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Sökning: WFRF:(Webster Matthew T.)

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1.
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)
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2.
  • Arndt, D. S., et al. (författare)
  • STATE OF THE CLIMATE IN 2017
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Bulletin of The American Meteorological Society - (BAMS). - : AMER METEOROLOGICAL SOC. - 0003-0007 .- 1520-0477. ; 99:8, s. S1-S310
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)
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3.
  • Vaysse, Amaury, et al. (författare)
  • Identification of genomic regions associated with phenotypic variation between dog breeds using selection mapping
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: PLoS Genetics. - : Public Library of Science. - 1553-7404 .- 1553-7390. ; 7:10, s. e1002316-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The extraordinary phenotypic diversity of dog breeds has been sculpted by a unique population history accompanied by selection for novel and desirable traits. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis using multiple test statistics to identify regions under selection in 509 dogs from 46 diverse breeds using a newly developed high-density genotyping array consisting of >170,000 evenly spaced SNPs. We first identify 44 genomic regions exhibiting extreme differentiation across multiple breeds. Genetic variation in these regions correlates with variation in several phenotypic traits that vary between breeds, and we identify novel associations with both morphological and behavioral traits. We next scan the genome for signatures of selective sweeps in single breeds, characterized by long regions of reduced heterozygosity and fixation of extended haplotypes. These scans identify hundreds of regions, including 22 blocks of homozygosity longer than one megabase in certain breeds. Candidate selection loci are strongly enriched for developmental genes. We chose one highly differentiated region, associated with body size and ear morphology, and characterized it using high-throughput sequencing to provide a list of variants that may directly affect these traits. This study provides a catalogue of genomic regions showing extreme reduction in genetic variation or population differentiation in dogs, including many linked to phenotypic variation. The many blocks of reduced haplotype diversity observed across the genome in dog breeds are the result of both selection and genetic drift, but extended blocks of homozygosity on a megabase scale appear to be best explained by selection. Further elucidation of the variants under selection will help to uncover the genetic basis of complex traits and disease.
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4.
  • Craddock, Nick, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association study of CNVs in 16,000 cases of eight common diseases and 3,000 shared controls
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 464:7289, s. 713-720
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Copy number variants (CNVs) account for a major proportion of human genetic polymorphism and have been predicted to have an important role in genetic susceptibility to common disease. To address this we undertook a large, direct genome-wide study of association between CNVs and eight common human diseases. Using a purpose-designed array we typed,19,000 individuals into distinct copy-number classes at 3,432 polymorphic CNVs, including an estimated similar to 50% of all common CNVs larger than 500 base pairs. We identified several biological artefacts that lead to false-positive associations, including systematic CNV differences between DNAs derived from blood and cell lines. Association testing and follow-up replication analyses confirmed three loci where CNVs were associated with disease-IRGM for Crohn's disease, HLA for Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis and type 1 diabetes, and TSPAN8 for type 2 diabetes-although in each case the locus had previously been identified in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based studies, reflecting our observation that most common CNVs that are well-typed on our array are well tagged by SNPs and so have been indirectly explored through SNP studies. We conclude that common CNVs that can be typed on existing platforms are unlikely to contribute greatly to the genetic basis of common human diseases.
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5.
