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Sökning: WFRF:(Wernstedt Ingrid)

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1.
  • Huth, Cornelia, et al. (författare)
  • Joint analysis of individual participants' data from 17 studies on the association of the IL6 variant -174G>C with circulating glucose levels, interleukin-6 levels, and body mass index.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Annals of medicine. - 1365-2060. ; 41:2, s. 128-38
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background. Several studies have investigated associations between the -174GC single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1800795) of the IL6 gene and phenotypes related to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) but presented inconsistent results. Aims. This joint analysis aimed to clarify whether IL6 -174GC was associated with glucose and circulating interleukin-6 concentrations as well as body mass index (BMI). Methods. Individual-level data from all studies of the IL6-T2DM consortium on Caucasian subjects with available BMI were collected. As study-specific estimates did not show heterogeneity (P0.1), they were combined by using the inverse-variance fixed-effect model. Results. The main analysis included 9440, 7398, 24,117, or 5659 non-diabetic and manifest T2DM subjects for fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, BMI, or circulating interleukin-6 levels, respectively. IL6 -174 C-allele carriers had significantly lower fasting glucose (-0.091 mmol/L, P=0.014). There was no evidence for association between IL6 -174GC and BMI or interleukin-6 levels, except in some subgroups. Conclusions. Our data suggest that C-allele carriers of the IL6 -174GC polymorphism have lower fasting glucose levels on average, which substantiates previous findings of decreased T2DM risk of these subjects.
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2.
  • Vergari, E., et al. (författare)
  • Insulin inhibits glucagon release by SGLT2-induced stimulation of somatostatin secretion
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Communications. - 2041-1723. ; 10
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Hypoglycaemia (low plasma glucose) is a serious and potentially fatal complication of insulin-treated diabetes. In healthy individuals, hypoglycaemia triggers glucagon secretion, which restores normal plasma glucose levels by stimulation of hepatic glucose production. This counterregulatory mechanism is impaired in diabetes. Here we show in mice that therapeutic concentrations of insulin inhibit glucagon secretion by an indirect (paracrine) mechanism mediated by stimulation of intra-islet somatostatin release. Insulin's capacity to inhibit glucagon secretion is lost following genetic ablation of insulin receptors in the somatostatin-secreting δ-cells, when insulin-induced somatostatin secretion is suppressed by dapagliflozin (an inhibitor of sodium-glucose co-tranporter-2; SGLT2) or when the action of secreted somatostatin is prevented by somatostatin receptor (SSTR) antagonists. Administration of these compounds in vivo antagonises insulin's hypoglycaemic effect. We extend these data to isolated human islets. We propose that SSTR or SGLT2 antagonists should be considered as adjuncts to insulin in diabetes therapy.
3.
  • An, Y. A., et al. (författare)
  • Dysregulation of amyloid precursor protein impairs adipose tissue mitochondrial function and promotes obesity
  • 2019
  • Ingår i: Nature Metabolism. ; 1:12, s. 1243-57
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Mitochondrial function in white adipose tissue (WAT) is an important yet understudied aspect of adipocyte biology. Here, we report a role for amyloid precursor protein (APP) in compromising WAT mitochondrial function through a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced, unconventional mis-localization to mitochondria that further promotes obesity. In humans and mice, obese conditions induce substantial APP production in WAT and APP enrichment in mitochondria. Mechanistically, HFD-induced dysregulation of signal recognition particle subunit 54c is responsible for the mis-targeting of APP to adipocyte mitochondria. Mis-localized APP blocks the protein import machinery, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction in WAT. Mice overexpressing adipocyte-specific and mitochondria-targeted APP display increased body mass and reduced insulin sensitivity, along with dysfunctional WAT, owing to a dramatic hypertrophic program in adipocytes. Elimination of adipocyte APP rescues HFD-impaired mitochondrial function with considerable protection from weight gain and systemic metabolic deficiency. Our data highlight an important role for APP in modulating WAT mitochondrial function and obesity-associated metabolic dysfunction.
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4.
