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Sökning: WFRF:(Westphal O.)

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1.
  • Grigelioniene, Giedre, et al. (författare)
  • Analysis of short stature homeobox-containing gene ( SHOX) and auxological phenotype in dyschondrosteosis and isolated Madelung deformity
  • 2001
  • Ingår i: Human Genetics. - Springer. - 1432-1203. ; 109:5, s. 551-558
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Dyschondrosteosis (DCO; also called Leri-Weill syndrome) is a skeletal dysplasia characterised by disproportionate short stature because of mesomelic shortening of the limbs. Madelung deformity is a feature of DCO that is distinctive, variable in expressivity and frequently observed. Mutations of the SHOX (short stature homeobox-containing) gene have been previously described as causative in DCO. Isolated Madelung deformity (IMD) without the clinical characteristics of DCO has also been described in sporadic and a few familial cases but the genetic defect underlying IMD is unknown. In this study, we have examined 28 probands with DCO and seven probands with IMD for mutations in the SHOX gene by using polymorphic CA-repeat analysis, fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH), Southern blotting, direct sequencing and fibre-FISH analyses. This was combined with auxological examination of the probands and their family members. Evaluation of the auxological data showed a wide intra- and interfamilial phenotype variability in DCO. Out of 28 DCO probands, 22 (79%) were shown to have mutations in the SHOX gene. Sixteen unrelated DCO families had SHOX gene deletions. Four novel DCO-associated mutations were found in different families. In two additional DCO families, the previously described nonsense mutation (Arg195Stop) was detected. We conclude that mutations in the SHOX gene are the major factor in the pathogenesis of DCO. In a female proband with severe IMD and her unaffected sister, we detected an intrachromosomal duplication of the SHOX gene.
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2.
  • Landin-Olsson, Mona, et al. (författare)
  • Immunoreactive trypsin(Ogen) in the sera of children with recent-onset insulin-dependent diabetes and matched controls
  • 1990
  • Ingår i: Pancreas. - Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. - 0885-3177. ; 5:3, s. 241-247
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • To evaluate the exocrine pancreatic function at the time of diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, we determined immunoreactive an-odal and cathodal trypsin(ogen) levels in sera from almost all children (n = 375) 0-14 years of age in Sweden in whom diabetes developed during 1 year, and in sex-, age-, and geographically matched control subjects (n = 312). The median level of anodal trypsin(ogen) was 5 (quartile range, 3-7) µg/L in children with newly diagnosed diabetes, compared with a median level of 7 (quartile range, 4-8) µg/L in control subjects (p < 0.0001). Similarly, the median level of cathodal trypsin(ogen) was 8 (quartile range, 4-10) µg/L in children with diabetes, compared with a median level of 11 (quartile range, 7-15) µg/L in control subjects (p < 0.0001). The median of the individual ratios between cathodal and anodal trypsin(ogen) was 1.4 in the diabetic patients and 1.7 in the control children (p < 0.001). In a multivariate test, however, only the decrease in cathodal trypsin(ogen) concentration was associated with diabetes. The levels of trypsin(ogen)s did not correlate with levels of islet cell antibodies, present in 81% of the diabetic children. Several mechanisms may explain our findings, for example, similar pathogenetic factors may affect both the endocrine and exocrine pancreas simultaneously, a failing local trophic stimulation by insulin on the exocrine cells may decrease the trypsinogen production, and there may be an increased elimination of trypsin(ogen) because of higher filtration through the kidneys in the hyperglycemic state.
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3.
  • Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Dose-Dependent Effect of Growth Hormone on Final Height in Children with Short Stature without Growth Hormone Deficiency
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism. - 0021-972X. ; 93:11, s. 4342-50
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Context: Effect of GH therapy in short non GH deficient children, especially idiopathic short stature (ISS) has not been clearly established owing to lack of controlled trials until final height (FH). Objective: To investigate the effect of two GH doses compared with untreated controls on growth to FH in short children mainly with ISS. Design and Setting: A randomized, controlled, long-term multicenter trial in Sweden. Intervention: Two doses of GH (Genotropin): 33 or 67 microg/kg/d plus untreated controls. Subjects: 177 subjects with short stature were enrolled. Of these, 151 were included in the Intent to Treat (AllITT) Population and 108 in the Per Protocol (AllPP) Population. Analysis of ISS subjects included 126 children in the ITT (ISSITT) Population and 68 subjects in the PP (ISSPP) Population. Main Outcome Measures: FH SDS, difference in SDS to midparenteral height (diff MPHSDS), and gain in HeightSDS. Results: After 5.9+/-1.1 yr on GH therapy, the FHSDS in the AllPP Population treated with GH vs. controls was -1.5+/-0.81 (33 microg/kg/d: -1.7+/-0.70, 67 microg/kg/d: -1.4+/-0.86; P<0.032), vs. -2.4+/-0.85 (P<0.001), the diff MPHSDS -0.2+/-1.0 vs. -1.0+/-0.74 (P<0.001), and the gain in HeightSDS 1.3+/-0.78 vs. 0.2+/-0.69 (P<0.001). GH therapy was safe and had no impact on time to onset of puberty. A dose-response relationship identified after 1 yr remained to FH for all growth outcome variables in all four populations. Conclusion: GH treatment significantly increased FH in ISS children in a dose-dependent manner, with a mean gain of 1.3 SDS (8 cm), and a broad range of response from no gain to 3 SDS compared to a mean gain of 0.2 SDS in the untreated controls.
