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Träfflista för sökning "WFRF:(Westphal Otto 1935 ) "

Sökning: WFRF:(Westphal Otto 1935 )

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1.
  • Benyi, E., et al. (författare)
  • Risks of Malignant and Non-Malignant Tumours in Tall Women Treated with High-Dose Oestrogen during Adolescence
  • 2014
  • Ingår i: Hormone Research in Paediatrics. - 1663-2818. ; 82:2, s. 89-96
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background/Aim: High-dose oestrogen treatment has been used to reduce growth in tall adolescent girls. The long-term safety with regard to cancer has not been clarified. Our aim was to study if this growth reduction therapy affects cancer risk later in life. Methods: A cohort study of 369 (172 treated, 197 untreated) Swedish women who in 1973-1993 were assessed for tall adolescent stature was designed. Data were collected from university hospital records, patient questionnaires, and the Swedish Cancer Register. Results: Risks are presented as odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals comparing treated to untreated subjects. In treated subjects, the overall OR for having a tumour (malignant or nonmalignant) was 1.7 (0.8-3.8). The ORs were 2.3 (0.4-12.8) for breast tumours, 0.8 (0.2-2.6) for gynaecological tumours, and 6.1 (1.04-infinity) for melanoma. When limiting to malignant tumours, the crude ORs were of similar magnitude. Conclusion: The OR for any melanoma was higher in treated than in untreated women, suggesting an increased risk of melanoma associated with high-dose oestrogen treatment during adolescence. Although the risk estimates were increased for overall tumours, breast tumours, malignant gynaecological tumours, and malignant melanoma, these associations were not statistically significant. Our results need to be verified in a larger cohort.
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2.
  • Albin, Anna-Karin, et al. (författare)
  • Does growth hormone treatment influence pubertal development in short children?
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: Hormone Research in Paediatrics. - 1663-2826. ; 76:4, s. 262-72
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To study the influence of growth hormone (GH) treatment on the initiation and progression of puberty in short children. METHODS: This prospective, randomized, controlled study included 124 short children (33 girls) who received GH treatment (Genotropin(R); Pfizer Inc.) from a mean age of 11 years until near adult height [intent-to-treat (ITT) population]. Children were randomized into three groups: controls (n = 33), GH 33 mug/kg/day (n = 34) or GH 67 mug/kg/day (n = 57). Prepubertal children at study start constituted the per-protocol (PP) population (n = 101). Auxological measurements were made and puberty was staged every 3 months. Serum sex-steroid concentrations were assessed every 6 months. RESULTS: No significant differences were found between the groups, of both PP and ITT populations, in time elapsed from start of treatment until either onset of puberty, age at start of puberty or age at final pubertal maturation in either sex. In the ITT population, pubertal duration was significantly longer in GH-treated girls, and maximum mean testicular volume was significantly greater in GH-treated boys than controls, but there were no differences in testosterone levels between the groups. CONCLUSION: GH treatment did not influence age at onset of puberty and did not accelerate pubertal development. In boys, GH treatment appeared to increase testicular volume.
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3.
  • Andersson, Björn, 1977-, et al. (författare)
  • Decrease in adiponectin levels correlates to growth response in growth hormone-treated children.
  • 2009
  • Ingår i: Hormone research. - 1423-0046. ; 71:4, s. 213-8
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Adiponectin is secreted by adipose tissue and circulates in human plasma at high levels. Decreased adiponectin levels are associated with insulin resistance and obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether changes in serum adiponectin levels are related to the growth response, insulin levels and insulin resistance during growth hormone (GH) treatment.
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4.
  • Ankarberg-Lindgren, Carina, 1963-, et al. (författare)
  • Testicular size development and reproductive hormones in boys and adult males with Noonan syndrome: a longitudinal study
  • 2011
  • Ingår i: European Journal of Endocrinology. - 0804-4643. ; 165:1, s. 137-44
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Objective To characterise changes in testicular size and reproductive hormones and to investigate the aetiology of delayed puberty and impaired fertility in males with Noonan syndrome (NS). Design In this study, 12 males with NS were longitudinally followed from pre/early puberty until adulthood. Of the 12 males, ten had no medical history other than NS and were divided into two groups, undescended testes (UT), and descended testes (DT) and compared with a reference population. Methods Hormone concentrations in serum were determined by immunoassays and testicular volume was measured using an orchidometer. Results Before puberty, reproductive hormone levels were within the expected range in almost all cases. In some cases, LH, FSH and testosterone and oestradiol (E(2)) concentrations started to increase during puberty and inhibin B and anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) declined to subnormal levels. Most of the boys studied had small testes that, in the majority of cases, progressed to normal size in adulthood. No difference in reproductive hormones was observed between the UT and DT groups either during puberty or at adulthood. However, as adults, males with NS had higher LH (5.7 vs 4.0 U/l, P<0.01), FSH (7.1 vs 2.5 U/l, P<0.001), testosterone (18.7 vs 15.6 nmol/l, P<0.01) and E(2) (66 vs 46 pmol/l, P<0.001) levels and lower AMH (33 vs 65 pmol/l, P<0.01) and inhibin B (median 108 vs 187 pg/ml, P<0.01) levels than the reference population. Conclusions In NS males, both Sertoli and Leydig cell dysfunction is common with reproductive hormone levels deteriorating progressively to adulthood.