  • Anderberg, Rozita H, et al. (författare)
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1 and Its Analogs Act in the Dorsal Raphe and Modulate Central Serotonin to Reduce Appetite and Body Weight
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Diabetes. - 0012-1797. ; 66:4, s. 1062-1073
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and serotonin play critical roles in energy balance regulation. Both systems are exploited clinically as antiobesity strategies. Surprisingly, whether they interact in order to regulate energy balance is poorly understood. Here we investigated mechanisms by which GLP-1 and serotonin interact at the level of the central nervous system. Serotonin depletion impaired the ability of exendin-4, a clinically used GLP-1 analog, to reduce body weight in rats, suggesting that serotonin is a critical mediator of the energy balance impact of GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) activation. Serotonin turnover and expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) 2A (5-HT2A) and 5-HT2C serotonin receptors in the hypothalamus were altered by GLP-1R activation. We demonstrate that the 5-HT2A, but surprisingly not the 5-HT2C, receptor is critical for weight loss, anorexia, and fat mass reduction induced by central GLP-1R activation. Importantly, central 5-HT2A receptors are also required for peripherally injected liraglutide to reduce feeding and weight. Dorsal raphe (DR) harbors cell bodies of serotonin-producing neurons that supply serotonin to the hypothalamic nuclei. We show that GLP-1R stimulation in DR is sufficient to induce hypophagia and increase the electrical activity of the DR serotonin neurons. Finally, our results disassociate brain metabolic and emotionality pathways impacted by GLP-1R activation. This study identifies serotonin as a new critical neural substrate for GLP-1 impact on energy homeostasis and expands the current map of brain areas impacted by GLP-1R activation.
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5.
  • Benrick, Anna, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • A non-conservative polymorphism in the IL-6 signal transducer (IL6ST)/gp130 is associated with myocardial infarction in a hypertensive population.
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Regulatory peptides. - 0167-0115. ; 146:1-3, s. 189-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Inflammation is a key component in the development of atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction (MI); therefore we investigated the association between an interleukin-6 signal transducer (IL6ST)/gp130 polymorphism, gp130 function and risk of MI. Structural modeling suggested that a non-conservative single nucleotide polymorphism in the gp130, Gly148Arg, can change the stability and functional properties of the molecule. In vitro studies were done with BAF/3 cells lacking endogenous gp130. Cells stably transfected with the gp130 148Arg variant proliferated less and showed slightly lower STAT-3 phosphorylation in response to gp130 stimulation as compared to cells transfected with gp130 148Gly. In a prospectively followed hypertensive cohort we identified 167 patients who suffered a MI during the study and compared them to matched controls (mean age 57 years, 73% males, n=482). Carriers of the 148Arg variant (f(Arg)=0.12) of the gp130 receptor had decreased odds ratio for MI in univariate analysis (0.56, 95% CI 0.34-0.91, p=0.02). In conclusion, a genetically determined structural variant of the IL-6 receptor subunit gp130 is, independently of other known risk factors, associated with decreased risk of MI. The variant is also associated with decreased IL-6 responsiveness and could lead to a configuration change in the gp130 receptor.
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6.
  • Benrick, Anna, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Adiponectin protects against development of metabolic disturbances in a PCOS mouse model
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - 0027-8424. ; 114:34, s. E7187-E7196
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adiponectin, together with adipocyte size, is the strongest factor associated with insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study investigates the causal relationship between adiponectin levels and metabolic and reproductive functions in PCOS. Prepubertal mice overexpressing adiponectin from adipose tissue (APNtg), adiponectin knockouts (APNko), and their wild-type (WT) littermate mice were continuously exposed to placebo or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to induce PCOS-like traits. As expected, DHT exposure led to reproductive dysfunction, as judged by continuous anestrus, smaller ovaries with a decreased number of corpus luteum, and an increased number of cystic/atretic follicles. A two-way between-groups analysis showed that there was a significant main effect for DHT exposure, but not for genotype, indicating adiponectin does not influence follicle development. Adiponectin had, however, some protective effects on ovarian function. Similar to in many women with PCOS, DHT exposure led to reduced adiponectin levels, larger adipocyte size, and reduced insulin sensitivity in WTs. APNtg mice remained metabolically healthy despite DHT exposure, while APNko-DHT mice were even more insulin resistant than their DHT-exposed littermate WTs. DHT exposure also reduced the mRNA expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways in gonadal adipose tissue of WT and APNko, but this effect of DHT was not observed in APNtg mice. Moreover, APNtg-DHT mice displayed increased pancreatic mRNA levels of insulin receptors, Pdx1 and Igf1R, suggesting adiponectin stimulates beta cell viability/hyperplasia in the context of PCOS. In conclusion, adiponectin improves metabolic health but has only minor effects on reproductive functions in this PCOS-like mouse model.
