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Sökning: WFRF:(Weishaupt Jochen H.)

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1.
  • Nicolas, Aude, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide Analyses Identify KIF5A as a Novel ALS Gene
  • 2018
  • Ingår i: Neuron. - : Cell Press. - 0896-6273 .- 1097-4199. ; 97:6, s. 1268-1283.e6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify novel genes associated with ALS, we undertook two lines of investigation. We carried out a genome-wide association study comparing 20,806 ALS cases and 59,804 controls. Independently, we performed a rare variant burden analysis comparing 1,138 index familial ALS cases and 19,494 controls. Through both approaches, we identified kinesin family member 5A (KIF5A) as a novel gene associated with ALS. Interestingly, mutations predominantly in the N-terminal motor domain of KIF5A are causative for two neurodegenerative diseases: hereditary spastic paraplegia (SPG10) and Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 2 (CMT2). In contrast, ALS-associated mutations are primarily located at the C-terminal cargo-binding tail domain and patients harboring loss-of-function mutations displayed an extended survival relative to typical ALS cases. Taken together, these results broaden the phenotype spectrum resulting from mutations in KIF5A and strengthen the role of cytoskeletal defects in the pathogenesis of ALS.
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2.
  • van Rheenen, Wouter, et al. (författare)
  • Genome-wide association analyses identify new risk variants and the genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:9, s. 1043-1048
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To elucidate the genetic architecture of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and find associated loci, we assembled a custom imputation reference panel from whole-genome-sequenced patients with ALS and matched controls (n = 1,861). Through imputation and mixed-model association analysis in 12,577 cases and 23,475 controls, combined with 2,579 cases and 2,767 controls in an independent replication cohort, we fine-mapped a new risk locus on chromosome 21 and identified C21orf2 as a gene associated with ALS risk. In addition, we identified MOBP and SCFD1 as new associated risk loci. We established evidence of ALS being a complex genetic trait with a polygenic architecture. Furthermore, we estimated the SNP-based heritability at 8.5%, with a distinct and important role for low-frequency variants (frequency 1-10%). This study motivates the interrogation of larger samples with full genome coverage to identify rare causal variants that underpin ALS risk.
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4.
  • Diekstra, Frank P., et al. (författare)
  • C9orf72 and UNC13A Are Shared Risk Loci for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia : A Genome-Wide Meta-Analysis
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Annals of Neurology. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 0364-5134 .- 1531-8249. ; 76:1, s. 120-133
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective: Substantial clinical, pathological, and genetic overlap exists between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). TDP-43 inclusions have been found in both ALS and FTD cases (FTD-TDP). Recently, a repeat expansion in C9orf72 was identified as the causal variant in a proportion of ALS and FTD cases. We sought to identify additional evidence for a common genetic basis for the spectrum of ALS-FTD. Methods: We used published genome-wide association studies data for 4,377 ALS patients and 13,017 controls, and 435 pathology-proven FTD-TDP cases and 1,414 controls for genotype imputation. Data were analyzed in a joint meta-analysis, by replicating topmost associated hits of one disease in the other, and by using a conservative rank products analysis, allocating equal weight to ALS and FTD-TDP sample sizes. Results: Meta-analysis identified 19 genome-wide significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in C9orf72 on chromosome 9p21.2 (lowest p = 2.6 x 10(-12)) and 1 SNP in UNC13A on chromosome 19p13.11 (p = 1.0 x 10(-11)) as shared susceptibility loci for ALS and FTD-TDP. Conditioning on the 9p21.2 genotype increased statistical significance at UNC13A. A third signal, on chromosome 8q24.13 at the SPG8 locus coding for strumpellin (p = 3.91 x 10(-7)) was replicated in an independent cohort of 4,056 ALS patients and 3,958 controls (p = 0.026; combined analysis p = 1.01 x 10(-7)). Interpretation: We identified common genetic variants in C9orf72, but in addition in UNC13A that are shared between ALS and FTD. UNC13A provides a novel link between ALS and FTD-TDP, and identifies changes in neurotransmitter release and synaptic function as a converging mechanism in the pathogenesis of ALS and FTD-TDP.
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5.