  • Rubin, Carl-Johan, et al. (författare)
  • Whole genome resequencing reveals loci under selection during chicken domestication
  • 2010
  • Ingår i: Nature. - London : Macmillan Publishers Limited. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 464:7288, s. 587-591
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Domestic animals are excellent models for genetic studies of phenotypic evolution. They have evolved genetic adaptations to a new environment, the farm, and have been subjected to strong human-driven selection leading to remarkable phenotypic changes in morphology, physiology and behaviour. Identifying the genetic changes underlying these developments provides new insight into general mechanisms by which genetic variation shapes phenotypic diversity. Here we describe the use of massively parallel sequencing to identify selective sweeps of favourable alleles and candidate mutations that have had a prominent role in the domestication of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and their subsequent specialization into broiler (meat-producing) and layer (egg-producing) chickens. We have generated 44.5-fold coverage of the chicken genome using pools of genomic DNA representing eight different populations of domestic chickens as well as red jungle fowl (Gallus gallus), the major wild ancestor. We report more than 7,000,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms, almost 1,300 deletions and a number of putative selective sweeps. One of the most striking selective sweeps found in all domestic chickens occurred at the locus for thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR), which has a pivotal role in metabolic regulation and photoperiod control of reproduction in vertebrates. Several of the selective sweeps detected in broilers overlapped genes associated with growth, appetite and metabolic regulation. We found little evidence that selection for loss-of-function mutations had a prominent role in chicken domestication, but we detected two deletions in coding sequences that we suggest are functionally important. This study has direct application to animal breeding and enhances the importance of the domestic chicken as a model organism for biomedical research.
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6.
  • Hopkins, H., et al. (författare)
  • Impact of introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria on antibiotic prescribing: analysis of observational and randomised studies in public and private healthcare settings
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Bmj-British Medical Journal. - : BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP. - 1756-1833. ; 356
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • OBJECTIVES To examine the impact of use of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria on prescribing of antimicrobials, specifically antibiotics, for acute febrile illness in Africa and Asia. Analysis of nine preselected linked and codesigned observational and randomised studies (eight cluster or individually randomised trials and one observational study). Public and private healthcare settings, 2007-13, in Afghanistan, Cameroon, Ghana, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda. Proportions of patients for whom an antibiotic was prescribed in trial groups who had undergone rapid diagnostic testing compared with controls and in patients with negative test results compared with patients with positive results. A secondary aim compared classes of antibiotics prescribed in different settings. Antibiotics were prescribed to 127 052/238 797 (53%) patients in control groups and 167 714/283 683 (59%) patients in intervention groups. Antibiotics were prescribed to 40% (35 505/89 719) of patients with a positive test result for malaria and to 69% (39 400/57 080) of those with a negative result. All but one study showed a trend toward more antibiotic prescribing in groups who underwent rapid diagnostic tests. Random effects meta-analysis of the trials showed that the overall risk of antibiotic prescription was 21% higher (95% confidence interval 7% to 36%) in intervention settings. In most intervention settings, patients with negative test results received more antibiotic prescriptions than patients with positive results for all the most commonly used classes: penicillins, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (one exception), tetracyclines, and metronidazole. Introduction of rapid diagnostic tests for malaria to reduce unnecessary use of antimalarials-a beneficial public health outcome-could drive up untargeted use of antibiotics. That 69% of patients were prescribed antibiotics when test results were negative probably represents overprescription. This included antibiotics from several classes, including those like metronidazole that are seldom appropriate for febrile illness, across varied clinical, health system, and epidemiological settings. It is often assumed that better disease specific diagnostics will reduce antimicrobial overuse, but they might simply shift it from one antimicrobial class to another. Current global implementation of malaria testing might increase untargeted antibiotic use and must be examined.
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7.
  • Webster, Matthew T., et al. (författare)
  • Gene expression, synteny, and local similarity in human noncoding mutation rates
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Molecular biology and evolution. - 0737-4038 .- 1537-1719. ; 21:10, s. 1820-1830
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The human genome is organized with regard to many features such as isochores, Giemsa bands, clusters of genes with similar expression patterns, and contiguous regions with shared evolutionary histories (synteny blocks). In addition to these genomic features, it is clear that mutation rates also vary across the human genome. To address how mutation rates and genomic features are related, we analyzed substitution rates at three classes of putatively neutral noncoding sites (nongenic, intronic, and ancestral repeats) in approximately 14 Mb of human-chimpanzee alignments covering human chromosome 7. Patterns of mutation rate variation inferred from substitution rate variation differ among the three site classes. In particular, we find that intronic mutation rates are strongly affected by the breadth of expression of the genes in which they reside, with broadly expressed genes exhibiting low mutation rates, probably as a consequence of the transcription-coupled repair process acting in the germ line. All site classes show significant local similarities in mutation rate at the megabase scale, and regional similarities in nongenic mutation rate covary with blocks of synteny between the human and mouse genomes, indicating that the evolutionary history of a genomic region is an important determinant of mutation rate.
