anorexia nervosa
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 51:8, s. 1207-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Characterized primarily by a low body-mass index, anorexia nervosa is a complex and serious illness(1), affecting 0.9-4% of women and 0.3% of men(2-4), with twin-based heritability estimates of 50-60%(5). Mortality rates are higher than those in other psychiatric disorders(6), and outcomes are unacceptably poor(7). Here we combine data from the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI)(8,9) and the Eating Disorders Working Group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC-ED) and conduct a genome-wide association study of 16,992 cases of anorexia nervosa and 55,525 controls, identifying eight significant loci. The genetic architecture of anorexia nervosa mirrors its clinical presentation, showing significant genetic correlations with psychiatric disorders, physical activity, and metabolic (including glycemic), lipid and anthropometric traits, independent of the effects of common variants associated with body-mass index. These results further encourage a reconceptualization of anorexia nervosa as a metabo-psychiatric disorder. Elucidating the metabolic component is a critical direction for future research, and paying attention to both psychiatric and metabolic components may be key to improving outcomes.
  • Abdalla, H., et al. (författare)
  • Detection of very-high-energy gamma-ray emission from the colliding wind binary eta Car with HESS
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astronomy and Astrophysics. - EDP Sciences. - 0004-6361 .- 1432-0746. ; 635, s. 1-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Aims. Colliding wind binary systems have long been suspected to be high-energy (HE; 100 MeV &lt; E &lt; 100 GeV) gamma-ray emitters. eta Car is the most prominent member of this object class and is confirmed to emit phase-locked HE gamma rays from hundreds of MeV to 100 GeV energies. This work aims to search for and characterise the very-high-energy (VHE; E &gt;100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from eta Car around the last periastron passage in 2014 with the ground-based High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.).Methods. The region around eta Car was observed with H.E.S.S. between orbital phase p = 0.78-1.10, with a closer sampling at p approximate to 0.95 and p approximate to 1.10 (assuming a period of 2023 days). Optimised hardware settings as well as adjustments to the data reduction, reconstruction, and signal selection were needed to suppress and take into account the strong, extended, and inhomogeneous night sky background (NSB) in the eta Car field of view. Tailored run-wise Monte-Carlo simulations (RWS) were required to accurately treat the additional noise from NSB photons in the instrument response functions.Results. H.E.S.S. detected VHE gamma-ray emission from the direction of eta Car shortly before and after the minimum in the X-ray light-curve close to periastron. Using the point spread function provided by RWS, the reconstructed signal is point-like and the spectrum is best described by a power law. The overall flux and spectral index in VHE gamma rays agree within statistical and systematic errors before and after periastron. The gamma-ray spectrum extends up to at least 400 GeV. This implies a maximum magnetic field in a leptonic scenario in the emission region of 0.5 Gauss. No indication for phase-locked flux variations is detected in the H.E.S.S. data.</p>
  • Abdalla, H., et al. (författare)
  • Probing the Magnetic Field in the GW170817 Outflow Using HESS Observations
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Astrophysical Journal Letters. - Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP). - 2041-8205 .- 2041-8213. ; 894:2, s. 1-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>The detection of the first electromagnetic counterpart to the binary neutron star (BNS) merger remnant GW170817 established the connection between short gamma-ray bursts and BNS mergers. It also confirmed the forging of heavy elements in the ejecta (a so-called kilonova) via the r-process nucleosynthesis. The appearance of nonthermal radio and X-ray emission, as well as the brightening, which lasted more than 100 days, were somewhat unexpected. Current theoretical models attempt to explain this temporal behavior as either originating from a relativistic off-axis jet or a kilonova-like outflow. In either scenario, there is some ambiguity regarding how much energy is transported in the nonthermal electrons versus the magnetic field of the emission region. Combining the Very Large Array (radio) and Chandra (X-ray) measurements with observations in the GeV-TeV domain can help break this ambiguity, almost independently of the assumed origin of the emission. Here we report for the first time on deep H.E.S.S. observations of GW170817/GRB 170817A between 124 and 272 days after the BNS merger with the full H.E.S.S. array of telescopes, as well as on an updated analysis of the prompt (&lt;5 days) observations with the upgraded H.E.S.S. phase-I telescopes. We discuss implications of the H.E.S.S. measurement for the magnetic field in the context of different source scenarios.</p>