4.
  • Albertsson Wikland, K, et al. (författare)
  • Effect of growth hormone (GH) during puberty in GH-deficient children : preliminary results from an ongoing randomized trial with different dose regimens.
  • 1999
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica. Supplement. - 0803-5326. ; 88:428, s. 80-4
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • <p>This paper reports results from an ongoing, randomized, multicentre national trial. The aim is to elucidate whether a dose of growth hormone (GH) of 0.2 IU/kg (0.07 mg/kg), given either as once-daily or twice-daily injections during puberty, is more effective than a once-daily dose of 0.1 IU/kg/day (0.03 mg/kg/day) in improving final height in children with GH deficiency (GHD). The twice-daily regimen comes closer to the spontaneous GH secretion pattern in puberty. Ninety-two children with GHD who had been receiving GH therapy for at least 1 year, and with spontaneous puberty or who were prepubertal and due to be started on replacement therapy to induce puberty, were randomly assigned to receive GH as follows: group A, 0.1 IU/kg/day (0.03 mg/kg/day), administered once daily; group B, 0.2 IU/kg/day (0.07 mg/kg/day), administered once daily; and group C, 0.2 IU/kg/day (0.07 mg/kg/day), divided into two equal injections given at 12-hour intervals. Pubertal height gain was 0.7, 0.7 and 1.3 SDS for groups A, B and C, respectively. The gain in height during puberty was thus most marked in group C. Mean final height, when corrected for parental height, was between 0 and 1 SDS in all treatment groups. All but seven children reached a final height within +/- 2 SD of the general population. There was a wide range of final heights in all three treatment groups. This variation in response suggests the need to individualize treatment in order to achieve an appropriate final height for most individuals.</p>
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5.
  • Albertsson-Wikland, Kerstin, et al. (författare)
  • Growth Hormone Dose-Dependent Pubertal Growth: A Randomized Trial in Short Children with Low Growth Hormone Secretion
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hormone Research in Paediatrics. - Karger. - 1663-2826. ; 82:3, s. 158-170
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Aims: Growth hormone (GH) treatment regimens do not account for the pubertal increase in endogenous GH secretion. This study assessed whether increasing the GH dose and/or frequency of administration improves pubertal height gain and adult height (AH) in children with low GH secretion during stimulation tests, i. e. idiopathic isolated GH deficiency. Methods: A multicenter, randomized, clinical trial (No. 88-177) followed 111 children (96 boys) at study start from onset of puberty to AH who had received GH(33) mu g/kg/day for >= 1 year. They were randomized to receive 67 mu g/kg/day (GH(67)) given as one (GH(67x1); n = 35) or two daily injections (GH(33x2); n = 36), or to remain on a single 33 mu g/kg/day dose (GH(33x1); n = 40). Growth was assessed as height SDS gain for prepubertal, pubertal and total periods, as well as AH SDS versus the population and the midparental height. Results: Pubertal height SDS gain was greater for patients receiving a high dose (GH(67), 0.73) than a low dose (GH(33x1), 0.41, p < 0.05). AH(SDS) was greater on GH(67) (GH(67x1), -0.84; GH(33x2), -0.83) than GH(33) (-1.25, p < 0.05), and height SDS gain was greater on GH(67) than GH(33) (2.04 and 1.56, respectively; p < 0.01). All groups reached their target height SDS. Conclusion: Pubertal height SDS gain and AH SDS were dose dependent, with greater growth being observed for the GH(67) than the GH(33) randomization group; however, there were no differences between the once-and twice-daily GH(67) regimens. (C) 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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6.
  • Benyi, E., et al. (författare)
  • Risks of Malignant and Non-Malignant Tumours in Tall Women Treated with High-Dose Oestrogen during Adolescence
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hormone Research in Paediatrics. - 1663-2818. ; 82:2, s. 89-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Aim: High-dose oestrogen treatment has been used to reduce growth in tall adolescent girls. The long-term safety with regard to cancer has not been clarified. Our aim was to study if this growth reduction therapy affects cancer risk later in life. Methods: A cohort study of 369 (172 treated, 197 untreated) Swedish women who in 1973-1993 were assessed for tall adolescent stature was designed. Data were collected from university hospital records, patient questionnaires, and the Swedish Cancer Register. Results: Risks are presented as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals comparing treated to untreated subjects. In treated subjects, the overall OR for having a tumour (malignant or nonmalignant) was 1.7 (0.8-3.8). The ORs were 2.3 (0.4-12.8) for breast tumours, 0.8 (0.2-2.6) for gynaecological tumours, and 6.1 (1.04-infinity) for melanoma. When limiting to malignant tumours, the crude ORs were of similar magnitude. Conclusion: The OR for any melanoma was higher in treated than in untreated women, suggesting an increased risk of melanoma associated with high-dose oestrogen treatment during adolescence. Although the risk estimates were increased for overall tumours, breast tumours, malignant gynaecological tumours, and malignant melanoma, these associations were not statistically significant. Our results need to be verified in a larger cohort.
