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Sökning: WFRF:(Wehr C)

  • Resultat 1-7 av 7
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  • Groß, M., et al. (författare)
  • Rubella vaccine–induced granulomas are a novel phenotype with incomplete penetrance of genetic defects in cytotoxicity
  • 2021
  • Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. - 0091-6749 .- 1097-6825.
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Rubella virus–induced granulomas have been described in patients with various inborn errors of immunity. Most defects impair T-cell immunity, suggesting a critical role of T cells in rubella elimination. However, the molecular mechanism of virus control remains elusive. Objective: This study sought to understand the defective effector mechanism allowing rubella vaccine virus persistence in granulomas. Methods: Starting from an index case with Griscelli syndrome type 2 and rubella skin granulomas, this study combined an international survey with a literature search to identify patients with cytotoxicity defects and granuloma. The investigators performed rubella virus immunohistochemistry and PCR and T-cell migration assays. Results: This study identified 21 patients with various genetically confirmed cytotoxicity defects, who presented with skin and visceral granulomas. Rubella virus was demonstrated in all 12 accessible biopsies. Granuloma onset was typically before 2 years of age and lesions persisted from months to years. Granulomas were particularly frequent in MUNC13-4 and RAB27A deficiency, where 50% of patients at risk were affected. Although these proteins have also been implicated in lymphocyte migration, 3-dimensional migration assays revealed no evidence of impaired migration of patient T cells. Notably, patients showed no evidence of reduced control of concomitantly given measles, mumps, or varicella live-attenuated vaccine or severe infections with other viruses. Conclusions: This study identified lymphocyte cytotoxicity as a key effector mechanism for control of rubella vaccine virus, without evidence for its need in control of live measles, mumps, or varicella vaccines. Rubella vaccine–induced granulomas are a novel phenotype with incomplete penetrance of genetic disorders of cytotoxicity. © 2021 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
  • Phillips, Helen R. P., et al. (författare)
  • Global distribution of earthworm diversity
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Science. - : American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). - 0036-8075 .- 1095-9203. ; 366:6464, s. 480-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, and biomass. We found that local species richness and abundance typically peaked at higher latitudes, displaying patterns opposite to those observed in aboveground organisms. However, high species dissimilarity across tropical locations may cause diversity across the entirety of the tropics to be higher than elsewhere. Climate variables were found to be more important in shaping earthworm communities than soil properties or habitat cover. These findings suggest that climate change may have serious implications for earthworm communities and for the functions they provide.
  • Mazereeuw-Hautier, J., et al. (författare)
  • Management of congenital ichthyoses : European guidelines of care, part one
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: British Journal of Dermatology. - : Wiley-Blackwell. - 0007-0963 .- 1365-2133. ; 180:2, s. 272-281
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • These guidelines for the management of congenital ichthyoses have been developed by a multidisciplinary group of European experts following a systematic review of the current literature, an expert conference held in Toulouse in 2016 and a consensus on the discussions. They summarize evidence and expert-based recommendations and are intended to help clinicians with the management of these rare and often complex diseases. These guidelines comprise two sections. This is part one, covering topical therapies, systemic therapies, psychosocial management, communicating the diagnosis and genetic counselling.
  • Brett, Michael T., et al. (författare)
  • How important are terrestrial organic carbon inputs for secondary production in freshwater ecosystems?
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Freshwater Biology. - : WILEY. - 0046-5070 .- 1365-2427. ; 62:5, s. 833-853
  • Forskningsöversikt (refereegranskat)abstract
    • 1. Many freshwater systems receive substantial inputs of terrestrial organic matter. Terrestrially derived dissolved organic carbon (t-DOC) inputs can modify light availability, the spatial distribution of primary production, heat, and oxygen in aquatic systems, as well as inorganic nutrient bioavailability. It is also well-established that some terrestrial inputs (such as invertebrates and fruits) provide high-quality food resources for consumers in some systems. 2. In small to moderate-sized streams, leaf litter inputs average approximately three times greater than the autochthonous production. Conversely, in oligo/mesotrophic lakes algal production is typically five times greater than the available flux of allochthonous basal resources. 3. Terrestrial particulate organic carbon (t-POC) inputs to lakes and rivers are comprised of 80%-90% biochemically recalcitrant lignocellulose, which is highly resistant to enzymatic breakdown by animal consumers. Further, t-POC and heterotrophic bacteria lack essential biochemical compounds that are critical for rapid growth and reproduction in aquatic invertebrates and fishes. Several studies have directly shown that these resources have very low food quality for herbivorous zooplankton and benthic invertebrates 4. Much of the nitrogen assimilated by stream consumers is probably of algal origin, even in systems where there appears to be a significant terrestrial carbon contribution. Amino acid stable isotope analyses for large river food webs indicate that most upper trophic level essential amino acids are derived from algae. Similarly, profiles of essential fatty acids in consumers show a strong dependence on the algal food resources. 5. Primary production to respiration ratios are not a meaningful index to assess consumer allochthony because respiration represents an oxidised carbon flux that cannot be utilised by animal consumers. Rather, the relative importance of allochthonous subsidies for upper trophic level production should be addressed by considering the rates at which terrestrial and autochthonous resources are consumed and the growth efficiency supported by this food. 6. Ultimately, the biochemical composition of a particular basal resource, and not just its quantity or origin, determines how readily this material is incorporated into upper trophic level consumers. Because of its highly favourable biochemical composition and greater availability, we conclude that microalgal production supports most animal production in freshwater ecosystems.
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  • Resultat 1-7 av 7

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