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7.
  • Benrick, Anna, et al. (författare)
  • Adiponectin protects against development of metabolic disturbances in a PCOS mouse model
  • 2017
  • Ingår i: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. - National Academy of Sciences. - 0027-8424 .- 1091-6490. ; 114:34, s. E7187-E7196
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>Adiponectin, together with adipocyte size, is the strongest factor associated with insulin resistance in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study investigates the causal relationship between adiponectin levels and metabolic and reproductive functions in PCOS. Prepubertal mice overexpressing adiponectin from adipose tissue (APNtg), adiponectin knockouts (APNko), and their wild-type (WT) littermate mice were continuously exposed to placebo or dihydrotestosterone (DHT) to induce PCOS-like traits. As expected, DHT exposure led to reproductive dysfunction, as judged by continuous anestrus, smaller ovaries with a decreased number of corpus luteum, and an increased number of cystic/atretic follicles. A two-way between-groups analysis showed that there was a significant main effect for DHT exposure, but not for genotype, indicating adiponectin does not influence follicle development. Adiponectin had, however, some protective effects on ovarian function. Similar to in many women with PCOS, DHT exposure led to reduced adiponectin levels, larger adipocyte size, and reduced insulin sensitivity in WTs. APNtg mice remained metabolically healthy despite DHT exposure, while APNko-DHT mice were even more insulin resistant than their DHT-exposed littermate WTs. DHT exposure also reduced the mRNA expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways in gonadal adipose tissue of WT and APNko, but this effect of DHT was not observed in APNtg mice. Moreover, APNtg-DHT mice displayed increased pancreatic mRNA levels of insulin receptors, Pdx1 and Igf1R, suggesting adiponectin stimulates beta cell viability/hyperplasia in the context of PCOS. In conclusion, adiponectin improves metabolic health but has only minor effects on reproductive functions in this PCOS-like mouse model.</p>
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8.
  • Benrick, Anna, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Elevated interlukin-6 levels as a consequence, not the cause of obesity and insulin resistance
  • 2013
  • Ingår i: Interleukin-6: Genetics, Clinical Applications and Role in Disease. - Nova Science Publishers, Inc.. - 9781624175923 ; s. 197-210
  • Bokkapitel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Several population-based studies have reported that serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels are positively correlated with obesity and insulin resistance. This has lead to the hypothesis of a causal relationship between elevated IL-6 levels and insulin resistance. This notion is further strengthened by the observation that obesity is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammation in adipose tissue, which is postulated to be causal in the development of insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes. A recent study of weight gain demonstrates however that insulin resistance develops even in the absence of a significant signs of adipose inflammation. This suggests that inflammation in adipose tissue occurs subsequent to peripheral insulin resistance in humans. More and more data also supports the hypothesis that increased adiposity in itself, independent of the increased IL-6 levels, is a predictor of diabetes risk. IL-6 levels tend to also increase with age and since the incidence of insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes also increases with age, this could explain some of the observed correlations. Taken together, the above studies provide an association of metabolic disorder with IL-6, but not causation. An emerging concept is that IL-6 appears to have different effects on different tissues, and the effects depend on whether the IL-6 levels are acutely or chronically elevated. Given the opposing views of the impact of IL-6 on glucose homeostasis, many investigations have aimed at clarifying the effects of IL-6 on insulin action. A recent study shows that IL-6, either released from skeletal muscle or adipose tissue, induces GLP-1 release, leading to insulin secretion, improved beta-cell function and glycemic control. Still, the causal relationships between IL-6, obesity and type-2 diabetes remain a matter of debate. This review summarizes the current data on IL-6, supporting an association, but not a causative relationship, between IL-6 and metabolic disturbances. © 2013 Nova Science Publishers, Inc. All rights reserved.