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7.
  • Carlström, Mattias, et al. (författare)
  • Peritoneal dialysis impairs nitric oxide homeostasis and may predispose infants with low systolic blood pressure to cerebral ischemia
  • 2016
  • Ingår i: Nitric Oxide - Biology and Chemistry. - Elsevier. - 1089-8603. ; 58, s. 1-9
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background & purpose Infants on chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) have an increased risk of developing neurological morbidities; however, the underlying biological mechanisms are poorly understood. In this clinical study, we investigated whether PD-mediated impairment of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and signaling, in patients with persistently low systolic blood pressure (SBP), can explain the occurrence of cerebral ischemia. Methods & results Repeated blood pressure measurements, serial neuroimaging studies, and investigations of systemic nitrate and nitrite levels, as well as NO signaling, were performed in ten pediatric patients on PD. We consistently observed the loss of both inorganic nitrate (-17 ± 3%, P < 0.05) and nitrite (-34 ± 4%, P < 0.05) during PD, which may result in impairment of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway. Indeed, PD was associated with significant reduction of cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels (-59.4 ± 15%, P < 0.05). This reduction in NO signaling was partly prevented by using a commercially available PD solution supplemented with l-arginine. Although PD compromised nitrate-nitrite-NO signaling in all cases, only infants with persistently low SBP developed ischemic cerebral complications. Conclusions Our data suggests that PD impairs NO homeostasis and predisposes infants with persistently low SBP to cerebral ischemia. These findings improve current understanding of the pathogenesis of infantile cerebral ischemia induced by PD and may lead to the new treatment strategies to reduce neurological morbidities.
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8.
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9.
  • Gyllenberg, Alexandra, et al. (författare)
  • Variability in the CIITA gene interacts with HLA in multiple sclerosis.
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Genes and Immunity. - Nature Publishing Group. - 1476-5470. ; 15:3, s. 162-167
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) is the main genetic determinant of multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. Within the HLA, the class II HLA-DRB1*15:01 allele exerts a disease-promoting effect, whereas the class I HLA-A*02 allele is protective. The CIITA gene is crucial for expression of class II HLA molecules and has previously been found to associate with several autoimmune diseases, including MS and type 1 diabetes. We here performed association analyses with CIITA in 2000 MS cases and up to 6900 controls as well as interaction analysis with HLA. We find that the previously investigated single-nucleotide polymorphism rs4774 is associated with MS risk in cases carrying the HLA-DRB1*15 allele (P=0.01, odds ratio (OR): 1.21, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.04-1.40) or the HLA-A*02 allele (P=0.01, OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.07-1.64) and that these associations are independent of the adjacent confirmed MS susceptibility gene CLEC16A. We also confirm interaction between rs4774 and HLA-DRB1*15:01 such that individuals carrying the risk allele for rs4774 and HLA-DRB1*15:01 have a higher than expected risk for MS. In conclusion, our findings support previous data that variability in the CIITA gene affects MS risk, but also that the effect is modulated by MS-associated HLA haplotypes. These findings further underscore the biological importance of HLA for MS risk.Genes and Immunity advance online publication, 16 January 2014; doi:10.1038/gene.2013.71.
10.
  • Hertel, N T, et al. (författare)
  • Growth hormone treatment in 35 prepubertal children with achondroplasia: A five-year dose-response trial
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Acta Pædiatrica. - Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd. - 1651-2227. ; 94:10, s. 1402-1410
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Achondroplasia is a skeletal dysplasia with extreme, disproportionate, short stature. Aim: In a 5-y growth hormone (GH) treatment study including 1 y without treatment, we investigated growth and body proportion response in 35 children with achondroplasia. Methods: Patients were randomized to either 0.1 IU/kg (n=18) or 0.2 IU/kg (n=17) per day. GH treatment was interrupted for 12 mo after 2 y of treatment in prepubertal patients to study catch-down growth. Mean height SDS (HSDS) at start was -5.6 and -5.2 for the low- and high-dose groups, respectively, and mean age 7.3 and 6.6 y. Results: Mean growth velocity (baseline 4.5/4.6 cm/y for the groups) increased significantly by 1.9/3.6 cm/y during the first year and by 0.5/1.5 cm/y during the second year. During the third year, a decrease of growth velocity was observed at 1.9/1.3 cm/y below baseline values. HSDS increased significantly by 0.6/0.8 during the first year of treatment and in total by 1.3/1.6 during the 5 y of study. Sitting height SDS improved significantly from -2.1/-1.7 to -0.8/0.2 during the study. Body proportion (sitting height/total height) or arm span did not show any significant change. Conclusion: GH treatment of children with achondroplasia improves height during 4 y of therapy without adverse effect on trunk-leg disproportion. The short-term effect is comparable to that reported in Turner and Noonan syndrome and in idiopathic short stature.
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