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Sökning: WFRF:(Webb Ryan)

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  • Buhnerkempe, Michael G., et al. (författare)
  • The Impact of Movements and Animal Density on Continental Scale Cattle Disease Outbreaks in the United States
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 9:3, s. 0091724-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Globalization has increased the potential for the introduction and spread of novel pathogens over large spatial scales necessitating continental-scale disease models to guide emergency preparedness. Livestock disease spread models, such as those for the 2001 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic in the United Kingdom, represent some of the best case studies of large-scale disease spread. However, generalization of these models to explore disease outcomes in other systems, such as the United Statess cattle industry, has been hampered by differences in system size and complexity and the absence of suitable livestock movement data. Here, a unique database of US cattle shipments allows estimation of synthetic movement networks that inform a near-continental scale disease model of a potential FMD-like (i.e., rapidly spreading) epidemic in US cattle. The largest epidemics may affect over one-third of the US and 120,000 cattle premises, but cattle movement restrictions from infected counties, as opposed to national movement moratoriums, are found to effectively contain outbreaks. Slow detection or weak compliance may necessitate more severe state-level bans for similar control. Such results highlight the role of large-scale disease models in emergency preparedness, particularly for systems lacking comprehensive movement and outbreak data, and the need to rapidly implement multi-scale contingency plans during a potential US outbreak.
  • Dos Santos, Nancy, et al. (författare)
  • Influence of poly(ethylene glycol) grafting density and polymer length on liposomes : Relating plasma circulation lifetimes to protein binding
  • 2007
  • Ingår i: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Biomembranes. - 0005-2736 .- 1879-2642. ; 1768:6, s. 1367-1377
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The incorporation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-conjugated lipids in lipid-based carriers substantially prolongs the circulation lifetime of liposomes. However, the mechanism(s) by which PEG-lipids achieve this have not been fully elucidated. It is believed that PEG-lipids mediate steric stabilization, ultimately reducing surface-surface interactions including the aggregation of liposomes and/or adsorption of plasma proteins. The purpose of the studies described here was to compare the effects of PEG-lipid incorporation in liposomes on protein binding, liposome-liposome aggregation and pharmacokinetics in mice. Cholesterol-free liposomes were chosen because of their increasing importance as liposomal delivery systems and their marked sensitivity to protein binding and aggregation. Specifically, liposomes containing various molecular weight PEG-lipids at a variety of molar proportions were analyzed for in vivo clearance, aggregation state (size exclusion chromatography, quasi-elastic light scattering, cryo-transmission and freeze fracture electron microscopy) as well as in vitro and in vivo protein binding. The results indicated that as little as 0.5 mol% of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylethanolamine (DSPE) modified with PEG having a mean molecular weight of 2000 (DSPE-PEG(2000)) substantially increased plasma circulation longevity of liposomes prepared of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DSPC). Optimal plasma circulation lifetimes could be achieved with 2 mol% DSPE-PEG(2000). At this proportion of DSPE-PEG(2000), the aggregation of DSPC-based liposomes was completely precluded. However, the total protein adsorption and the protein profile was not influenced by the level of DSPE-PEG(2000) in the membrane. These studies suggest that PEG-lipids reduce the in vivo clearance of cholesterol-free liposomal formulations primarily by inhibition of surface interactions, particularly liposome-liposome aggregation.
  • Gorsich, Erin E., et al. (författare)
  • Model-guided suggestions for targeted surveillance based on cattle shipments in the US
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Preventive Veterinary Medicine. - : ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV. - 0167-5877 .- 1873-1716. ; 150, s. 52-59
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Risk-based sampling is an essential component of livestock health surveillance because it targets resources towards sub-populations with a higher risk of infection. Risk-based surveillance in U.S. livestock is limited because the locations of high-risk herds are often unknown and data to identify high-risk herds based on shipments are often unavailable. In this study, we use a novel, data-driven network model for the shipments of cattle in the U.S. (the U.S. Animal Movement Model, USAMM) to provide surveillance suggestions for cattle imported into the U.S. from Mexico. We describe the volume and locations where cattle are imported and analyze their predicted shipment patterns to identify counties that are most likely to receive shipments of imported cattle. Our results suggest that most imported cattle are sent to relatively few counties. Surveillance at 10 counties is predicted to sample 22-34% of imported cattle while surveillance at 50 counties is predicted to sample 43%-61% of imported cattle. These findings are based on the assumption that USAMM accurately describes the shipments of imported cattle because their shipments are not tracked separately from the remainder of the U.S. herd. However, we analyze two additional datasets - Interstate Certificates of Veterinary Inspection and brand inspection data - to ensure that the characteristics of potential post-import shipments do not change on an annual scale and are not dependent on the dataset informing our analyses. Overall, these results highlight the utility of USAMM to inform targeted surveillance strategies when complete shipment information is unavailable.