  • Abdalla, H., et al. (författare)
  • Very high energy gamma-ray emission from two blazars of unknown redshift and upper limits on their distance
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Monthly notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. - Oxford University Press. - 0035-8711 .- 1365-2966. ; 494:4, s. 5590-5602
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>We report on the detection of very high energy (VHE; E &gt; 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission from the BL Lac objects KUV 00311-1938 and PKS 1440-389 with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). H.E.S.S. observations were accompanied or preceded by multiwavelength observations with Fermi/LAT, XRT and UVOT onboard the Swift satellite, and ATOM. Based on an extrapolation of the Fermi/LAT spectrum towards the VHE gamma-ray regime, we deduce a 95 per cent confidence level upper limit on the unknown redshift of KUV 00311-1938 of z &lt; 0.98 and of PKS 1440-389 of z &lt; 0.53. When combined with previous spectroscopy results, the redshift of KUV 00311-1938 is constrained to 0.51 &lt;= z &lt; 0.98 and of PKS 1440-389 to 0.14 (sic) z &lt; 0.53.</p>
  • Bryois, J, et al. (författare)
  • Genetic identification of cell types underlying brain complex traits yields insights into the etiology of Parkinson’s disease
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036. ; 52:5, s. 482-493
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Genome-wide association studies have discovered hundreds of loci associated with complex brain disorders, but it remains unclear in which cell types these loci are active. Here we integrate genome-wide association study results with single-cell transcriptomic data from the entire mouse nervous system to systematically identify cell types underlying brain complex traits. We show that psychiatric disorders are predominantly associated with projecting excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Neurological diseases were associated with different cell types, which is consistent with other lines of evidence. Notably, Parkinson’s disease was genetically associated not only with cholinergic and monoaminergic neurons (which include dopaminergic neurons) but also with enteric neurons and oligodendrocytes. Using post-mortem brain transcriptomic data, we confirmed alterations in these cells, even at the earliest stages of disease progression. Our study provides an important framework for understanding the cellular basis of complex brain maladies, and reveals an unexpected role of oligodendrocytes in Parkinson’s disease. © 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.
  • Aartsen, M. G., et al. (författare)
  • Constraints on Minute-Scale Transient Astrophysical Neutrino Sources
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Physical Review Letters. - AMER PHYSICAL SOC. - 0031-9007 .- 1079-7114. ; 122:5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>High-energy neutrino emission has been predicted for several short-lived astrophysical transients including gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), core-collapse supernovae with choked jets, and neutron star mergers. IceCube's optical and x-ray follow-up program searches for such transient sources by looking for two or more muon neutrino candidates in directional coincidence and arriving within 100 s. The measured rate of neutrino alerts is consistent with the expected rate of chance coincidences of atmospheric background events and no likely electromagnetic counterparts have been identified in Swift follow-up observations. Here, we calculate generic bounds on the neutrino flux of short-lived transient sources. Assuming an E-2.5 neutrino spectrum, we find that the neutrino flux of rare sources, like long gamma-ray bursts, is constrained to &lt; 5% of the detected astrophysical flux and the energy released in neutrinos (100 GeV to 10 PeV) by a median bright GRB-like source is &lt; 10(52.5) erg. For a harder E-2.13 neutrino spectrum up to 30% of the flux could be produced by GRBs and the allowed median source energy is &lt; 10(52) erg. A hypothetical population of transient sources has to be more common than 10(-5) Mpc(-3) yr(-1) (5 x 10(-8) Mpc(-3) yr(-1) for the E-2.13 spectrum) to account for the complete astrophysical neutrino flux.</p>
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