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Sökning: WFRF:(Weinshilboum R)

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  • Karpyak, V. M., et al. (författare)
  • Genetic markers associated with abstinence length in alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Translational Psychiatry. - 2158-3188 .- 2158-3188. ; 4, s. e462-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Acamprosate supports abstinence in some alcohol-dependent subjects, yet predictors of response are unknown. To identify response biomarkers, we investigated associations of abstinence length with polymorphisms in candidate genes in glycine and glutamate neurotransmission pathways and genes previously implicated in acamprosate response. Association analyses were conducted in the discovery sample of 225 alcohol-dependent subjects treated with acamprosate for 3 months in community-based treatment programs in the United States. Data from 110 alcohol-dependent males treated with acamprosate in the study PREDICT were used for replication of the top association findings. Statistical models were adjusted for relevant covariates, including recruitment site and baseline clinical variables associated with response. In the discovery sample, shorter abstinence was associated with increased intensity of alcohol craving and lower number of days between the last drink and initiation of acamprosate treatment. After adjustment for covariates, length of abstinence was associated with the GRIN2B rs2058878 (P = 4.6 x 10(-5)). In the replication sample, shorter abstinence was associated with increased craving, increased depressive mood score and higher alcohol consumption. Association of abstinence length with GRIN2B rs2058878 was marginally significant (P = 0.0675); as in the discovery sample, the minor A allele was associated with longer abstinence. Furthermore, rs2300272, which is in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs2058878, was also associated with abstinence length (P = 0.049). This is the first report of a replicated association of genetic markers with the length of abstinence in acamprosate-treated alcoholics. Investigation of the underlying mechanisms of this association and its usefulness for individualized treatment selection should follow.
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  • Schmiegelow, Kjeld, et al. (författare)
  • Methotrexate/6-mercaptopurine maintenance therapy influences the risk of a second malignant neoplasm after childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the NOPHO ALL-92 study.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Blood. - 1528-0020 .- 0006-4971. ; 113:24, s. 6077-84
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Among 1614 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with the Nordic Society for Paediatric Haematology and Oncology (NOPHO) ALL-92 protocol, 20 patients developed a second malignant neoplasm (SMN) with a cumulative risk of 1.6% at 12 years from the diagnosis of ALL. Nine of the 16 acute myeloid leukemias or myelodysplastic syndromes had monosomy 7 (n = 7) or 7q deletions (n = 2). In Cox multivariate analysis, longer duration of oral 6-mercaptopurine (6MP)/methotrexate (MTX) maintenance therapy (P = .02; longest for standard-risk patients) and presence of high hyperdiploidy (P = .07) were related to increased risk of SMN. Thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) methylates 6MP and its metabolites, and thus reduces cellular levels of cytotoxic 6-thioguanine nucleotides. Of 524 patients who had erythrocyte TPMT activity measured, the median TPMT activity in 9 patients developing an SMN was significantly lower than in the 515 that did not develop an SMN (median, 12.1 vs 18.1 IU/mL; P = .02). Among 427 TPMT wild-type patients for whom the 6MP dose was registered, those who developed SMN received higher average 6MP doses than the remaining patients (69.7 vs 60.4 mg/m2; P = .03). This study indicates that the duration and intensity of 6MP/MTX maintenance therapy of childhood ALL may influence the risk of SMNs in childhood ALL.
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  • Schmiegelow, K, et al. (författare)
  • Thiopurine methyltransferase activity is related to the risk of relapse of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia : results from the NOPHO ALL-92 study
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Leukemia. - Baltimore : Williams & Wilkins. - 0887-6924 .- 1476-5551. ; 23:3, s. 557-564
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Myelotoxicity during thiopurine therapy is enhanced in patients, who because of single nucleotide polymorphisms have decreased activity of the enzyme thiopurine methyltransferase (TPMT) and thus more thiopurine converted into 6-thioguanine nucleotides. Of 601 children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who were treated by the NOPHO ALL-92 protocol, 117 had TPMT genotype determined, whereas for 484 patients only erythrocyte TPMT activity was available. The latter were classified as heterozygous, if TPMT activity was <14 IU/ml, or deficient (<1.0 IU/ml). 526 patients had TPMT wild type, 73 were presumed heterozygous, and two were TPMT deficient. Risk of relapse was higher for the 526 TPMT wild type patients than for the remaining 75 patients (18 vs 7%, P=0.03). In cox multivariate regression analysis, sex (male worse; P=0.06), age (higher age worse, P=0.02), and TPMT activity (wild type worse; P=0.02) were related to risk of relapse. Despite a lower probability of relapse, patients in the low TPMT activity group did not have superior survival (P=0.82), possibly because of an excess of secondary cancers among these 75 patients (P=0.07). These data suggest that children with ALL and TPMT wild type might have their cure rate improved, if the pharmacokinetics/-dynamics of TPMT low-activity patients could be mimicked without a concurrent excessive risk of second cancers.
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