  • Lindström, Tom, et al. (författare)
  • A Bayesian Approach for Modeling Cattle Movements in the United States: Scaling up a Partially Observed Network
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - : Public Library of Science. - 1932-6203 .- 1932-6203. ; 8:1
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Networks are rarely completely observed and prediction of unobserved edges is an important problem, especially in disease spread modeling where networks are used to represent the pattern of contacts. We focus on a partially observed cattle movement network in the U.S. and present a method for scaling up to a full network based on Bayesian inference, with the aim of informing epidemic disease spread models in the United States. The observed network is a 10% state stratified sample of Interstate Certificates of Veterinary Inspection that are required for interstate movement; describing approximately 20,000 movements from 47 of the contiguous states, with origins and destinations aggregated at the county level. We address how to scale up the 10% sample and predict unobserved intrastate movements based on observed movement distances. Edge prediction based on a distance kernel is not straightforward because the probability of movement does not always decline monotonically with distance due to underlying industry infrastructure. Hence, we propose a spatially explicit model where the probability of movement depends on distance, number of premises per county and historical imports of animals. Our model performs well in recapturing overall metrics of the observed network at the node level (U.S. counties), including degree centrality and betweenness; and performs better compared to randomized networks. Kernel generated movement networks also recapture observed global network metrics, including network size, transitivity, reciprocity, and assortativity better than randomized networks. In addition, predicted movements are similar to observed when aggregated at the state level (a broader geographic level relevant for policy) and are concentrated around states where key infrastructures, such as feedlots, are common. We conclude that the method generally performs well in predicting both coarse geographical patterns and network structure and is a promising method to generate full networks that incorporate the uncertainty of sampled and unobserved contacts.
  • Sawalha, Amr H., et al. (författare)
  • Common variants within MECP2 confer risk of systemic lupus erythematosus
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: PLoS ONE. - 1932-6203. ; 3:3, s. e1727-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a predominantly female autoimmune disease that affects multiple organ systems. Herein, we report on an X-chromosome gene association with SLE. Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2) is located on chromosome Xq28 and encodes for a protein that plays a critical role in epigenetic transcriptional regulation of methylation-sensitive genes. Utilizing a candidate gene association approach, we genotyped 21 SNPs within and around MECP2 in SLE patients and controls. We identify and replicate association between SLE and the genomic element containing MECP2 in two independent SLE cohorts from two ethnically divergent populations. These findings are potentially related to the overexpression of methylation-sensitive genes in SLE.
  • Sellman, Stefan, et al. (författare)
  • Realistic assumptions about spatial locations and clustering of premises matter for models of foot-and-mouth disease spread in the United States
  • 2020
  • Ingår i: PloS Computational Biology. - : PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE. - 1553-734X .- 1553-7358. ; 16:2
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Spatially explicit livestock disease models require demographic data for individual farms or premises. In the U.S., demographic data are only available aggregated at county or coarser scales, so disease models must rely on assumptions about how individual premises are distributed within counties. Here, we addressed the importance of realistic assumptions for this purpose. We compared modeling of foot and mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks using simple randomization of locations to premises configurations predicted by the Farm Location and Agricultural Production Simulator (FLAPS), which infers location based on features such as topography, land-cover, climate, and roads. We focused on three premises-level Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Removed models available from the literature, all using the same kernel approach but with different parameterizations and functional forms. By computing the basic reproductive number of the infection (R-0) for both FLAPS and randomized configurations, we investigated how spatial locations and clustering of premises affects outbreak predictions. Further, we performed stochastic simulations to evaluate if identified differences were consistent for later stages of an outbreak. Using Ripleys K to quantify clustering, we found that FLAPS configurations were substantially more clustered at the scales relevant for the implemented models, leading to a higher frequency of nearby premises compared to randomized configurations. As a result, R-0 was typically higher in FLAPS configurations, and the simulation study corroborated the pattern for later stages of outbreaks. Further, both R-0 and simulations exhibited substantial spatial heterogeneity in terms of differences between configurations. Thus, using realistic assumptions when de-aggregating locations based on available data can have a pronounced effect on epidemiological predictions, affecting if, where, and to what extent FMD may invade the population. We conclude that methods such as FLAPS should be preferred over randomization approaches.
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