  • Kenna, Kevin P., et al. (författare)
  • NEK1 variants confer susceptibility to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nature Genetics. - 1061-4036 .- 1546-1718. ; 48:9, s. 1037-1042
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To identify genetic factors contributing to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), we conducted whole-exome analyses of 1,022 index familial ALS (FALS) cases and 7,315 controls. In a new screening strategy, we performed gene-burden analyses trained with established ALS genes and identified a significant association between loss-of-function (LOF) NEK1 variants and FALS risk. Independently, autozygosity mapping for an isolated community in the Netherlands identified a NEK1 p.Arg261 His variant as a candidate risk factor. Replication analyses of sporadic ALS (SALS) cases and independent control cohorts confirmed significant disease association for both p.Arg261 His (10,589 samples analyzed) and NEK1 LOF variants (3,362 samples analyzed). In total, we observed NEK1 risk variants in nearly 3% of ALS cases. NEK1 has been linked to several cellular functions, including cilia formation, DNA-damage response, microtubule stability, neuronal morphology and axonal polarity. Our results provide new and important insights into ALS etiopathogenesis and genetic etiology.
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6.
  • Tazelaar, Gijs H. P., et al. (författare)
  • Association of NIPA1 repeat expansions with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in a large international cohort
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - : Elsevier. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 74, s. 234.e9-234.e15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • NIPA1 (nonimprinted in Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome 1) mutations are known to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia type 6, a neurodegenerative disease that phenotypically overlaps to some extent with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Previously, a genomewide screen for copy number variants found an association with rare deletions in NIPA1 and ALS, and subsequent genetic analyses revealed that long (or expanded) polyalanine repeats in NIPA1 convey increased ALS susceptibility. We set out to perform a large-scale replication study to further investigate the role of NIPA1 polyalanine expansions with ALS, in which we characterized NIPA1 repeat size in an independent international cohort of 3955 patients with ALS and 2276 unaffected controls and combined our results with previous reports. Meta-analysis on a total of 6245 patients with ALS and 5051 controls showed an overall increased risk of ALS in those with expanded (>8) GCG repeat length (odds ratio = 1.50, p = 3.8×10−5). Together with previous reports, these findings provide evidence for an association of an expanded polyalanine repeat in NIPA1 and ALS.
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7.
  • van Doormaal, Perry T. C., et al. (författare)
  • The role of de novo mutations in the development of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Human Mutation. - : John Wiley & Sons. - 1059-7794 .- 1098-1004. ; 38:11, s. 1534-1541
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The genetic basis combined with the sporadic occurrence of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) suggests a role of de novo mutations in disease pathogenesis. Previous studies provided some evidence for this hypothesis; however, results were conflicting: no genes with recurrent occurring de novo mutations were identified and different pathways were postulated. In this study, we analyzed whole-exome data from 82 new patient-parents trios and combined it with the datasets of all previously published ALS trios (173 trios in total). The per patient de novo rate was not higher than expected based on the general population (P = 0.40). We showed that these mutations are not part of the previously postulated pathways, and gene-gene interaction analysis found no enrichment of interacting genes in this group (P = 0.57). Also, we were able to show that the de novo mutations in ALS patients are located in genes already prone for de novo mutations (P < 1 x 10(-15)). Although the individual effect of rare de novo mutations in specific genes could not be assessed, our results indicate that, in contrast to previous hypothesis, de novo mutations in general do not impose a major burden on ALS risk.
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8.