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5.
  • Carlsson, Björn, 1958-, et al. (författare)
  • Obese (ob) gene defects are rare in human obesity
  • 1997
  • Ingår i: Obesity Research. - 1071-7323. ; 5:1, s. 30-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Our knowledge of the role of the recently cloned ob-protein (leptin) in the regulation of body fat stores is largely derived from experiments performed in mice. Different mouse models exhibit abnormalities in ob-gene expression, with extreme overexpression in mice which lack bioactive ob-protein, have nonfunctional ob-receptors or hypothalamic lesions, and undetectable expression in mice with suggested defects in regulatory elements. The aim of this study is to examine if defects, corresponding to those in mice, exist in human obesity. Adipose tissue was obtained from 94 adult obese subjects and from six children who had developed obesity after surgery in the hypothalamic region. Total RNA was isolated and ob-gene expression was examined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot. The coding region of the ob-gene was sequenced in both directions in the 94 obese adults. No mutations were detected in the coding region of the ob-gene and ob-gene expression was detectable in all subjects and none of the subjects had an extreme overexpression. There was no systematic increase in ob-expression in obese children with hypothalamic disease compared to their healthy brothers and sisters. These results show that severe abnormalities involving the ob-gene, analogous to those described in mouse models, are rare in human obesity. We therefore conclude that the cloning and subsequent analysis of the ob-gene has not provided information that can, by itself, explain the genetic component in the development of human obesity.
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6.
  • Ekvall, S., et al. (författare)
  • Mutation in NRAS in familial Noonan syndrome - case report and review of the literature
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Bmc Medical Genetics. - 1471-2350. ; 16
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Noonan syndrome (NS), a heterogeneous developmental disorder associated with variable clinical expression including short stature, congenital heart defect, unusual pectus deformity and typical facial features, is caused by activating mutations in genes involved in the RAS-MAPK signaling pathway. Case presentation: Here, we present a clinical and molecular characterization of a small family with Noonan syndrome. Comprehensive mutation analysis of NF1, PTPN11, SOS1, CBL, BRAF, RAF1, SHOC2, MAP2K2, MAP2K1, SPRED1, NRAS, HRAS and KRAS was performed using targeted next-generation sequencing. The result revealed a recurrent mutation in NRAS, c.179G > A (p.G60E), in the index patient. This mutation was inherited from the index patient's father, who also showed signs of NS. Conclusions: We describe clinical features in this family and review the literature for genotype-phenotype correlations for NS patients with mutations in NRAS. Neither of affected individuals in this family presented with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML), which together with previously published results suggest that the risk for NS individuals with a germline NRAS mutation developing JMML is not different from the proportion seen in other NS cases. Interestingly, 50 % of NS individuals with an NRAS mutation (including our family) present with lentigines and/or Cafe-au-lait spots. This demonstrates a predisposition to hyperpigmented lesions in NRAS-positive NS individuals. In addition, the affected father in our family presented with a hearing deficit since birth, which together with lentigines are two characteristics of NS with multiple lentigines (previously LEOPARD syndrome), supporting the difficulties in diagnosing individuals with RASopathies correctly. The clinical and genetic heterogeneity observed in RASopathies is a challenge for genetic testing. However, next-generation sequencing technology, which allows screening of a large number of genes simultaneously, will facilitate an early and accurate diagnosis of patients with RASopathies.
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7.
  • Lindehammer, Sabina, et al. (författare)
  • Temporal trends of HLA genotype frequencies of type 1 diabetes patients in Sweden from 1986 to 2005 suggest altered risk
  • 2008
  • Ingår i: Acta Diabetologica. - 1432-5233. ; 45:4, s. 231-5
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes in 1-18-year-old patients with type 1 diabetes newly diagnosed in 1986-1987 (n = 430), 1996-2000 (n = 342) and in 2003-2005 (n = 171). We tested the hypothesis that the HLA DQ genotype distribution changes over time. Swedish type 1 diabetes patients and controls were typed for HLA using polymerase chain reaction amplification and allele specific probes for DQ A1* and B1* alleles. The most common type 1 diabetes HLA DQA1*-B1*genotype 0501-0201/0301-0302 was 36% (153/430) in 1986-1987 and 37% (127/342) in 1996-2000, but decreased to 19% (33/171) in 2003-2005 (P < 0.0001). The 0501-0201/0501-0201 genotype increased from 1% in 1986-1987 to 7% in 1996-2000 (P = 0.0047) and to 5% in 2003-2005 (P > 0.05). This study in 1-18-year-old Swedish type 1 diabetes patients supports the notion that there is a temporal change in HLA risk.
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8.