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8.
  • Hillier, Ladeana W, et al. (författare)
  • Sequence and comparative analysis of the chicken genome provide unique perspectives on vertebrate evolution
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Nature. - 0028-0836 .- 1476-4687. ; 432:7018, s. 695-716
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • We present here a draft genome sequence of the red jungle fowl, Gallus gallus. Because the chicken is a modern descendant of the dinosaurs and the first non-mammalian amniote to have its genome sequenced, the draft sequence of its genome--composed of approximately one billion base pairs of sequence and an estimated 20,000-23,000 genes--provides a new perspective on vertebrate genome evolution, while also improving the annotation of mammalian genomes. For example, the evolutionary distance between chicken and human provides high specificity in detecting functional elements, both non-coding and coding. Notably, many conserved non-coding sequences are far from genes and cannot be assigned to defined functional classes. In coding regions the evolutionary dynamics of protein domains and orthologous groups illustrate processes that distinguish the lineages leading to birds and mammals. The distinctive properties of avian microchromosomes, together with the inferred patterns of conserved synteny, provide additional insights into vertebrate chromosome architecture.
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9.
  • Webster, Matthew Thomas, et al. (författare)
  • Fixation biases affecting human SNPs?
  • 2004
  • Ingår i: Trends in Genetics. - 0168-9525 .- 1362-4555. ; 20:3, s. 122-126
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Under neutrality all classes of mutation have an equal probability of becoming fixed in a population. In this article, we describe our analysis of the frequency distributions of >5000 human SNPs and provide evident of biases in the process of fixation of certain classes of point mutation that are most likely to be attributable to biased gene conversion. The results indicate an increased fixation probability of mutations that result in the incorporation of a GC base pair. Furthermore, in transcribed regions this process exhibits strand asymmetry, and is biased towards preserving a G base on the coding strand. Biased gene conversion has the potential to explain both existence of isochores and the compositional asymmetry in mammalian transcribed regions.
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10.
  • Christmas, Matthew J, et al. (författare)
  • Chromosomal inversions associated with environmental adaptation in honeybees
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: ; 28:6, s. 1358-1374
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Chromosomal inversions can facilitate local adaptation in the presence of gene flow by suppressing recombination between well-adapted native haplotypes and poorly adapted migrant haplotypes. East African mountain populations of the honeybee Apis mellifera are highly divergent from neighbouring lowland populations at two extended regions in the genome, despite high similarity in the rest of the genome, suggesting that these genomic regions harbour inversions governing local adaptation. Here, we utilize a new highly contiguous assembly of the honeybee genome to characterize these regions. Using whole-genome sequencing data from 55 highland and lowland bees, we find that the highland haplotypes at both regions are present at high frequencies in three independent highland populations but extremely rare elsewhere. The boundaries of both divergent regions are characterized by regions of high homology with each other positioned in opposite orientations and contain highly repetitive, long inverted repeats with homology to transposable elements. These regions are likely to represent inversion breakpoints that participate in nonallelic homologous recombination. Using long-read data, we confirm that the lowland samples are contiguous across breakpoint regions. We do not find evidence for disruption of functional sequence by these breakpoints, which suggests that the inversions are likely maintained due to their allelic content conferring local adaptation in highland environments. Finally, we identify a third divergent genomic region, which contains highly divergent segregating haplotypes that also may contain inversion variants under selection. The results add to a growing body of evidence indicating the importance of chromosomal inversions in local adaptation.
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