  • Auer-Grumbach, Michaela, et al. (författare)
  • Rare Variants in MME, Encoding Metalloprotease Neprilysin, Are Linked to Late-Onset Autosomal-Dominant Axonal Polyneuropathies
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: American Journal of Human Genetics. - 0002-9297 .- 1537-6605. ; 99:3, s. 607-623
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Axonal polyneuropathies are a frequent cause of progressive disability in the elderly. Common etiologies comprise diabetes mellitus, paraproteinaemia, and inflammatory disorders, but often the underlying causes remain elusive. Late-onset axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMT2) is an autosomal-dominantly inherited condition that manifests in the second half of life and is genetically largely unexplained. We assumed age-dependent penetrance of mutations in a so far unknown gene causing late-onset CMT2. We screened 51 index case subjects with late-onset CMT2 for mutations by whole-exome (WES) and Sanger sequencing and subsequently queried WES repositories for further case subjects carrying mutations in the identified candidate gene. We studied nerve pathology and tissue levels and function of the abnormal protein in order to explore consequences of the mutations. Altogether, we observed heterozygous rare loss-of-function and missense mutations in MME encoding the metalloprotease neprilysin in 19 index case subjects diagnosed with axonal polyneuropathies or neurodegenerative conditions involving the peripheral nervous system. MME mutations segregated in an autosomal-dominant fashion with age-related incomplete penetrance and some affected individuals were isolated case subjects. We also found that MME mutations resulted in strongly decreased tissue availability of neprilysin and impaired enzymatic activity. Although neprilysin is known to degrade beta-amyloid, we observed no increased amyloid deposition or increased incidence of dementia in individuals with MME mutations. Detection of MME mutations is expected to increase the diagnostic yield in late-onset polyneuropathies, and it will be tempting to explore whether substances that can elevate neprilysin activity could be a rational option for treatment.
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9.
  • Freischmidt, Axel, et al. (författare)
  • Haploinsufficiency of TBK1 causes familial ALS and fronto-temporal dementia
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Nature Neuroscience. - 1097-6256 .- 1546-1726. ; 18:5, s. 631-
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative syndrome hallmarked by adult-onset loss of motor neurons. We performed exome sequencing of 252 familial ALS (fALS) and 827 control individuals. Gene-based rare variant analysis identified an exome-wide significant enrichment of eight loss-of-function (LoF) mutations in TBK1 (encoding TANK-binding kinase 1) in 13 fALS pedigrees. No enrichment of LoF mutations was observed in a targeted mutation screen of 1,010 sporadic ALS and 650 additional control individuals. Linkage analysis in four families gave an aggregate LOD score of 4.6. In vitro experiments confirmed the loss of expression of TBK1 LoF mutant alleles, or loss of interaction of the C-terminal TBK1 coiled-coil domain (CCD2) mutants with the TBK1 adaptor protein optineurin, which has been shown to be involved in ALS pathogenesis. We conclude that haploinsufficiency of TBK1 causes ALS and fronto-temporal dementia.
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10.
  • Ingre, Caroline, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • A novel phosphorylation site mutation in profilin 1 revealed in a large screen of US, Nordic and German amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia cohorts
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Neurobiology of Aging. - New York : Elsevier. - 0197-4580 .- 1558-1497. ; 34:6
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Profilin 1 is a central regulator of actin dynamics. Mutations in the gene profilin 1 (PFN1) have veryrecently been shown to be the cause of a subgroup of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Here, weperformed a large screen of US, Nordic, and German familial and sporadic ALS and frontotemporaldementia (FTLD) patients for PFN1 mutations to get further insight into the spectrum and pathogenicrelevance of this gene for the complete ALS/FTLD continuum. Four hundred twelve familial and 260sporadic ALS cases and 16 ALS/FTLD cases from Germany, the Nordic countries, and the United Stateswere screened for PFN1 mutations. Phenotypes of patients carrying PFN1 mutations were studied. Ina German ALS family we identified the novel heterozygous PFN1 mutation p.Thr109Met, which wasabsent in controls. This novel mutation abrogates a phosphorylation site in profilin 1. The recentlydescribed p.Gln117Gly sequence variant was found in another familial ALS patient from the United States.The ALS patients with mutations in PFN1 displayed spinal onset motor neuron disease without overtcognitive involvement. PFN1 mutations were absent in patients with motor neuron disease anddementia, and in patients with only FTLD. We provide further evidence that PFN1 mutations can causeALS as a Mendelian dominant trait. Patients carrying PFN1 mutations reported so far represent the“classic” ALS end of the ALS-FTLD spectrum. The novel p.Thr109Met mutation provides additional proofof-principle that mutant proteins involved in the regulation of cytoskeletal dynamics can cause motorneuron degeneration. Moreover, this new mutation suggests that fine-tuning of actin polymerization byphosphorylation of profilin 1 might be necessary for motor neuron survival.
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