  • Lundberg, E., et al. (författare)
  • Growth hormone (GH) dose-dependent IGF-I response relates to pubertal height gain
  • 2015
  • Ingår i: Bmc Endocrine Disorders. - 1472-6823. ; 15
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • Background: Responsiveness to GH treatment can be estimated by both growth and Delta IGF-I. The primary aim of the present study was to investigate if mimicking the physiological increase during puberty in GH secretion, by using a higher GH dose could lead to pubertal IGFs in short children with low GH secretion. The secondary aim was to explore the relationship between IGF-I, IGFBP-3 and the IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio and gain in height. Methods: A multicentre, randomized, clinical trial (TRN88-177) in 104 children (90 boys), who had received GH 33 mu g/kg/day during at least 1 prepubertal year. They were followed from GH start to adult height (mean, 7.5 years; range, 4.6-10.7). At onset of puberty, children were randomized into three groups, to receive 67 mu g/kg/day (GH(67)) given once (GH(67x1); n = 30) or divided into two daily injection (GH(33x2); n = 36), or to remain on a single 33 mu g/kg/ day dose (GH(33x1); n = 38). The outcome measures were change and obtained mean on-treatment IGF-I-SDS, IGFBP3(SDS) and IGF-I/IGFBP3 ratio(SDS) during prepuberty and puberty. These variables were assessed in relation to prepubertal, pubertal and total gain in height(SDS). Results: Mean prepubertal increases 1 year after GH start were: 2.1 IGF-I-SDS, 0.6 IGFBP3(SDS) and 1.5 IGF-I/IGFBP3ratio(SDS). A significant positive correlation was found between prepubertal Delta IGFs and both prepubertal and total gain in height(SDS). During puberty changes in IGFs were GH dose-dependent: mean pubertal level of IGF-I-SDS was higher in GH67 vs GH(33) (p = 0.031). First year pubertal Delta IGF-I-SDS was significantly higher in the GH(67) vs GH33 group (0.5 vs -0.1, respectively, p = 0.007), as well as Delta IGF-I-SDS to the pubertal mean level (0.2 vs -0.2, p = 0.028). In multivariate analyses, the prepubertal increase in 'Delta IGF-I-SDS from GH start' and the 'GH dose-dependent pubertal Delta IGF-I-SDS' were the most important variables for explaining variation in prepubertal (21 %), pubertal (26 %) and total (28 %) gain in height(SDS). Conclusion: The dose-dependent change in IGFs was related to a dose-dependent pubertal gain in height(SDS). The attempt to mimic normal physiology by giving a higher GH dose during puberty was associated with both an increase in IGF-I and a dose-dependent gain in height(SDS).
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9.
  • Lundgren, Ted, 1959-, et al. (författare)
  • Retrospective study of children with hypophosphatasia with reference to dental changes.
  • 1991
  • Ingår i: Scandinavian journal of dental research. - 0029-845X. ; 99:5, s. 357-64
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • In the present retrospective study different dental and medical parameters have been analyzed in 17 Swedish children with established hypophosphatasia (HP). It was demonstrated that the basis for the establishment of the diagnosis varied among different dentists and physicians, and that the diagnostic parameters studied among the children varied. The most reliable parameters for HP included raised levels of phosphoethanolamine in urine, and clinical and radiologic findings associated with the legs. These findings were found among the children more often than lowered values of alkaline phosphatase in serum. Histologic analysis of an extracted tooth made a valuable diagnostic complement. It is concluded that a better diagnostic uniformity is recommended. In a well functioning collaboration with well defined tasks, both dentists and physicians can contribute to a reliable diagnosis.
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10.
  • Osio, Deborah, 1974-, et al. (författare)
  • Improved final height with long-term growth hormone treatment in Noonan syndrome
  • 2005
  • Ingår i: Acta Paediatr. ; 94:9, s. 1232-7
  • Tidskriftsartikel (refereegranskat)abstract
    • AIM: To assess whether children with Noonan syndrome on long-term growth hormone (GH) therapy improve their final height to near mid-parental height. METHODS: Twenty-five prepubertal children (13 girls) with Noonan syndrome (NS) were studied. A single clinician made the diagnosis based on clinical criteria. GH treatment started at an age ranging from 3.1 to 13.8 y and was continued for at least 2 y. Improvement or "gain" in final height (FH) was defined as either the difference between adult height SD scores (SDS) and pre-treatment height SDS (the childhood component of the Swedish reference) or height SDS compared to the Noonan reference. RESULTS: Ten children received a GH dose of 33 microg/kg/d (mean age at start 7.7+/-2.1 y, mean age at stop 17.6+/-1.7 y) and 15 received a dose of 66 microg/kg/d (mean age at start 8.6+/-3.3 y, mean age at stop 18.4+/-2.1 y). Eighteen out of 25 patients reached FH. A substantial improvement in FH of 1.7 SDS, equivalent to 10.4 cm compared to pre-treatment height, was observed. No significant difference was seen between the two GH doses. Females gained a mean height of 9.8 cm and males 1-13 cm (FH 174.5+/-7.8 cm vs mean adult height of 162.5+/-5.4 cm for males with NS) at final height. Moreover, 60% reached a mid-parental height of+/-1 SD. CONCLUSION: GH treatment improves final height in patients with Noonan syndrome, with a mean gain of 1.7 SDS. The prepubertal height gain is maintained to final height and the children achieve a height close to their mid-parental height.
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