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9.
  • Benrick, Anna, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Interleukin-6 gene knockout influences energy balance regulating peptides in the hypothalamic paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Journal of neuroendocrinology. - 1365-2826. ; 21:7, s. 620-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interleukin (IL)-6 is a pro-inflammatory cytokine that also affects metabolic function because IL-6 depleted (IL-6(-/-)) mice develop late-onset obesity. IL-6 appears to act in the central nervous system, presumably in the hypothalamus, to increase energy expenditure that appears to involve stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system. In the present study, we explored possible central mechanisms for the effects exerted by IL-6 on body fat. Therefore, we measured the effects of IL-6 depletion in IL-6(-/-) mice on expression of key hypothalamic peptide genes involved in energy balance by the real time polymerase chain reaction. Additionally, co-localisation between such peptides and IL-6 receptor alpha was investigated by immunohistochemistry. IL-6 deficiency decreased the expression of several peptides found in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), which is a nucleus that has been attributed an adipostatic function. For example, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH), which is reported to stimulate the sympathetic nervous system, was decreased by 40% in older IL-6(-/-) mice. Oxytocin, which is reported to prevent obesity, was also decreased in older IL-6(-/-) animals, as was arginine vasopressin (AVP). The IL-6 receptor alpha was abundantly expressed in the PVN, but also in the supraoptic nucleus, and was shown to be co-expressed to a high extent with CRH, AVP, oxytocin and thyrotrophin-releasing hormone. These data indicate that depletion of endogenous IL-6, a body fat suppressing cytokine, is associated with the decreased expression of CRH and oxytocin (i.e. energy balance regulating peptides) as well as AVP in the PVN. Because IL-6 receptor alpha is co-expressed with CRH, oxytocin and AVP, IL-6 could stimulate the expression of these peptides directly.
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10.
  • Benrick, Anna, 1979-, et al. (författare)
  • Interleukin-6 mediates exercise-induced increase in insulin sensitivity in mice.
  • 2012
  • Ingår i: Experimental physiology. - 1469-445X. ; 97:11 SI, s. 1224-1235
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is released from working skeletal muscle during exercise. We investigated the acute and the long-term beneficial effects of IL-6 on exercise-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle and insulin sensitivity. The acute effect on exercise-induced glucose uptake was measured in IL-6 deficient (-/-) mice and wild type controls using a tracer technique. There was no difference in serum disappearance of 3H-2-deoxyglucose after a bolus dose of exercise between IL-6 -/- and wild type mice (13565 ± 426 vs. 14343 ± 1309 dpm*min/ml, p=0.5). The glucose uptake rate in the EDL muscle was however lower in IL-6 -/- compared to wildtype mice (398 ± 44 vs. 657 ± 41 nmol/g/min, p<0.01). In the long-term study, we monitored insulin sensitivity, serum retinol-binding protein-4 (RBP-4) levels, running activity, food intake, body weight and body composition in IL-6 -/- and wild type mice on a high-fat diet (HFD), with or without access to running wheels. In sedentary IL-6 -/- and wild type mice, HFD decreased insulin sensitivity (glucose AUC increased about 20% during an insulin tolerance test (ITT), p<0.05 for both genotypes vs. baseline) and led to a 30% increase in serum RBP-4 levels (p <0.01 for both genotypes vs. baseline). Wild type runners were protected against these effects of HFD and maintained their baseline insulin sensitivity and serum RBP-4 levels. In contrast, IL-6 -/- mice did not, to the same extent as wild types, benefit from running. IL-6 -/- runners had a similar decrease in insulin sensitivity as their sedentary littermates (glucose AUC during an ITT in runners vs. sedentary IL-6-/- HFD mice: 312 ± 14 vs. 340 ± 22 mmol*min/L, p=0.4) and displayed a 14% increase in serum RBP-4 as compared to baseline levels (p<0.01). Our results indicate that endogenous IL-6 contributes to the exercise-induced increase in insulin sensitivity, but only plays a minor role for glucose uptake into skeletal muscle during exercise.
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